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Colonialism in chronology chapter II

2.1. Slavery and fight for spices in "India": Portugal - Tordesillas line of 1494 - silver from South "America" - gold and silver circulation - Netherlands

Pepper: this is profit...

by Michael Palomino (1999 / 2003 / 2005 / 2009 / 2012)

Translation in 2014



-- Reinhard, Wolfgang: History of European Expansion (original in German: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion), vol.I: The Old World until 1818 (original in German: Die Alte Welt bis 1818); Editon Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Cologne/Mainz 1983

-- Huby, Felix: Dream trips (original in German: Traumreisen; Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker). Edition Deutscher Bücherbund, Stuttgart, Hamburg, Munich, 1980

-- Payer, Margarete: Chronic about the history of the Philippines (oringinal in German: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen);
Internet: http://machno.hbi-stuttgart.de/~payer/weltw43.html (estate March 2005)

-- some data are also from a little History Pocket Book Atlas from DTV, Munich


From 1493 there is world war on Earth - for spice trade between Europe and Asia - and this chronology is prescribing the events precisely: First there is the Portuguese expansion coming around Africa, then there is Spanish expansion coming from South "America". Then since 1520 since the reformation movement European fleets and troops are fighting each other on foreign territory, are enslaving many primary nations (native populations) for profit maximization. The local natives (primary nations) are partly manipulated from Catholics and Protestants one against the other, or the colonial powers are used by the Sultans against the primary nations. European colonial powers are installing a network of towns and fortresses on foreign soil securing their rulerships. "Mission" means: profit. Is there somebody telling something of a compensation?

Michael Palomino
1999 / October 2003 / April 2005 / 2009 / 2012
translation into English in 2014


since 1493: Portugal decides to continue with the India program - Pope defining the border line between Spanish and Portuguese "christianization" - treaty of Tordesillas

["Christian war terrorist] king of Portugal, John II, decides that the India program with direct sea way will be continued, despite of the Spanish detection of "India" (Reinhard, vol. I, p.50)

König Johann II. von Portugal
King John II of Portugal [1]

Now there is again a quarrel between terrorist Portugal and terrorist Spain about territories, but they are not making war but are calling the Pope for a decision. And the ["Christian" war terrorist] Pope finds a "solution" for terrorist "Christianizing" of the whole world against all other cultures: There is a defined a meridian of 39.5ş as the border line between the ["Christian" terrorist] Portuguese court and ["Christian" terrorist] Spanish court: Spain is allowed to wield "Christian (partly deathly) authority" west of this line, and Portugal is allowed to do the same east of this line (Reinhard, vol.I, p.49).

In 1494 ["Christian" war terrorist] Spanish and Portuguese Crowns are concluding the treaty of Tordesillas defining a meridian of 46,5ş (Reinhard, vol. I, p.49).

Tordesillas town
                            bridge at Duero River
Tordesillas town bridge at Duero River [2]
Map with the position
                            of Tordesillas between Madrid and
Map with the position of Tordesillas between Madrid and Valladolid [3a]
Map with Tordesillas (Spain) at Duero
Map with Tordesillas (Spain) at Duero River [3b]

There is a memorial plaque in Tordesillas about this terrorist treaty for the world:

"In this location on 7 June 1494 the diplomats - from Castile and Portugal - with the support of cartographers of both countries - signed an agreement with it's base on the Papal permission parting the whole world in two zones with the aim of detection and evangelization. By this agreement the countries were born which today are forming the Hispanic lusitanic community in America, Asia and Africa."

(orig. German:
"An diesem Ort unterschrieben am 7.Juni 1494 Diplomaten - Kastilier und Portugiesen - unterstützt von Kartographen beider Länder, ein Abkommen, das auf päpstlicher Erlaubnis basierend, die Welt in zwei Zonen teilt, die Ziel der Entdeckung und Evangelisation sein sollten. Aus diesem Abkommen entstanden die Länder, die heute die hispanisch-lusitanische Gemeinschaft in Amerika, Asien und Afrika bilden."
(from: Internet: M.Payer: chronicle about the history of the Philippines (orig.: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen)

Map with the
                    border line ("Papal line") of the treaty
                    of Tordesillas of 7 June 1494 as a base for
                    "Christian" war terrorist colonialism of
                    "Christendom" between the two terrorist
                    states of Spain and Portugal
Map with the border line ("Papal line") of the treaty of Tordesillas of 7 June 1494 as a base for "Christian" war terrorist colonialism of "Christendom" between the two terrorist states of Spain and Portugal [4]

[The second line is defined because of better winds for the Portuguese fleets].

In 1495 the ["Christian" war terrorist] Portuguese king John II is dying, his successor is ["Christian" war terrorist] Manuel I continuing with the India program. The knowledge about the winds to India is eventually expanded by more expeditions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.49).

since 1495: king Manuel I. - first trip to India by Vasco da Gama 1497-1499 - Mozambique and East Africa - "Vasco da Gama period" - Christians provoking chaos - Madeira converting into a "sugar island" with slave economy

Manuel I. supports the further India program. On 3 August 1497 four ships are leaving Portugal under the command of Vasco da Gama, with a crew of 170 men. The goal is India. All is documented in the diary of Álvaro Velho (Reinhard vol.I, p.50). They reach Mozambique at 2 March 1498 exploring the African coast line. There are Arab and Persian princedoms (language is Kisuaheli, a mixture of Arab and Bantu influences). The African coast has got very rich by trade with India: gold and ivory are exchanged by Indian textiles and glass works (Reinhard, vol.I, p.51).

Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama [5]

When the fleet of Vasco da Gama is reaching Calicut on 20 May 1498 Vasco, Indian historiography is beginning to describe the "Vasco da Gama age".

Map with the position of Calicut at the
                            Indian western coast line (Malabar coast)
Map with the position of Calicut at the Indian western coast line (Malabar coast) [6]

Dweller at the beach of Calicut /
Dweller at the beach of Calicut / Kozhikode [7]

Sunset in Calicut / Kozhikode
Sunset in Calicut / Kozhikode [8]

The ["Christian" war terrorist] Portuguese going on with their madness against all Muslims, and they consider the Hindus as Christians first and are preying in the Hindu temples. After a friendly reception by the local raja Samoré ("man of the sea") there are mutual defamations of Christs against Muslims resp. Arabs with allegations that they would be "thieves", "devils" etc. (Reinhard vol.I, p.50,51).

During the same time on Madeira the plantation economy is enforced with slavery. In 1498 Madeira is for example delivering 1,800 tons of sugar (120,000 arrobas) to Portugal, but parts of this quantity are also going far to the north to Antwerp and to German merchants of the Welser (Reinhard, vol.I, p.46).

Map with Madeira Island in front of Africa,
                    it's Portuguese until today
Map with Madeira Island in front of Africa, it's Portuguese until today [44]

Indian Arab trade lines: "pepper line" - trade and return of the Portuguese fleet in 1499 - change of the seat of the international factories from Budge to Antwerp 1499-1511 - begin with the war between Venice and Turkey in 1499 - rising Italian pepper prices - Welser in Lisbon since 1499

Trade lines are well fixed: India ("Upper India") delivers ginger, pepper and cinnamon to Arabia; Malacca peninsula is delivering cloves to Arabia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52). Pepper for Arabia also comes from Sumatra. There is an Arab "pepper line" from Calicut to Aden, and there is another trade line of sultanate of Gujeratis of Malakka up to Indus River with the trade monopoly  in the center of Cambaya and with the ports of Diu, Rander and Surat. The structure of these lines are family structures. Monopolies or storage rights are not known to the Arabs nor to the Indians (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53).

At the end of his stay Vasco da Gama can conclude a trade agreement with raja Samoré and can take home a load of spices and an offer for king Manuel: The raja is offering pepper, cinnamon, cloves, ginger and jewels for gold, silver, corals and scarlet fabrics (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52).

The trip home is becoming an agony because Vasco da Gama was not instructed about the winds [can be that the Arab competition did not want to inform these "Christs" and they should die of thirst on the sea]. There is no wind, the crew deplores many deaths, one ship is burnt. The fleet reaches Portugal in summer 1499 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52).

At the end of 15th century the foreign traders and merchants in Europe are changing from Bruges to Antwerp by economic reasons, in 1499 also the Portuguese royal trading post, and until 1511 all foreign factories have performed this change (Reinhard, vol.I, p.98).

In 1499 war is breaking out between Venice and Turkey (Reinhard vol.I, p.95). As a consequence the Venetian pepper price is rising much (Reinhard, vol.I, p.104). Now merchants from Augsburg are trying first to cover the demand of spices in Central Europe over Genoa. Then the German Welser also make the trial to get spices from Lisbon (Reinhard, vol.I, p.95). But Portuguese is making a block and therefore the pepper price for Italian pepper is rising even more (Reinhard, vol.I, p.104).

since 1500 appr.: Spanish "America": importation of European goods - exploitation of mines, "silver fleets" - English, Dutch and French assaults

Spaniards are introducing European culture plants (grain) and domestic animals as cow, horse and sheep, and they are very fertile. But the main focus is the exploitation of the metal mines. There are leaving so called "silver fleets" from "Hispańola" island to Cadiz. English, Dutch and French are organizing assaults (DTV History Atlas vol.I, p.277).

Portugal: king Manuel with a new title - the offer of raja Samoré - Portuguese provocation in Calicut in 1500 - gold from Guinea

["Christian" war terrorist] king Manuel I is giving a new title to himself: "king of Portugal and Algarve, ruler of Guinea and the occupations of shipping and commerce with Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India". The aim against the Muslim Arab trade routs is well defined by this (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52).

Portugal: king Manuel I
Portugal: king Manuel I [9]

In 1500 the "second India fleet" of Portugal is leaving to India under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral, with 13 ships, with a crew of 1,200 to 1,500 men. the today's Brazil is detected on 22 April 1500 because of an unintentional navigation mistake. The land with the involuntary stopover is called "land of the true cross". At 13 September 1500 the fleet reaches Calicut (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53).

Raja Samoré permits the Portuguese the erection of a trading post. But Cabral is demanding a privilege against Arab competition trade, but Samoré does not want to allow this. Then Cabral is acting with violence capturing an well freighted Arab ship which is leaving at this moment. Now the mistrusting Muslims are occupying the Portuguese trading post killing 50 Portuguese men, with them the chief of the trading post. Then Cabral is capturing 9 or 10 more Muslim ships in the port committing a massacre massacring 500 to 600 Muslims (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53). The ships are robbed completely and burnt. Finally Cabral is bombing Calicut with his canons on his ship and leaves the town with his ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.54).

Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral [10]

A Portuguese banknote is honoring
                              Cabral until Euro is introduced
A Portuguese banknote is honoring Cabral until Euro is introduced [11]

The Portuguese "colony" of Guinea in Africa is "delivering" from 1500 to 1520 every year 700 kg gold to Portugal (Reinhard, vol.I, p.45).

Portuguese connections with more Muslim enemies in India - burning of Muslims on pilgrim ships in 1502 - "discovery" of "St Helena" and "Ascensión" in 1502 - fixed price for spices in Cochin in 1502 and Portuguese management - new attack against Calicut with massacre in 1502 - raja Samoré loosing sea battle against Da Gama in 1503 - new ally with Portuguese in Cannanore - price collapse for pepper since 1503 - gold from the "American" continent - spice treaties between Fuggers, Welsers and Portugal in 1503 - sugar cultivation and slavery-based economy on Sâo Tomé since 16th century

The Indian continent is split between Muslims and Hindus. Portuguese ["Christian" war terrorist] Crown is using this split and can find a raja in Cochin forming a coalition against the Muslims in Calicut with raja Samoré (Reinhard, vol.I, p.54).

India: map with the position of the
                              state of Kerala at western coast of India
                              with the town of Cochin
India: map with the position of the state of Kerala at western coast of India with the town of Cochin [12]

In 1502 there is another "expedition" under leadership of Vasco da Gama, now with 22 new ships.

[Building these ships was of best wood which was cut on the Iberian Peninsula, since Roman times already - and by Roman times and by colonialism of Portuguese and Spanish war policy hardly any forest is left on Iberian Peninsula. That's why Iberian Peninsula of today is often a desert like landscape without water].

On the way this fleet of ["Christian" war terrorist] Vasco da Gama is capturing Muslim pilgrim ships for Mecca, robbed them, 20 boys are elected for being baptized, and all ships with the other passengers are burnt. the fleet reaches Cochin first where a "Christian" trading post is "installed" and Vasco da Gama is dictating the local raja a fixed price for the spices (Reinhard, vol.I, p.54).

In 1502 follow Portuguese ["Christian" war terrorist] "detections" of St. Helena Island and Ascensión Island (Reinhard, vol.I, p.92).

When the Portuguese fleet is arriving in Calicut the raja Samoré is in a conciliable mood: He is handing over the 12 most important chiefs who attacked the Portuguese trading post and is offering a payment of 20,000 pardoes, then 40,000 pardoes. But ["Christian" war terrorist] Da Gama wants impossible things: he wants that all Muslims would be driven out of Calicut. Samoré is rejecting this (Reinhard, vol. I, p.54).

And one more time ["Christian" war terrorist] Da Gama is acting with violence. He lets catch the leaving fishermen and sailors and lets them hang on the crossbars of the sailing ships, and lets cut heads, hands and feet of them. The torsos are thrown into the sea driven to the coast. Add to this he begins with bombing the town (Reinhard, vol.I, p.54).

In 1503 Da Gama is winning a sea battle against ships of raja Samoré. Add to this north of Calicut in Cannanore is another raja who wants to collaborate with the Portuguese and makes them favorable offers. Da Gama can charge 30,000 quintals spices in Cannanore and can return home to Portugal with full ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.54). A little "Christian" [war terrorist] squadron is staying in Cochin (Reinhard, vol.I, p.55).

Map with the two towns Cannanore (Kannur) and
                    Calicut (Kozhikode) [13] in Southern India
Map with the two towns Cannanore (Kannur) and Calicut (Kozhikode) [13] in Southern India

Now Da Gama's fleet reaches Lisbon with much pepper and a price collapse for pepper is following. German merchants of Fugger and Welser family are making spice treaties with Portuguese king Manuel (Reinhard, vol.I, p.95).

From 1503 to 1540 "gold merchants of America" are "delivering" 904 kg of gold every year (Reinhard, vol.I, p.45).

Since 16th century there is a change of economical structure on Madeira. On Madeira will be wine growing. On the Azores a pastel colorant is produced. The new "sugar island" becomes the island in Golf of Guinea Sâo Tomé where slaves have no long trip to go. (Reinhard, vol.I, p.46).

Map showing the position of
                              Portuguese slave islands Sao Tomé and
                              Principe, today in Guinea and Gabon
Map showing the position of Portuguese slave islands Sao Tomé and Principe, today in Guinea and Gabon [14]

During these times Sao Tomé is the trade center for African slaves for Europe and "America".

Attack in vain of raja Samoré in Cochin - 1504: first German trading post in Lisbon - elimination of Muslims of Calicut in 1504 - 1505: first German Italian participation in Portuguese colonial enterprises - election of fleet commander Almeida - first "Christian" geopolitical concept for a Portuguese dominance - German travel report

Raja Samoré lets attack his rival Cochin who is collaborating with the ["Christian" war terrorist] Portuguese. And this attack is a welcome pretext to enlarge the trading post being a fortress at the end. Add to this new Portuguese ships are coming as a reinforcement. Raja Samoré has no success (Reinhard, vol.I, p.55).

In 1504 the German merchants of the Welser family under leadership of Lucas Rem can erect their first trading post in Lisbon. But King Manuel is keeping the monopoly for the trips on sea to India because pepper price is coming down in these times (Reinhard, vol.I, p.95).

In 1504 a reinforcement of 13 ships is on the way for Cochin and Calicut. The Muslims in Calicut are giving in and want to leave the town by ship, but the ["Christian" war terrorist] Portuguese fleet under leadership of Lopo Soares de Albergaria can detect them and are eliminating them immediately (Reinhard, vol.I, p.55).

In 1505 ["Christian" war terrorist] Portuguese King Manuel I decides that there should be a permanent Portuguese presence in India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.57). But there  are not enough financial means for that. Now Manuel permits the participation of German and Italian funds (Florentines and Genoese). There is a German-Italian consortium participating with three ships, "San Jeronimo", "San Rafael" and "San Leonardo", and they are making 150% of profit (Reinhard, vol.I, p.95).

As a first step King Manuel I names a new fleet commander, Francisco de Almeida. This trip under Almeida is well documented by the German Welser merchant Balthasar Springer with a great travel report "Sea trip and experience of new ships and ways to many unknown islands and kingdoms" (orig. Middle High German: "Die Meerfart und erfarung nüwer Schiffung und Wege zu viln onerkanten Inseln und Küngreichen") (Reinhard, vol.I, p.95).

Add to this ["Christian" war terrorist] King Manuel I is developing a geopolitical concept describing the next strategic occupations: Sofala and Kilwa on the East African coast line [today in Mozambique], and then the port towns at the beginning of the Red Sea should be occupied (Reinhard, vol.I, p.57).

Portuguese "Indian ships": caravels and galleons

Caravels have got three sails, and Portuguese are not changing this. The first sail is a square sail, the third sail is a lateen sail (Reinhard, vol.I, p.92). There is a difference between ships with high coachwork, the nao, and ships with a smart fuselage and low coachwork, the galleons (galeâo) which are very flexible and are used as war ships.

Caravel, a
Caravel, a copy [15]
Galleon, model
Galleon, model [16]

At the beginning a tonnage of 400 tons is normal. Since 1550 the ships are made larger step by step because more freight does not mean more crew members, and 1,600 up to 2,000 tons are normal. Portuguese ship "Madre de Deus" which was captured by the English in Malacca Street had a freight of 1,600 tons, a length of 50.3 meters, the pole was 40 meter high, there were 7 decks, there was a freight of 900 tons and there were 600 to 700 persons on board.

Durability of Portuguese ships was mostly only 10 years and reached for 3 or 4 trips to India. Ships built in India in Goa in the vice royal shipyard there were of oily teak wood and could have a durability of up to 25 years and pass 10 trips to India. Add to this the costs of production were much more cheaper (Reinhard, vol.I, p.93).

Risks and "default rate" in Portugal's commerce
During 136 years of "Carreira" the merchants were calculating a default rate of 11%, and the return with 15% because of the risk of over freight. 3/4 of the losses were provoked by storms, 1/4 by assaults. the merchants generally calculated a loss of 20% (Reinhard, vol.I, p.93).

The trade conditions in Southern India: partly with Portuguese extortion - fixed prices favorable to Portugal - general interest on debts for profits of only few people

Pepper gardens are in the possession of temples, dukes and of the upper class (caste) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97). The harvest is brought in during the "Christian" turn of the year, then has to be dried in the sun for one month and then is sold to local intermediaries. But ["Christian" war terrorist] Portuguese are acting with extortion on this trade system. For example the Thomas Christs are threatening with "clerical authority" urging for a priority for Portugal. Add to this the Indian dukes have to fulfill delivery guaranties for Portuguese fleets. As a return service the Portuguese are demanding customs for exportation etc. India is delivering more pepper yet, above all to China.

Pepper corns at a pepper plant
Pepper corns at a pepper plant [17]
Pepper harvest at a pepper plant
Pepper harvest at a pepper plant [18]

The fixed price is valuable until the 16th century, also when it's not attractive any more for local merchants (Reinhard, vol.I, p.98). But the trips to India are only more or less calculable when this fixed price exists. Payment is done in noble metals or in copper, and when the Red Sea is blocked also in other ware (Reinhard, vol.I, p.99).

The ships are financed above all by states taxes. So, the whole society is supporting this colonialism with the fleets, but hardly gets any advantage of it because only the upper class gets an advantage of it. And later also the interest on debts are paid by taxes, but the profits of the businesses are only in the pockets of some few persons (Reinhard, vol.I, p.100).

And pepper quality is very different during the times. In 1518 a pepper load lost 7% of its weight by drying and riddling. In 1557 already 40% were lost. Because of the fixed prices the Portuguese shipowners are forced to pay more and more for water and for dirt - which is paid at the end by the end consumer. Without the Portuguese monopoly the prices of spices are rising between 1561 and 1569 by about 300%. Better pepper is coming from Cannanore (Reinhard, vol.I, p.100). The market for Portuguese pepper in Central Europe is Antwerp from 1502 to 1550 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

Free freight for the crew and illegal freights
Depending on the rank the employee has for free a certain quantity of spice boxes, 10 to 20% without paying any customs. In 1620 captain Mor gets 15 boxes, a normal captain 6 boxes, and a normal sailor one box with spices.

Illegal freight is loaded for bribes regularly: Spice boxes are secretly stowed in the personal cabins and in the stock rooms (Reinhard, vol.I, p.93).

Illnesses and death during the trips to India, poor conditions for normal sailors
In percentage there are more deaths on the spice ships than lack of ships, and the reasons of death mostly are scurvy and epidemics. There are hardly women on board. Death rate leaving Portugal can be up to 50%. Food is unilateral and bad and consists in ship biscuit, salty meat or salty fish. Add to this hot meals are only possible during a calm sea because of the fire danger.

Scurvy and lack of vitamins
Scurvy and lack of vitamins [19] are provoking swollen and red gum, loose teeth, and loss of teeth
(dtv lexicon of Medicine)

Death rate on the ships also rises because normal sailors and passengers hardly have any space for sleep. Freight is more worth than human beings on the ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.93). changing clothes is not common on the ship, but bitches and rats are very spread and are accepted. Supporting such strains means that there must be "great goals" behind it, can be seeking richness or "salvation" of the soul. Normal sailors are rare because of these conditions, and they are lured by false promises. Partly they are farmers without any sailor's schooling.

The normal sailors are one of the bad rated "professions" in Portugal. But being a captain and commander of the fleet is well rated and they come from the royal society, but hardly understand anything of seafaring. Only to the end of 17th century it's common that the commander of a ship also is present on the ship. Because of this presence he also participates with the profits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.95).

"Balanced" official account of payments of Portuguese Crown [better said: "Christian war terrorists"]

From 1500 to 1550 Portuguese finance administration is suffering only little noble metal runoff, every year about 30,000 to 80,000 Cruzados (Reinhard, vol.I, p.100). Higher amounts are designated for political affairs in the colonies. Portugal's Crown is succeeding in the search of other financial sources.

1. In Antwerp the Portuguese state is purchasing big quantities of silver from the Fugger merchants and sold in Western Africa and to India for the Indian coin production

2. One part of the required money is covered by bills of exchange which is possible by the presence of trade points in India.

3. The colonies in India are beginning with an own profitable economy, and there are tax and other dues coming to Portugal and they have a positive trade balance, but this is also the result of ["Christian" war terrorist] extortions: Shipowners are forced by protection money to enter Portuguese ports or they have to pay taxes and customs. As a "return service" there is offered the protection from enemies and pirates by the Portuguese fleet (Reinhard, vol.I, p.101).

4. And also the trade on land is always more profitable, above all at the trade centers of Hormuz and Malacca. The Indian dukes in Malacca are gold mine owners and deliver more gold as the mines in Guinea. Therefore these dukes are financially strong and can purchase masses of goods from abroad importing them.

Map with the position of peninsula of
                              Malacca, today a part of Malaysia
vergrössernMap with the position of peninsula of Malacca, today a part of Malaysia [20]
Scenes from Malacca, a house Scenes from Malacca, a seal in form of
                            an elephant Scenes from Malacca, riksha bycicle
Scenes from Malacca [21-23]

5. "Portuguese India" can dispose of the gold of South East Africa with the gold trade center in Sofala.

So, by all these points, trade balance of Portugal with it's colonies is coming out even positive. Since 1505 Portugal can erect a trading post in Sofala and add to this is delivering India with African gold. India can therefore mint the new currency of "gold pardaus" which is equal to Portuguese Cruzado (Reinhard, vol.I, p.102).

Mozambique and Sofala
Map with
                            Sofala Province in Mozambique
Map with Sofala Province in Mozambique [24]
Map of Africa with Mozambique
Map of Africa with Mozambique [25]

But there is even more:

6. Portuguese Crown has no scruples selling black slaves for gold in Spain (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

7. Portuguese trade products for India are corals, cloth, vermilion and mercury. Albuquerque wants to have expand this trade with more products (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

16th century: Europe: Bruges and Antwerp are trade centers between Scandinavia, Holland, Spain, and Portugal
Dutch trade centers in 16th century [Belgium only exists from Napoleon on] are Bruges and Antwerp. Portugal is purchasing copper there and pays other trades with this copper. For Spain under ["Christian" war terrorist] Charles V Bruges and Antwerp are the "heart" of the trade system for purchasing grain and Scandinavian wood for Spanish "needs", and for this Holland is getting Spanish "American" silver from ["Christian" war terrorist] Spain (Reinhard, vol.I, p.108).

1505: Portuguese "fortification" of Kilwa, Mombasa, Sofala and in Mozambique - Portuguese detection of "Tristan da Cunha" - company "Carrera de India" - 1506: order for occupation of Ceylon and Malakka - again Portuguese spice monopoly since 1506, secret participation - 1507: Christian occupation of Sokotra, destruction of Kalhat, Kuryat, Musca, and Suhar - massacre, torture and mutilation of Muslims

Portuguese fleet chief Almeida is on the way with 28 ships and 1,500 soldiers following the orders of his king "fortifying" the East African coastal cities Kilwa and Mombasa. Further members of his crew are "fortifying" the coastal town of Sofala and more locations in [today's] Mozambique (Reinhard, vol.I., p.57).

[It was like this probably: White Portuguese give orders, and slaves are building up and are dying...]

Kilwa in today's Tanzania
Map of Africa with Tanzania
Map of Africa with Tanzania [26]

Fortress of Kilwa on a stamp
Fortress of Kilwa on a stamp [27]
Map with the coast line of
                            Tanzania with Kilwa
Map with the coast line of Tanzania with Kilwa [28]
Kilwa at the coast line of
                            today's Tanzania, detailed map
Kilwa at the coast line of today's Tanzania, detailed map [29]

Position of
                    Mombasa in today's Kenya [
Position of Mombasa in today's Kenya [30]

In 1506 follows the Portuguese discovery of the South Atlantic islands of "Tristan da Cunha" (Cunha is one of the chiefs of the Indian fleet) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.92).

There are fix ocean shipping lanes between Europe and India. Using the ocean currents and the winds these shipping lanes form a big eight, also called "Carrera de India" (Reinhard, vol.I., p.90,92).

Map with the ocean shipping lanes
                            from Lisbon to India with Goa and Cochin
Map with the ocean shipping lanes from Lisbon to India with Goa and Cochin [31].

Map with an example of a sailing
                            shipping lane from Lisbon to India with the
                            indications of Calicut and Bombay (today
Map with an example of a sailing shipping lane from Lisbon to India with the indications of Calicut and Bombay (today Mumbay) [32].

1. Canary Current, starting in March or April
2.Stopover on Cape Verde Islands
3. Stopover in Trinidade and Maetin Vaz Islands
4. South West Monsoon from end of May until beginning of September
5. Cape of "Storms" / of "Good Hope"
6. Stopover on Madagascar
8. passing the East African coast line
10. direct way with South West monsoon, arrival in India in September to November

Back: departing from India's Western coast line in December / January
13. passing the African coast line with the Agulhas Current or passing Mauritius
-- then stopover on Cape of "Storms" / "Good Hope"
-- then stopover on islands of Saint Helena and the Ascensión Island with South East tradewind and Benguela Current
-- passing Cape Verde Islands
14. taking a big circuit around the Canary Current with stopover on Azores Islands
-- then going home to Lisbon with west winds, arrival in the middle of June to middle of September

The share of spices in the Portuguese public revenue in 1506 is 26.9% (Reinhard, vol.I, p.106).

In 1506 the King of Portugal orders to conquer Ceylon (because of cinnamon cultures) and to conquer the peninsula of Malacca (because of clove cultures). One more fleet with 14 ships under the chief of Tristâo de Cunha and Affonso de Albuquerque is departing to India for these purposes (Reinhard, vol.I, p.57).

Affonso de Albuquerque
Affonso de Albuquerque [33]

From 1506 on Portuguese government is claiming again the complete spice monopoly for the India passages and the necessary payments. Commerce with other goods remains free. Until 1570 the Portuguese government gets enough money financing their fleets and wars. This is possible because the higher credit status. Sometimes there is also secret sharing and the spice monopoly is subverted more and more (Reinhard, vol.I, p.95,96).

In 1507 Socotra Island near the entrance of the Red Sea is occupied by Portuguese forces.

Socotra Island at the entrance of Red Sea

Map with Socotra Island at the
                            "Horn of Africa" at today's
Map with Socotra Island at the "Horn of Africa" at today's Somalia [34]

Socotra, Wadi, river with palms
Socotra, Wadi, river with palms [35]
                              central square
Socotra, central square [36]

Albuquerque is afraid that his troops would be too weak and therefore is resigning an attack against Aden, but is turning to the Persian Golf destroying the coastal towns there: Kalhat, Kuryat, Musca, and Suhar.

Map with the trade locations at Persian
                            Gulf and at the Street of Hormuz
Map with the trade locations at Persian Gulf and at the Street of Hormuz [37]

The population is captured and tortured and mutilated: Women are cut noses and ears, men are cut their right hands. The destruction of Hormuz is failing by the rebellious crew on the Portuguese ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.57).

The interrupted commercial route on the Red Sea - Arab Muslim counter attacks in 1507 - destruction of Arab fleet in Diu - Gujeratis arranging with Portugal - Upper German and English commitment in spice trade from 1507 on - Portuguese investigations about Chinese on Malacca in 1508 - Portuguese trade point in Antwerp in 1508

Muslim commerce with Persia now is blocked and the trade route from India to Egypt is heavily bothered. Also Venetians being the clients in Alexandria trading spices to Europe are feeling the botherings, but are not taking any position (Reinhard, vol.I, p.58).

In 1507 the Samoré of Calicut is composing a fleet of 100s of little ships and 100s of cannons (copied European models), and is making an alliance with the Sultan from Egypt, the defined "deadly enemy" of "Christian" Church. At the beginning the Sultan is threatening with the destruction of the holy sites in Palestine, but then he has to make a longer preparation because he has no wood in Egypt. He has to build up a fleet in the Black Sea (Reinhard, vol.I, p.57,58).

On their way from the Black Sea to Egypt the 25 Arab transporters are detected in Rhodes and are assaulted by the order of the Knights of St. John, so only 12 of the 25 ships with a crew of 1,500 men can depart from Egypt to Diu to the Kingdom of Gujeratis. But there is another naval battle by another Portuguese assault by Portuguese ships. In this battle the son of the fleet chief of Almeida is killed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.58). Almeida is taking revenge for this lethal case and is destroying the Egypt fleet in Diu. Sultanate of Gujeratis under Malik Aqaz, a former Russian slave, is arranging with Almeida.

Sultanate of Gujarat and the town of Diu
                            of India with the sultanate of Gujerat (in
                            dark red)
Map of India with the sultanate of Gujerat (in dark red) [38]

                            position of the town of Diu in sultanate of
The position of the town of Diu in sultanate of Gujerat [39]

From 1507 on also English and Upper German merchants are more and more interested in a commitment in spice trade, for example the "Great Commerce Society of Ravensburg" (Grosse Ravensburger Handelsgesellschaft) from 1507 on.

In 1508, with the order of Portuguese Crown, first Portuguese merchants are investigating the conditions with the Chinese merchants on Malacca peninsula [today Malaysia].

In the same year in 1508 one more Portuguese trading post is opened in Antwerp, the "feitoria de Flandres", as a department of the "Casa da India". This trading post in Antwerp is controlling Portugal's spice sale in whole Middle Europe (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

Resign of Almeida and his death in South Africa - attack failing and death of the Marshall of Portugal in Calicut - Albuquerque taking over the first command - 1509: Albuquerque attacking Goa - Albuquerque occupying Goa in 1510 and Malacca in 1511 - "Carrera" - Chinese help for Portugal on Malacca

The Marshall of Portugal, a family member of Albuquerque, arrives in India with special mandates. Almeida himself is leaving his position and going home robbing cattle in the Cape lands in today's South Africa he is slayed [killed] by native South African tribes (Hottentotten). The Marshall is organizing a careless attack against Calicut and is killed. Therefore Albuquerque is his successor and makes his career (Reinhard, vol.I, p.58).

Albuquerque is developing to be the first "Empire Builder" of Europe (Reinhard, vol.I, p.58). In 1509 he is executing  his first attack against Goa on India's west coast, but the defense of the Sultan is supported by Gujerat / Gujarat and can defend well this town.

When a second attack of Albuquerque is organizes in collaboration with the Hindus the Muslims are defeated and Goa is occupied by Christian forces on 25 November 1510 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.59). Also a trade partnership between Portugal and the Indian Hinduist Southern Empire Vijayanagar is established, above all for horse trade from Persia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.62).

Sultanates in India from 16th century on

Map of India with the sultanates
                            during 16th century
Map of India with the sultanates during 16th century [40]

In the same year of 1510 yet further Portuguese troops under new commanders are occupying Malacca. But the Muslims are organizing uprisings very successfully. All Portuguese are driven out and the trading post is destroyed.

Albuquerque lets murder the Portuguese commander of Malacca and is occupying Malacca himself in 1511
against a twenty fold superior power (Reinhard, vol.I, p.59). Chinese contacts now help against the local Sultan (Reinhard, vol.I, p.74). But the Portuguese ships with with the prey don't arrive in Portugal. They are victim of a sea storm (Reinhard, vol.I, p.59).

Malacca is the trade center of Central South East Asia. The following goods are traded there among others:

-- spices from the Moluccas
-- sandalwood from Timor
-- sugar from the "Philippines"
-- silk, porcelain, musk from China
-- gold and copper from Brunei
-- rice and meat from Java
-- pepper, gold, and ivory from Sumatra
-- tin from Malaya
-- opium, fabrics and dyers from India
(from: Internet: M. Payer: Chronic about history from the Philippines, orig. German: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen).

Portugal as a commercial power in India - Albuquerque poisoning the samoré from Calicut - Portuguese occupation of Aden fails in 1513 - beginning of Portuguese expeditions to the Banda Islands (Moluccas)  - from 1513 on: Spain's projects with the Portuguese Magellan - 1513: Albuquerque giving the idea of opium trade with India - Papal bull "Praecelsae devotionis" as a rule for Portuguese colonial administration in 1514 - Portuguese colonial policy with "self administration" - first Portuguese colonial diocese in Funchal in 1514 - population policy in Portuguese colonies

After the occupation of Goa and Malacca Portugal is taken "serious", also by the Samoé of Calicut and by the Sultan of Gujerat (Reinhard, vol.I, p.59).

[Portugal's king and his commanders seem to be satisfied having murdered and mutilated masses of Muslims].

In 1513 the attack against Aden fails because of the fortification. In the same year the Samoré of Calicut is killed by poison by the brother of Albuquerque. The follower is arranging with the Portuguese and approves the building up of a fortress in front of Calicut (Reinhard, vol.I, p.59).

In the same year Albuquerque lets leave 3 Portuguese ships to the spicy islands Banda Islands and Amboina, under the commandment of António de Abreu. It comes out that in this region is a quarrel between the sultanates there between Ternate and Tidore. Therefore Portugal is well courted partly as a third power there (Reinhard, vol.I, p.70).

Molucca Islands / Banda Islands

Map of Molucca Islands / Banda Islands:
                            Ternate, Tidore, Seram / Ceram, and Ambon
Map of Molucca Islands / Banda Islands: Ternate, Tidore, Seram / Ceram, and Ambon [41]
Map of the Moluccas Islands / Banda
                            Islands with Ternate and Tidore
Map of the Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands with Ternate and Tidore [42]
                            of the Molucca Islands / Banda Islands: The
                            little island of Amboina / Amboyna
Map of the Molucca Islands / Banda Islands: The little island of Amboina / Amboyna [43] is one the most important port for exportation of spices during the colonial times.

Spain-Portugal: Cristóbal de Haro, from the trader's family "Haro" from trading town of Burgos with relations to Portugal, Antwerp and Upper Germany, is luring the Portuguese sailer Magellan (Spanish: Magellanes) to Spain facilitating him jobs under the Spanish Crown (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).

In 1513 Albuquerque is giving the idea cultivating poppy on the Azores Islands and in Portugal getting profits from opium exportation to India creating a competition against the Muslims in Aden (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

The structures of Portuguese Empire
Supreme control of Portuguese bases is worked out by Portuguese Crown. Pope is confirming these conditions in 1514 by the bull "Praecelsae devotionis". Albuquerque is cashing the taxes from the natives by middlemen. Portuguese communities get a right of self administration ("Senado de Camera") with their own regulations, so Goa, Cochin, later also Macao, Colombo, Malacca, and Diu. Portuguese not represented in Portuguese "Senado" are organized in "brotherhood" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.66).

At the same time in 1514 Portugal is establishing a colonial diocese with it's seat in Funchal (Madeira) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.66).

Concerning population policy Albuquerque is applying a tolerant strategy and permits weddings with native women, and the children of mixed race are counted as Portuguese (Reinhard, vol.I, p.60).

Turkish attacks against Persia - 1515: Albuquerque lets conquer Hormuz - Albuquerque dies - further Portuguese strategy against the "non believers" - first Portuguese in China in 1516 - occupations of Turkish army in 1516/17 - first Portuguese visit at the Emperor of China in 1517 - China as arrogant "Middle Kingdom" - gold from Ghana - Portuguese expansion to Ceylon in 1518

Persia is always more in danger by Turkish troops. Therefore Shah Ismail I from Persia is getting into contact with Albuquerque for an alliance. But at the same time Hormuz is in danger by Persia itself. Now Albuquerque is playing for time and during a favorable moment he is conquering Hormuz in 1515 himself (Reinhard, vol.I, p.59).

Trading towns at Persian Golf

Map showing the trading towns at
                            Persian Golf
Map showing the trading towns at Persian Golf [45]

Now Albuquerque has got the idea to conquer Aden installing the whole commerce over Hormuz. This would mean that Portugal would be the power cashing the taxes. But returning from Hormuz he dies before Goa because of an intestinal infection (Reinhard, vol.I, p.59).

Since 1515 also German traders from Augsburg, "Fugger", are beginning with spice trade in Antwerp. Spices are traded for copper. And the commerce of Florentine Hans Affaiatti & Gualterotti is eliminated (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

The framework of the Portuguese Empire of strategic trading posts is installed. But the block of the Red Sea is missing yet (Reinhard, vol.I, p.62). First commercial contacts to China are reinforced between 1514 and 1516 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.74). At the same time the Sultan of Egypt and the Turkish army are organizing counter attacks against the Portuguese occupations, because they also want to have the strategic trading points. In 1516 and 1517 Turkish army is occupying northern Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Arab coast at the other side (Reinhard, vol.I, p.62).

Portugal is going on with it's investigations about China. In 1517 a mission under Fernâo Peres d'Andrade is arriving on Tun-men Island south of Canton. The Chinese are delaying the permission for a trip inside to Canton (Reinhard, vol.I, p.74). China considers itself as the "Middle Kingdom". The Chinese Emperor is considering himself as the "silent pole" and the rest of mankind would drive around this pole. Therefore the government is considering all neighbor states as minor and is cashing tributes for commercial connections (Reinhard, vol.I, p.76).

The Emperor lets wait the Portuguese on Tun-men Island, until Peres is driving to Canton with two ships without permission and is fighting the town with salute shots without warning. At the end is group is permitted an audience at the Emperor's court (Reinhard, vol.I, p.74).

As Portugal is denying for paying any tribute to China a confrontation is preprogrammed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.76).

From 1517 to 1561 the mine of Fortress Saint Jorge / "Elmina" in Ghana is delivering 150 to 450 kg fine gold to Lisbon. Add to this other gold is coming from Arguim, and there is gold of private robbery actions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.45).

In 1518 the Portuguese army is opening a trading post in Colombo. Cinnamon trade is coming into Portuguese hands. A terrorist mission and territorial government is beginning in the whole island, until king Kotte lets convert himself [to terrorist Bible] in 1557 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.62).

1519: Protestant revolution in Germany: Luther's doubts about the impeccability of the Pope - infringement with [Catholic terrorist] Rome

Luther is posting his list of thesis, is not resigning but is appealing for a general council. During the disputation in Leipzig in 1519 between Karlstadt, Luther and his main enemy Johann Eck, professor in Ingolstadt, Luther is performing the infringement with [Catholic terrorist] Rome:
-- because he is resigning to Papal primacy
-- because he is resigning to the [terrorist] Catholic tradition
-- because he is resigning the impeccability of the Pope (DTV History Atlas vol.1, p.231).

1519(-1556): Spain: Charles V - wars with Spanish and Neapolitan tax funds
Charles V is governing an Empire "where the sun is never going down". Wars are payed with tax funds from Spain and from the kingdom of Naples (DTV History Atlas vol. 1, p.237).

1519: Quarrel about the Tordesillas line provokes the new search for a way westward - Magellan with Charles V: project to sail around the Earth

New quarrel about Tordesillas line - demonization of the Moluccas Islands - reason for finding yet the direct way to India

Portuguese and Spanish Crown are quarreling about the precise position of the Tordesillas line because it's not clear to whom "belong" the Banda Islands now (Molucca Islands). The position of the line is not possible to fix precisely with the means of these times. Spanish Crown is claiming that the Tordesillas line would pass in the west of the Molucca Islands and that these islands would be Spanish territory (Reinhard, vol.I, p.70).

Portuguese historians (among other Barros) are provoking more moral fights calling the Molucca Islands as the "seat of the evil" making propaganda against Islam (Reinhard, vol.I, p.69).

In 1519 the Portuguese King is sending a second "mission" to China, this time under Simiâo d'Andrade (the brother of Fernâo Peres d'Andrade). Simiâo is not a diplomat but is going on with a pirate way of methods robbing foreign commercial ships in front of the Chinese coast line and is intervening into the commerce or barter trade of children in China. There is a rumor spread (until 19th century) that Europeans would abuse and eat Chinese children (Reinhard, vol I, p.75).

This quarrel is the reason for another search for a direct way to the Molucca Islands passing South "America". There is a Portuguese sailor, not satisfied and rejected by the Portuguese King, Fernando de Magellan. He is looking for orders of the Spanish Crown, and he gets the order of Spanish Crown and of Christobal de Haro, a Spanish spice trader in the name of Spanish and German trade centers, to look for the "direct way" to the Molucca Islands (Reinhard, vol.I, p.70).

Treaty between King Charles V and Magellan
[Portuguese competition is getting worse and worse for Spain, so this search for a direct west way to India is attractive].

Magellan can convince the 18 years old (Huby, p.81) Charles V from his project to drive around Earth (Huby, p.93). He gets the order to find the direct "west way" to India (Huby, p.16).

In 1518 Charles V is giving green light for an expedition under the command of Magellan with the aim to find the direct "west way" to Asia passing "America".

Magellan gets five ships with a crew of 238 or 265 members. Spanish Crown is financing 25% of the expedition. Haro is financing 75%. Can be that also German funds stay behind this money of the big trading families of Welser and Fugger (Reinhard, vol. II, p.46).

Charles V is imposing the condition that at least six islands rich in minerals have to be detected and have to be put under Spanish [Catholic terrorist] rule (Huby, p.16).

In 1519 Magellan's fleet is leaving with five ships and a crew of 270 members (Reinhard, vol.I, p.70).

Other source tells:

With 260 men and five caravels Magellan is sailing leaving from the Spanish port of San Lucar getting the proof that Earth is round. The project is the detection of Molucca Islands which are said being richer than whole India (Huby, p.81).

The route of Magellan's expedition
Map with the route of Magellan, in
                            red with Magellan, in green without Magellan
                            (getting back)
Map with the route of Magellan, in red with Magellan, in green without Magellan (getting back) [46]

Magellan, portrait
Magellan, portrait [47]

In these times in 1518/1519 the spice trade is contributing 38.8% of the whole public revenue (Reinhard, vol.I, p.106).

Magellan as a well experienced and as a great leader - a "warhorse"
Magellan is a little stubby, with black hair, and is limping because of a war injury at one of his knees. He is Portuguese in Spanish services of Spanish Crown (Huby, p.81), has got 38 years. Magellan has survived any storm until this moment and has got much experience from trips to India passing and robbing Africa (Huby, p.82). Magellan is a "warhorse" from Portugal with experience on the sea and in war (Huby, p.16) who is never capitulating (Huby, p.82).

His dream of life is to be rated aside to Vasco de Gama in world history who "detected" the way to India. He wants to fulfill an epochal work (Huby, p.81).

Distrust on Magellan's expedition
There are Spaniards having the suspicion that Magellan would be a Portuguese spy who wants to use Spanish help for new overseas properties for Portugal. Also the crew members having been ordered by the King to be Magellan's crew have got this meaning and are resigning much time to serve for him. Add to this the crew does not know where the trip will go because Magellan is keeping his aims secret! (Huby, p.81)

Provisions from Teneriffa - passing the equator line
On Teneriffa a provisions ship is added. Magellan is keeping his crew with all means of discipline. When the course is suddenly changing from west to south south west the crew is grumbling. The fleet is passing the equator line (Huby, p.81).

1519: Charles V elected for Emperor with the help of German Fugger and Welser families
With the help of the German Fugger and Welser families Charles V is winning the Emperor's election against Franz I from France. But Charles V has to guarantee "German Liberty" (DTV History Atlas vol.1, p.237).

Two royal stupids of European noble families making eternal wars:
Franz against Charles
King Franz I from France
King Franz I from France [48]
Emperor Charles V. Painting by
Emperor Charles V. Painting by Tizian [49]

The aim of Charles V is a universal Empire of the Middle Ages - and world war is preprogrammed
Great Chancellor Gattinara is advisor of Charles V, and he means having got the task to reinstall the universal Empire of the Middle Ages with modern means, with soldiers and officials. All European national states are automatically his enemies, above all France, later also the German and above all the Protestant princes, also Turks and also the Pope (DTV History Atlas vol. 1, p.237).

at the same time in 1519: Spain is preparing to occupy the Azteque Empire in Mexico (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51).

Mid of September 1519: The expedition of Magellan reaches the bay of Rio
After having passed the Atlantic the crew of Magellan is enjoying good food and women. A girl as a slave costs a big knife or an axe. In the long huts there are living big families until of 100 members, and there is always noise.

But the crew of Magellan also is witness of cannibalism under the tribes. According to reports of helmsman Juan Carvajo the captives are roasted and month by month eaten step by step (Huby, p.82).

[Church is burning humans on the stake - natives are burning humans on the roast...]

Mexico 8 November 1519: Spanish troops under Cortés are occupying Tenochtitlán
The Azteque ruler Moctezuma II is welcoming Cortés. The whole population is not at all hostile to the Whites,

-- because the year of 1519 is the year called when Quetzalcoatls has disappeared (Reinhard vol.II, p.51)

-- the Azteques consider Cortés as a returning god Quetzalcoatls (Huby, p.16).

But Spanish occupier in Mexico are greedy for gold, and this is provoking violence against the natives.

from: M.León-Portilla. Rückkehr der Götter. Die Aufzeichnungen der Azteken über den Untergang ihres Reiches. Munich 1965, p.46.

Nov 1519: Magellan's expedition leaving from Rio to the south
Within 14 days the expedition is passing 2,000 sea miles. On the level of 35ş there is a huge bay and no horizon can be seen. Now the hope comes up that this would be the passage for India. But after some days they detect that the bay is ending in a river (today's Rio de la Plata), and now the Spanish crew is rebelling, but Magellan can keep the power. The expedition is going further, and in every bay they are looking for a passage (Huby, p.82).

Magellan is "discovering":
-- the bay of Rio de Janeiro
-- the Gulf of St Mathew (St. Mathias), and
-- the bay of St Julian (Huby, p.16).

Second Portuguese China mission and "rumors about children" - 1519 - 1520: Magellan arriving at the eastern coast of South "America" and hard winter with loss of ships - Portugal's second mission in China is rejected in 1520

Magellan's expedition in storms
Without end Magellan's expedition is searching the passage in any little bay with their little ships (Huby, p.82). There are heavy storms, winter and a boring landscape affecting heavily to the crew (Huby, p.82).

Winter is coming and the expedition is passing winter in a bay without any humans for two months. Only rarely a native is seen, but when they are coming the Spaniards see huge humans with really striking big feet. Magellan is calling them as "Patagones" ("Bigfoot"), the "Patagonians", and corresponding to this the region was called "Patagonia" (Huby, p.83).

Magellan's expedition with problems with rebellion projects against Magellan

In the meantime Magellan is called the "limping devil". The rebels are organizing a sea war against his ship, but he is hearing this. The rebels are taken prisoners, he lets shoot the ship "Antonio" and is blocking with another loyal ship the way of the other three. During the presentation of a letter the commander of the rebels, Mendoza Molina, is murdered. All rebels are arrested. The servant has to behead his captain Quesada on the order of Magellan (Huby, p.83).

Magellan's expedition: loss of the ship "Santiago" in a storm in the bay
The expedition in the bays are performed with the most agile ship "Santiago" under Magellan's best friend Serrao. But a heavy storm is surprising him and the boat is smashed to the coast line. The crew can save itself to the coast, and two messengers are fighting threw snow and ice and can organize help. The saving action is well done (Huby, p.84).

October 1520: Magellan's expedition: Magellan is driving more to the south
The expedition is passing Holy Cross (Santa Cruz) down to a cape which is reached on the "feast day of holy Ursula and 11,000 virgins", so it's called "Virgins' Cape" ("Cabo Vírgenes").

The following bay is again investigated with two ships going ahead. The bay is never ending and there are following more and more bays. The expedition is entering the bays. There is cold and fog (Huby, p.84). Breaking glaciers are endangering the ships. New animals can be seen (later called "Magellan penguins") (Huby, p.89).

Rebellion on the ship Antonio: The provisions ship is going home! - the "Pacific"
During an unobserved moment, the crew of Antonio" is putting it's captain into chains and is driving northwards in direction of Portugal. Magellan lets look for the ship for days because this ship has got almost all provisions of the little fleet, but the ship is lost (Huby, p.84).

On the 27th day after having entered the bay the heading ships detect the open sea. They have passed 600 km in narrow and icy bays. Now the open sea is presenting itself in a peaceful way and Magellan calls it therefore as "The Pacific" ("El Pacifico"). But now there is no provision ship any more, and this will be hard. At the end the crew has to eat leather and wood shavings (Huby, p.84).

Strait of Magellan at the southern end
                            of South "America" between today's
                            Chile and Argentina
Strait of Magellan at the southern end of South "America" between today's Chile and Argentina [50]

Bizarre mountains in Patagonia:
                                Horns of Paine
Bizarre mountains in Patagonia: Horns of Paine [51]
Patagonian penguins
Patagonian penguins [52]

Glaciers ending directly in the sea,
                              e.g. Garibaldi glacier in Chile
Glaciers ending directly in the sea, e.g. Garibaldi glacier in Chile [53]

At the same time is happening this:

Portuguese China mission: China's Emperor is rejecting anything

In 1520 Simiâo d'Andrade is successful with his project getting an audience with the Emperor yet handing him a letter from King Manuel of Portugal. But the Chinese emperor is rejecting any contact with Portugal because in the letter he rated at the same level as the Portuguese king. The Portuguese delegation is well accommodated in a guest's house (Reinhard, vol.I, p.75).

1520: Protestant reforms in Europe against Catholic terrorist Pope - Luther's programs, burning of the Papa bull

August 1520:

Luther's political program: "To the Christian nobles of German Nation: about the betterment of Christian population": There is a call for reforms by a national convent because all Christians would be spiritual and not only the bosses and the Pope.

October 1520: Luther publishing a dogmatic program: "About the Babylonic imprisonment of Church" (in Latin): Now Luther is rejecting five of seven sacraments, and only stay baptism and supper which are well proved in the holy books. Luther means that only has to be done what is written in the Bible (principal of documents).

November 1520: Luther's ethic program: "About freedoms of a Christian": All indulgence is nonsense because freedom of a Christ could only be by the belief and by the mercy of God.

December 1520: Luther burning the Papal bull written against him in public in Wittenberg (DTV History Atlas vol.1, p.231).

The colonial catastrophe for the natives in Mexico

1520: Mexico:
-- detention of the leader of uprisings Moctezuma II (Reinhard vol.II, p.51)
-- Cortés reporting in Spain ans is using Moctezuma II as a puppet (Huby, p.16)
-- the Aztek population is loosing the illusion but are recognizing the Whites as their enemies now urging another belief (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51)
-- the Azteks are probing an uprising under the leadership of Pedro de Alvarado (Reinhard vol, II, p.51)
-- and Moctezuma - the puppet of the Spaniards - is stoned to death by the Aztec population (Huby, p.16).

Mexico 30.6.1520: Retreat of Spanish troops from Tenochtitlán - "noche triste" ("sad night") - and smallpox in Mexico

Cortéz is returning from Spain to Tenochtitlán and recognizes the heavy threat for his troops. He lets retreat his troops (Huby, p.16). But the retreating Spanish troops are followed and on June 30, 1520 are fought by the Azteks and many are killed in the murderous fights which is reported as the "sad night" ("noche triste" in the reports. Cortéz survives. But now the Aztecs get another problem because smallpox is breaking out which were brought by the Spaniards (Reinhard vol,II, p.51).

Gold and silver: robbery and commerce of gold and silver in around 1520

Robbery and commerce of gold and
                            silver during colonialism in around 1520
                            (scheme of Michael Palomino) from Reinhard,
                            vol.I, p.101
Robbery and commerce of gold and silver during colonialism in around 1520 (scheme of Michael Palomino) from Reinhard, vol.I, p.101 [54]

Beginning of 1521: Magellan's expedition on the Pacific - in 1521 in Guam - 1521(-1526): wars of Charles V against France with Franz I - 1521: Cortés in Mexico with new troops against fighting Aztec culture - 1521: Magellan's expedition on Cebu ("Philippines"): Santo Nińo and Spanish trading treaty with the Sultan - and death of Magellan

Magellan's expedition is sailing up the west coast reaching the bay of today's Valparaiso (Santiago de Chile), and then is heading westward over the "Pacific" Ocean called in this way by Magellan. The expedition is starving 2 1/2 months with hunger and thirst and scurvy on the sea (Reinhard vol.II, p.46). Only three ships are remaining (Huby, p.16). 19 crew members are dying by scurvy. The last food is leather and wood shavings (Huby, p.84).

1521: Magellan's expedition arriving Guam
today's Marian Islands next to Micronesia (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).

In March 1521 Magellan's expedition is reaching the Marian Islands, also called "Ladrones Islands" because the natives "were stealing like fools". The expedition is taking fresh nourishment and water on board and is heading on (Huby, p.84).

1521(-1526 [!]): Emperor Charles V is making war against France with King Fran I (DTV History Atlas, vol.1, p.237).

at the same time: Destruction of Tenochtitlán in Mexico

In 1521 Cortés is reaching the Mexican coast with fresh troops and is at the same time the Aztecs are harmless and weak because of smallpox (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51). Cortés lets encircle and sieging and famishing Tenochtitlán. After 75 days of siege the resistance of Tenochtitlán is given up (Huby, p.16).

The troops of Cortés are conquering Tenochtitlán which is defined as the new capital of his colony of "New Spain" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.52). Cortéz lets destroy the town down to the ground (Huby, p.16).

Cortés gets the heritage of the "Three Towns Alliance" governing about 300,000 km2. He is founding the kingdom of "New Spain" (Reinhard vol.II, p.52).

1521: Magellan's expedition on the "Philippines"
31 March: The first "holy mass" is organized on "Philippine" soil on the island of Visayas. The precise location cannot be investigated, but it can be assumed that it was Limassava. Magellan is making friends with Datus Kalambo and Siaui.
(Internet: M.Payer: Chronic about History of Philippines (original. German: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen)

Magellan's expedition on Cebu: trade treaty with the Sultan
7 April: Magellan reaches Cebu. On 14 April Magellan is giving a Jesus figurine from Flanders "Holy Child" (Santa Nińo) to the newly baptized spouse Juana of a Cebu ruler raja Humab-on. This statue is worshipped until today every third Sunday in January in whole Philippines with a festival.
(Web site: M.Payer: Chronic of History of Philippines (orig. German: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen)

Map with the
                    position of Cebu Island
Map with the position of Cebu Island [55]

Magellan is succeeding with a trade agreement with the Sultan and a more or less colonial treaty. After some weeks of stay there is also a barter trade with glass beads for real gold.

And some time the Sultan of Cebu is calling Magellan for help against the neighbor island Mactan. Magellan is requested to put down the local tribes there (Huby, p.85).

27 April 1521: Magellan's expedition to Mactan and death of Magellan

Magellan is landing on Mactan and is considering a 30 fold superiority of the tribes which are well prepared in a battle order with spears and shields. But Magellan lets perform an attack, but the rifle bullets are simply rebounded by the shields. The Mactan natives have a first success.

Magellan lets pass a group of Spaniards aside the battle field burning the huts of the Mactan inhabitants speculating that the Mactanese would return to their homes to save them, this means Magellan. But the Mactanese have another reaction: Their angriness is more and more and they detect Magellan as the commander of the Whites, and then Magellan is stabbed to death (Huby, p.85) by Lapu-Lapu, a chief of a tribe. Later Lapu-Lapu is worshipped as a Philippine national hero.

(Internet: M.Payer: Chronic of History of the Philippines (orig. German: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen).

Map with the little
                            Philippine Islands Cebu with Cebu City
                            (left) and Mactan
Map with the little Philippine Islands Cebu with Cebu City (left) and Mactan [56]

This fight was about a tiny island, and Magellan was killed for this.

(this is probably an actor) [57]

Captain Sebastian del Cano is taking over the command now leaving with three ships heading to the spicy islands of the Molucca Islands (Huby, p.16).

Magellan's expedition: spice trade, rice terraces - again a battle between two princes - forced self destruction of the ship "Concepción"

The expedition is cruising first within the "Philippines" from island to island, is detecting cinnamon trees and palm wine and is making barding trade with cloves, nutmeg and ginger (Huby, p.85). The expedition is also detecting terraces for rice in Bawana on Luzon island which are there since 2,000 years already and are considered as "8th wonder of the world" (Huby, p.91).

Luzon: village in rice terraces Luzon: village in rice terraces
Luzon: village in rice terraces of 1,000s of years in the region of Banaue [58]

The expedition is again involved in fights and is loosing. The crew is reduced to 115 members. Because of lack of crew members the ship of "Concepción" has to be destroyed so there remain only the ships "Trinidad" and "Victoria" (Huby, p.85).

China with policy against foreigners - smuggle with Japanese products is becoming normal

In 1521 there is a change of government in China and a policy against foreigners is beginning. From one day to the other Chinese merchants are forbidden having any contact with foreigners, also abroad. But the European fleet is not following this new rule and heavy fights are following. Simiâo d'Andrade is sent back and can flee with his fleet. But now a smuggle is established: Portuguese ships are the welcome mediator for Chinese upper class in the provinces of Fukien and Tshekiang trading Japanese products (Reinhard vol.I, p.75,76).

Since 1521 Venice has got the idea purchasing spices in Lisbon (Reinhard, vol.I, p.104).

Nov.1521: Magellan's expedition to the Moluccas Islands - the way to Europe

Two of the original ships of Magellan's expedition are reaching the spicy islands of Moluccas (Reinhard, vol.I, p.46). The ship "Trinidad" is taken by the hostile Portuguese, and the ship "Victoria" can escape and can load spices on Timor island (Huby, p.85).

The ship "Victoria" is leaving the Banda Islands heading for India and Africa, escaping the hostile Portuguese ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.71,72).

Jan 1522 appr.: Magellan's expedition heading home with ship "Victoria" - again scurvy and deads

Under the command of Sebastián del Cano the ship "Victoria" is taking a load of spices and can escape the Portuguese ships heading for Africa and Europe (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46). There are 47 Whites and some natives on the ship. But now is coming scurvy again. 25 men are killed yet before arriving "Cape of Good Hope" (Huby, p.85).

July 1522 appr.: Magellan's expedition: Portuguese attack near Cape Verde
Near Cape Verde there is another attack against the expedition. Only 18 Spaniards remain (Huby, p.85).

6 September 1522: Magellan's ship "Victoria" reaches Spain
The sailing tour around the world is completed. The second Spanish ship "Trinidad" is trying to get back but has big problems with the weather and provision and has to surrender to the Portuguese in 1522 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.71,72; Huby, p.85).

Finish of Magellan's expedition: ship "Victoria" reaching San Lucar
The last commander, Juan Sebastian del Cano, is reporting to Charles V.:

"Your Majesty shall know that we have arrived but only 18 men remain in one of five ships which were sent by Your Majesty for detecting spices, under the command of captain Ferrante de Magellans [...] Your Majesty will appreciate that we have fulfilled the tour around the world leaving for the west and having come back from the east." (Huby, p.85)

Complete Spanish occupation of Mexico - Portuguese fortifications on the Banda Islands against the Spanish sailors in 1522 - Portuguese governors and trading posts on the Banda Islands - regular Portuguese spice ships since 1523

1522: Cortés is promoted - expansion of "Christian" [terrorist] rule in whole Mexico
Emperor Charles V is promoting Cortés as a governor. Until 1528 appr. he is subjecting more Aztecs and other populations in the north and south of Mexico (Reinhard, vol.II, p.52).

1522: Portugal fortifying the Molucca Islands
Under the command of Antonio de Brito there is installed a fortified trading post on Ternate Island, the Fort Saint John (Fort Sâo Joâo). Since there had come Spanish ships passing the Magellan Strait reaching the Banda Islands directly the Portuguese are expecting the worst.

After the complete round around the world also the quarrel about the Tordesillas line is reinforced. There are heavy quarrels between John III and his brother-in-law, the Spanish Emperor Charles V. But at the moment Charles V has not got much money, and it's not possible to find a precise determination of the Tordesillas line in the Molucca region (Reinhard, vol.I, p.72).

The administration of the Portuguese Molucca region on Ternate Island is reinforced by nominating governors (capitâo mór). Avery three years another nomination is performed, and this is the possibility for more careers in the service of Portuguese Crown. Add to this another Portuguese trading post is built up on Portuguese Banda Islands and two more trading posts on Amboina Island (Reinhard, vol.I, p.72).

Shipping is well arranged with the monsoon winds, from the west to the east since August, and from east to the west since March or April. Since 1523 there is a regular traffic of Portuguese ships under the leadership of "Fidalgos" or merchants managing the spice trade for nutmegs (Banda Islands) resp. for cloves (Ternate Island) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

India: Occupation of Mogul Babuk in 1524 around Delhi - fights for Diu - Spanish ships in Tidore 1526/1528 - 1529: Emperor Charles V selling his eventual rights of Molucca Islands to Portugal - Portugal founding a colonial archbishopric - reinforced settler's activities on Banda Islands 1536-1539 - 1538: Turkish army conquering Aden and Seila - Turkish and Muslim siege of Diu

India: In 1524 the army of the founder of the Mogul dynasty, Babuc from Afghanistan, can install itself in Delhi. His son is seeking for an expansion of the new Empire. Teh Sultan of Gujerat is afraid that his country also would be occupied by the Moguls. At the same time the Portuguese are seeking for the introduction of taxes in Diu for the Portuguese Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.62).

In 1526 more Spanish ships are reaching Tidore Island, this is a rest of a big expedition which was started in 1525. The confrontations about the archipelago is going on.

In 1528 one of three Spanish expedition ships of Cortés is reaching Tidore starting from Mexico.

In 1529 Emperor Charles V finds a "solution" for the Molucca Islands problem. As there is no possibility to determinate the precise degree of longitude, he is selling his eventual ambition of the islands in a Treaty of Zaragoza for 350,000 ducats and gets more money for his wars against France (Reinhard, vol.I, p.72).

In 1531 Portuguese general governor Nuno da Cunha is attacking Diu, but failing.

But in 1534 the Sultan of Gujerat is offering the port of Diu to the Portuguese without fight, because he wants to have more protection with an alliance with the Portuguese against the threatening Mogul dynasty. And the alliance is installed. Then the Mogul troops are heading for the east conquering there (Reinhard, vol.I, p.62).

In the same year Turkish armies are beginning pushing forward to the south occupying Baghdad and now they are near Hormuz. The Sultan of Gujerat is now breaking the alliance with the Portuguese army making an alliance with the Turks with the aim to get Diu back with the aid of the Turks (Reinhard, vol.I, p.62,63).

Amidst in the worst fights the King of Portugal is rating the diocese of Funchal (Madeira) as an archbishopric and is proclaiming a first colonial sub diocese Goa on the Indian west coast (Reinhard, vol.I, p.66).

Since 1536 there is a Portuguese immigration movement on the Portuguese Molucca Islands, under governor Antonio Galvâo. He is a honorful governor in comparison with his precursors and also sends [psycho terrorist "Christian"] missions to the today's called "Philippines" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

1537: South "America": Portuguese "foundation" of Olinda

In 1537 as a defense post against pirates the Portuguese Crown is "installing" (on native territory) the town of Olinda at the eastern coast of today's Brazil (DTV vol.I, p.277).

Olinda in today's Brazil
                            with the position of Olinda next to Recife
Map with the position of Olinda next to Recife [59]
View on Olinda bay of today's Brazil
View on Olinda bay of today's Brazil [60]
Houses in Olinda
Houses in Olinda [61]

Women at carnival in
Women at carnival in Olinda [62]
Trombone men at
                              carnival of Olinda
Trombone men at carnival of Olinda [63]

1538: Turkish occupations down to Aden and Zeila

In 1538 a Turkish fleet is pushing forward on the Red Sea with 72 ships and 6,500 crew members under the command of Suleiman Pasha conquering Aden and Zeila. The strait is blocked now by Turkish Arab rule. As a consequence Portuguese Diu sieged by the Turkish fleet and by the Sultanate of Gujerat from both sides. When the Sultan of Gujerat realizes that he could be in danger also by the Turks, he lets block the food supply to the Turks. Therefore the Turkish ships are leaving and Diu stays with the Portuguese Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.62).

Molucca Islands stay with Portuguese terrorism. The natives of Portuguese Molucca Islands want the governor Galvâo for a second term. But the application is rejected by Portuguese Crown. Therefore the natives are going on terrorized by governors with "sometimes of criminal character" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

[This criminality without end is "Catholic"...]

Portuguese colonial power destroying any tolerance

Destruction of Hindu temple in Goa in 1540 an prohibition of not Christian cults - racism ("pigmentocracy") and discrimination in Portuguese colonies

In 1540 the Hindu temple in Goa is destroyed and not Christian cults are forbidden. Discriminatory measures are sharpened in general (Reinhard, vol.I, p.67).

In general in every conquered town the mosques are destroyed, homosexuality is fought and religious tolerance is not tolerated any more. Racism is also ordered with marriages more and more: brides are chosen according to their skin color, priest candidates are only admitted with white skin color. A "pigmentocracy" is installed. Japanese people, Chinese people, people from Korea and Vietnamese people are preferred and people from India have to stay behind - because of their skin color (Reinhard, vol.I., p.67)

Portuguese counter attack against Turks of 1541 without success - support of priest king in Ethiopia against Turkish siege in 1541 - Spanish occupation and new name for the "Philippines" 1542/1543 - since 1543: Portugal is dominating Hormuz, new smuggling of spices to Egypt - "America": foundation of "silver town" Potosí in 1546

Portuguese fleet under Estavâo de Gama is performing a counter attack in the Red Sea. Turkish fleet is drawing back without any confrontation. Instead of a sea battle the Portuguese sailors can hear that the Turks under Emir of Harar are performing a siege against priest king of Ethiopia in the Ethiopian highlands. Now 400 Portuguese are fanatically beginning their fight on the African continent provoking the decisive relief for the priest king so he is surviving. Then Rome is sending a Jesuit mission to Ethiopia (Reinhard, vol.I., p.63).

The name of the "Philippines" after prince Phillipp II
In 1542 the today's "Philippines" are occupied by Spanish troops under Ruy Lopéz de Villalobos, and in 1543 they are renamed according to the Spanish prince Phillipp II being called "Philippines" now (Reinhard, vol.I., p.72).

Spain is claiming the "Philippines" to be their territory. Portugal is rejecting this claim according to the treaty of Tordesillas as a base for the partition of the world. This is not impressing Spain and Lopez de Villalobos is renaming the islands according to the Spanish prince "Islas Filipinas". Mindanao is called "Caesarea Caroli" honoring Charles V.
(Internet: M.Payer: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen)

Since 1543 the Portuguese take over the customs station in Hormuz. In this way the Muslim blockage of the Red Sea can be evaded by transports passing Euphrates River and then terrestrial transports to Aleppo and Beirut. A living spice smuggling is developing to Egypt, partly by the Portuguese themselves. Additionally the town of Ragusa is in a boom with relations to the German Fugger family, and the Fuggers want to establish in Alexandria (Reinhard, vol,I, p.104).

In 1946 Turkish Army is reaching Persian town of Basra. At the same time the sultan of Gujeratis is sieging the town of Diu because of monopoly actions of the Portuguese there (Reinhard, vol.I, p.63).

"America": Foundation of Potosí
This town is in a height of 4000 meters next to silver mines. There is an incredible boom beginning there because anyone is hoping to "have luck" in this town (DTV vol.I, p.277).

[The base for this "luck" is slavery of the natives in the mines with mass death...]

First Portuguese mission in Japan in 1549 - closure of Portuguese trading post in Antwerp in 1549 - "America": "Foundation" of Portuguese town of Bahía in 1549 - 1550-1559: Italian travel reports about India - 1550-1560: successful smuggling route to Egypt - missioner Franz Xaver in Japan since 1551 - Turkish siege of Hormuz is defended by the Portuguese in 1552 - "America": "Successful" Portuguese Jesuitic mission

In 1549 the first Portuguese Jesuitic mission is reaching Japan getting a permission to stay there (Reinhard, vol.I, p.78).

In the same year the Portuguese trading post in Antwerp is closed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

For defending from pirates the Portuguese crown (on native territory) is installing the town of Bahía at the eastern coast of South "America" (DTV vol.I, p.277).

From 1550 to 1559 Italian travel reports about India are published by Venetian traveler Mr. Giovanni Battista Ramusio: "Delle navigationi et viaggi" ["About navigation and travel"]. Not only these travel reports are an indication that Italians are partly involved in the business with India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.104).

From 1550 to 1560 there is the Portuguese smuggling route over Hormuz where almost as much spices are coming to Egypt as to Lisbon passing the Cap (Reinhard, vol.I, p.104).

Since 1551 the missioner Franz Xaver is installing a "Christian" church in Japan thanks to his extraordinary adaption to Japanese customs, and this church is growing fast. Missioners are mostly Portuguese and Italians (Reinhard, vol.I, p.79)

In 1552 Turkish Army is sieging Hormuz. But the Portuguese Army can free oneself from this blockage (Reinhard, vol.I, p.63).

The development of Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South "America": "Frontier in the jungle", Jesuits - 12 Portuguese "Capitania", penetrating "bandeirantes"

Since 1550 about Spain is leaving territories in South "America" up to the "jungle frontier" to the Portuguese Jesuitic mission along the rivers Paraná, Marańón and the upper Orinoco. Jesuits have missionary and economic "success" above all in the Jesuit state of Paraguay, the "vision in the jungle" (DTV I, p.277).

The Portuguese crown is parting the fertile coast strip of Brazil [native territory] into 12 hereditary "Capitania" (princedoms) which are acting in a half feudal way and are politically almost independent. In the countryside of Săo Paulo the descendants of adventurers of Paulistians and "Mamelucs" are forming armed gangs ("bandeirantes"). They are "managing" theft of cattle and they are hunting natives for enslaving them. With these activities they are penetrating more and more into the inner of the continent [against the natives] (DTV vol.I, p.277).

Impressions of natives in Brazil
who did not loose their knowledge about nature until today. When whites go there mosquitos are stitching without end...
Native of Brazil
Native of Brazil [64]
Native girl in Brazil
Native girl in Brazil [65]
Native with bow and arrow during
Native with bow and arrow during hunting [66]
Natives in Brazil in hammocks
Natives in Brazil in hammocks [67]

Portuguese trade and worldwide trade since 1550: silver treaties with Spain, payment of European deliveries with gemstones and cash, sinking pepper business

In Europe payment with silver coins is becoming common now. This silver is coming from Spanish "America". At the same time European silver production is sinking. Spain with it's "colonies" is becoming that powerful so also England, the Netherlands, England and the French are paying in Spanish "Reales". Portugal is concluding silver contracts with the Spanish crown saving parts of "American" silver. This [robbed] "Spanish" silver is transporting among others by smuggling over the Silver River ("Río de la Plata") and the Azores Islands to Portugal and then is exchanged with slaves (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

[Thus the blacks are becoming an international currency for the whites... did anyone say anything about a compensation?!]

By the time Portugal cannot pay it's European importations (textiles, raw materials for glass production, luxury articles) from Central Europe with spices. Thus there is more and more a negative trade balance with Antwerp and the payment there are payments with gemstones and cash (Reinhard, vol.I, p.103).

Around 1550 the final profits for the Portuguese crown are 60% yet in the most favorable case. Additionally credibility is overcharged by risks and long deadlines of delivery and sellings (Reinhard, vol.I, p.106).

"Roman" patriarch for Ethiopia in 1555 - first Chinese permission for a settlement in Macao in 1557 - Goa in 1558 is new Portuguese diocese center for colonies - breakdown of Portuguese statal trade with India in 1560 - 1560s: Portuguese fort on Amboina and Portuguese traders on Solor - beginning of a civil war in Indian in 1564

In 1555 the Pope is appointing a "Roman" patriarch for Egypt. But there is no unification with the two churches (Reinhard, vol.I, p.63).

In 1557 the Chinese government is giving the first permission for the construction of a half official Portuguese settlement on the peninsula of Macao. The Portuguese call it "Congregation of the name of God in China" ("povoaçaô do nome de Deus na China"). The settlement is soon developing as a settlement with a statal constitutino and by trading is delivering official customs duties to China (Reinhard, vol.I, p.76).

In 1558 Goa is the new main seat of the Portuguese colonial empire in India with the subordinate dioceses Cochin and Malacca (Reinhard, vol.I, p.66). There are regular synods in Goa regulating the religious and social "disciplining" of Portuguese population in the colonies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.67).

In 1560 the statal monopolized trade of Portugal with India is collapsing. Private and foreign managers are allowed to trade freely in Lisbon at least. But this opening of the market is coming too late and the spice trade in Lisbon is always more and more reduced (Reinhard, vol.I, p.106).

During the 1560s the Portuguese can also install a fortress on Amboina Island against the Spanish. Additionally on Solor Island Portuguese missioners and sandalwood traders are installing (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

In 1564 the coalition is breaking between Hinduist Vijayanagar in the south and the two Muslim sultanates of Bijapur and Golkonda in the middle of Indian subcontinent. Four sultanates are making a coalition conquering the army of the Hindu empire which is loosing it's vassal states and income from there (Reinhard, vol.I, p.63).

"America" since 1561: Spanish convoy system of the "silver fleets"

As a prevention against pirates Spain has to introduce an expensive convoy system for it's "silver fleets" (DTV vol.I, p.277).

since 1565: "Philippines"-Mexico as a yearly trade route - only limited Spanish rule but with neighboring islands - in 1568 a Portuguese attack against the "Philippines" is failing - first Spanish missions on Bohol and Cebu since 1565 - 1565: rising pepper prices because of wars in India - 1567: Spanish military dictatorship in Spanish Netherlands - Portuguese "detections" of Solon Islands in 1567/68 - 1568: Egmont and Hoorn executed - since 1568: 80 year's war between Spain and the Netherlands - Portuguese Jesuits in Nagasaki since 1569 in the trade between Japan and China

In 1565 Arellano and Urdaneta are on the way back from the "Philippines" to Mexico and they detect trade winds and sea currents. The trip from Mexico to the "Philippines" is made yearly as a firm trade route now (Reinhard, vol.I, p.80,82).

since 1565: "Spanish Philippines" with neighboring islands
The territory of Spanish colony of the "Philippines" is different from the territory of the today's "Philippines", because to the Spanish colony belong also
-- Guam
-- Marian Islands
-- Caroline Islands
-- Palau.

Additionally Spanish "authority" is only partly possible to be installed.
(Internet: M.Payer: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen)

Since 1565 Spanish missioners are trying to install missions on the islands of Bohol and Cebu (today "Philippines") (Reinhard, vol.I, p.79).

In 1565 pepper price is rising in Lisbon because of wars in the Indian Ocean and because of never coming pepper deliveries. Sometimes Portugal is searching for a permission in Turkey for using the route over the Red Sea. But Venice is well provided (Reinhard, vol.I, p.105).

In 1567 the Spanish "iron duke" Alba from Spain is erecting a military dictatorship in the Spanish Netherlands in the name of Phillipp II against Dutch loyal rebels. By special courts, the so called "bloody council" of Brussels the rebels are executed (DTV vol.I, p.245).

In 1568 Portuguese war fleet on Banda Islands is trying an attack against the "Philippines" but this attack is failing (Reinhard, vol.I, p.79).

In 1568 the moderate Dutch freedom fighters Egmont and Hoorn are executed in Brussels by the butchers of Albas (DTV, vol.I, p.245). Now there is a "80 year's war" between Spain and the Netherlands until 1648 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.109).

Since 1569 Jesuitic mission in Japan is ordered by the Japanese emperor Omura to be in the port of Nagasaki. Additionally Jesuits are organizing the trade between Japan and the xenophobic Chinese: Every year a Portuguese ship is reaching Nagasaki with Chinese silk and with "cheap" Chinese gold which is exchanged by Japanese silver. The profits are high and the Jesuits are involved in this business. Japan's emperor is stockpiling the gold for the introduction of a gold currency (Reinhard, vol.I, p.78).

Murder of a sultan in 1570 - Muslim "holy war" in 1570: Portugal giving free the trade with India with the exception of copper and silver, speculation - 1570-1573: war between Venice and Turkey - 1571: battle of Lepanto - Marseille is competing in the Mediterranean - Spanish conquest of Manila in 1571 and Spanish "dominance" on the "Philippines" since 1571

In 1570 a sultan is murdered. As a reaction the Muslims are declaring a "holy war" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73). A world wide Muslim alliance is formed against Portugal. The sultanates are allying with the Samoré of Calicut and with Muslim sultan of Atjeh in the north of Sumatra against the Portuguese in India and in Malacca. In 1570 this Muslim "coalition" is sieging Goa and most of the Portuguese fortresses. But the Portuguese can defend their fortresses (Reinhard, vol.I, p.63).

In the same year the Portuguese king Sebastian is giving free the monopoly trade keeping only the trade with copper and silver. Now the spice business is coming into international speculation. The Spanish king Phillipp II becomes the biggest debtor of the world... (Reinhard, vol.I, p.96).

[All this richness which was made by slavery Holocaust in "America" is for nothing because of his eternal wars...]

Between 1570 and 1573 there is war between Venice and Turkey because of trade monopolies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.104).

1571: Battle of Lepanto. The position of Venice is eroding. The Portuguese pepper business becomes profitable again, and Venice gets new competition from Marseille (Reinhard, vol.I, p.104).

In 1571 Spanish naval forces are conquering Manila and are founding a "Spanish town" on this location as a center for the whole group of islands. The dominance is completed by Augustine missioners under the leadership of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. This is an "absolute dominance" over the natives (Reinhard, vol.I, p.79).

Mogul in India is conquering Gujerat in 1572 - Spanish are organizing the trade between "Philippines" and China since the 1570s - Chinese traders on the "Philippines" since the 1570s - fall of Ternate in 1575 - new Portuguese sub diocese Macao in 1576 - Portuguese fortress on Tidore 1578 - English sailor Drake passing the Pacific in 1578

One year after the Muslim siege of the Portuguese military bases the Mogul Emperor Akbar is starting own military campaigns conquering the sultanate of Gujerat in a favorable moment in 1572 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.63).

Empire of Mogul Emperor Akbar

Mogul Emperor Akbar
Mogul Emperor Akbar [68]
Map with
                            the Mogul basic empire of Mogul Emperor
                            Akbar (in yellow) and
                            the"extensions" (in brown)
Map with the Mogul basic empire of Mogul Emperor Akbar (in yellow) and the"extensions" (in brown) [69].

Since the 1570s the Spanish on the "Philippines" are leaving spices speculation and are organizing a profitable China trade. Chinese ships are bringing silk and other luxury goods to the "Philippines". On the "Philippines" a Chinese community is coming up, but not only that, because this Chinese community is controlling more and more the retail trade on the islands (Reinhard, vol.I, p.80).

In 1575 Ternate is falling (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

In 1576 Macao is converted into a new sub diocese (Reinhard, vol.I, p.66).

In 1576 Antwerp is destroyed by Spanish armies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.109).

In 1578 Tidore is allowing a Portuguese fortress (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

In the same year of 1578 the first English ship is passing the Pacific with the English sailor Drake (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).

since 1579: English circumnavigation of the world making a rest on the Banda Islands - 1579-1583: Jan Huyghen in Spain as a Dutch spy - Manila converted into a Spanish diocese in 1579 - big Portuguese church in Japan in 1580

In 1579 the English circumnavigator Mr. Francis Drake is reaching the sultanate of Ternate visiting the local sultan there (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

Francis Drake
Francis Drake [70]

From 1579 to 1583 the Dutch trader Jan Huyghen is working in Spain bringing information about Spain and Portugal and their colonies to the Netherlands (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).
Jan Huyghen
Jan Huyghen [71]

In 1579 Manila is appointed to be a Spanish diocese (Reinhard, vol.I, p.80).

In 1580 the Portuguese church in Japan is counting 150,000 members already with 200 churches and 65 "pastors" ("patres"). As the Portuguese crown and the Pope are not sending enough money for this big church apparatus this mission is depending on the profits of the trade between Japan and China (Reinhard, vol.I, p.79).

King of Portugal and Spain at the same time in 1580 - Holland is excluded from the spice trade

since 1580: union of Portugal and Spain by marriage - Holland is excluded from the Portuguese spice trade, Dutch search for a direct naval route to India - Dutch piracy against "silver fleets" 1580-1640 - rising speculations about spice trade since 1580 - 1581: colonial empires of Spain and Portugal remaining separated - 1581: Cossacks with the tsar

1580: By marriage Spain and Portugal are performing a union of the two crowns and countries with all colonies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.79). The speculation about the Indian fleet is rising. By the introduction of "Asia" and "Europe" contracts the merchants can be involved for purchasing spices for fixed prices (Reinhard, vol.I, p.96).

[With this the first international stock exchange of goods is beginning...].

The union of the two crowns of Spain and Portugal has consequences for Holland because Phillipp II is deciding a trade embargo against the Netherlands. When there are international merchant groups the Dutch are excluded from the spice trade with Portugal and therefore from a big part of the spice market from Europe. The Dutch policy is reacting beginning searching direct contacts to India for evading the Spanish embargo (Reinhard, vol.I, p.111).

Dutch ideas are that India should also be reachable around Scandinavia in north east direction (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

As another consequence Holland is attacking Spanish Portuguese "silver fleets" for causing more damage on "American" soil to these monopoly powers (DTV, vol.I, p.277).

Example of a
                    Spanish "silver fleet" being attacked
Example of a Spanish "silver fleet" being attacked [72]

1581: Phillipp II, now he is the king of Portugal AND Spain [an Empire "where sun is never going down"...] is assuring before the court of Tomar keeping both colonial empires separate (Reinhard, vol.I, p.79).

Town of Tomar in Portugal
Map of southern Portugal
                            with the position of Tomar in the upper half
                            of the province
Map of southern Portugal with the position of Tomar in the upper half of the province [73]
Tomar, center
Tomar, center [74]
Tomar, fortress cathedral, front
Tomar, fortress cathedral, front view [75]
Tomar, fortress cathedral, back
Tomar, fortress cathedral, back view [76]

Russia: In 1581 a Russian group of Cossacks under Yermak is beginning to serve for the Stroganov Family submitting the Khanate to the tsar (Reinhard, vol.I, p.87).

1580s: Spanish "expansion" on the "Philippines" - Chinese ordered a location for a "China Town" in Manila - Portuguese mission and trade of sandalwood on Timor - first European description of joy of coffee in 1582 - 1583-1592: Jan Huyghen as a merchant in Goa - Japanese propaganda tours in southern Europe 1584-1586

The Spanish are going on expanding their colonial territory on the "Philippines", above all with diplomatic extortions. This method is possible because the population is only organized in familiar networks and does not know any form of state. The main part of Mindanao Island is subdued, also Sulu Islands and Palavan Island (Reinhard, vol.I, p.79).

Map of Mindanao of the
                            "Philippines" and Sulu
Map of Mindanao of the "Philippines" and Sulu archipelago [77]

"Philippines", map
                              with Palavan Island
"Philippines", map with Palavan Island [78]

In the 1580s Chinese merchants on the "Philippines" get the order to accept a location for the construction of a "China Town" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.80).

In the 1580s the Portuguese missioners and sandalwood traders can install themselves on Timor (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

Map with the position of Timor
Map with the position of Timor [79]

In 1582 German traveler of Augsburg Mr. Leonhard Rauwolf is describing "the joy of coffee" the first time (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).
1583-1592: Dutch merchant Jan Huyghen is in Goa (India) working as a clerk of the archbishop of Goa because of the Spanish blockage of the spice trade he is collecting any material about the Portuguese colonies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

From 1584 to 1586 a Japanese mission of Christian daimyos is on a propaganda tour in Portugal, Spain, and Italy (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

German Italian syndicate for investments for the Portuguese fleet in 1585 - since 1585: Italian trading post in Goa - 1585: China research by "Christian" church - 1585-1605: Russian submission of territories of Ob River and Irtysh River

Phillipp II

In 1585 Phillipp II is concluding a treaty with an Italian merchant of Milan, Giovanni Rovellasca. The treaty says that when spices are delivered then investments for the Portuguese fleet are done. In this treaty also German merchant family of Welser is involved with Marcus Welser and Matthäus Welser guaranteeing 5/12 of the complete sum, and also German Fugger family is involved with 3/12 by Phillipp Eduard and Octavian Secundus Fugger. Now a German Italian syndicate is made (Reinhard, vol.I, p.96).

Since 1585 the Italian being part in the German Italian syndicate are building an own trading post in Goa (India). The leader is the substitute of Rovellasca, Mr. Filippo Sassetti, and he is also sending letters with precise descriptions to Italy about India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

In 1585 the Pope Gregor XIII is giving the order to the Spanish traveler Augustineo Juan González de Mendoza to compile all available material about China. González is composing his history book then: "Historia de las cosas más notables, ritos y costumbres del gran Reyno  de la China" ["History of the most noble matters, rites and customs about the big Chinese Empire"] and this becomes a bestseller in Europe then (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

Russia: From 1585 to 1605 the Russian invasion is performed. Russian Cossacks are submitting the territories around Ob River and Irtysh River (Reinhard, vol.I, p.87).

1585: Destruction of Antwerp - since 1585: emigration of merchants from Antwerp to Amsterdam - since 1585: general speculation in Amsterdam with price list every year - the "leading class" and the "rulers" of Amsterdam

In 1585 Antwerp is destroyed a second time, this time by Alexander Farnese. Antwerp cannot be the trade capital for the Dutch area and the northern Dutch are blocking the town by a blockage of the mouth of Schelde River. Thus in 1585 the merchants are emigrating to Amsterdam. The population of Amsterdam is rising from about 30,000 to 105,000 in 1622, and to over 200,000 in 1670. Amsterdam becomes the biggest market for the trade of goods and becomes the biggest leading "capital market" in Europe (Reinhard, vol.I, p.109).

Since 1585 there is a yearly price list in Amsterdam for all goods traded there. In this way the first general produce exchange is installing with it's general speculation in combination with a cash market and a loan market establishing the first stocks. Exchange banks are founded for international transactions which facilitate also an international "investment business" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.109).

In Amsterdam a "leading class" is forming coming from the so called "rulers": these people are shipowners, production plant owners, with influence in the "most important seven provinces" of the federal assembly, the "general states" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.111).

English sailor Cavendish on a Pacific trip in 1586 - first prohibition of Christianity in Japan in 1587 - new Portuguese sub diocese of Funay in 1588 - first Spanish mission in 1592 in Japan - Jan Huyghens returning to Holland in 1592 - 140 Spanish missioners on the "Philippines" and forced relocations - since 1592: war in Malacca and fast rise of prices with pepper - 1592: dissolution of German Italian trading post in Goa - since 1592: Ferdinand Cron on Macao and his profit - 1592: Italian German syndicate for the Portuguese fleet - Timor since 1593 under Portuguese supreme command

In 1586 the second English sailor Cavendish is crossing the Pacific (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).

In 1587 Japanese Emperor Hideyoshi is prohibiting Christianity in Japan, but this can hardly be realized (Reinhard, vol.I, p.84).

Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi [80]
Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi, portrait
Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi, portrait [81]

In 1588 Funay (Japan) is becoming a new Portuguese sub diocese (Reinhard, vol.I, p.66).

In 1591 there are already 140 Spanish missioners on the "Philippines". The population is living in dispersed settlements yet and they are forced to resettle uniting them in "communities" with Spanish rule. In this way partly over 200 new settlements are "created" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.80).

In 1592 a first Spanish mission of the "begging monks" (Franciscans) is opening in Japan. This mission is considered positively by the Japanese government for installing an alternative trade with Manila (Reinhard, vol.I, p.84).

In 1592 the Dutch merchant Jan Huyghens from Goa (India) is returning to the Netherlands. His mission for getting information about the trade routes of the Spanish and the Portuguese seems having ended (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

Since 1592 (until 1600) there is war in Malacca between the coalition of Spain and Portugal against the Dutch and the English. Thus in 1600 almost all pepper deliveries in Lisbon are missing. Thus the pepper price in Europe is rising incredibly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

In the same year of 1592 the trading post of the German Italian syndicate in Goa is dissolved. The German member of Fugger family, Mr. Ferdinand Cron, is making his own way alone. He is achieving a leading role in the business between India and the "Philippines" in Macao by giving loans and information to viceroys. He is making a big fortune with this position (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

Since 1593 Timor has a Portuguese supreme commander. East Timor is under Portuguese colonial administration until the 1980s (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

English sailor Hawkins crossing the Pacific in 1593 - 1595: Mogul Emperor Akbar sieging Biyapur relieving the Portuguese military bases - Dutch "Overseas Trade Society" in 1594 - 1594-1597: Dutch discovery of Novaya Semlya and Spitsbergen - 1595: Manila becoming a Spanish "ecclesial province" - Portuguese "colonization" of Solomon Islands and "Santa Cruz Islands" in 1595 - Dutch ship "Fluyt" in 1995

In 1593 the English sailor Hawkins is appearing on the Pacific (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).

In 1594 Dutch merchants are founding the "Overseas Trade Society" establishing an own trade with India on the well known trade route passing the Cape of Africa (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

From 1594 to 1597 Dutch shipowners of the "Northern Company" are performing tree expeditions looking for a direct way to India around Scandinavia. Thus the Dutch ships are detecting Novaya Semlya and Spitsbergen. The first two expeditions are financed by the government and are finally without any success. The persistent merchants are starting even a third expedition yet but also this is ending without any success (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

In 1595 the Mogul Emperor Akbar is sieging the sultanate of Biyapur in the south of Gujerat, but he is not attacking the little Portuguese forts, but with his attack he is even discharging the town of Diu from the attacks of Gujerat (Reinhard, vol.I, p.63).

Sultanates in Indian during the 16th century

Map of India with the sultanates
                            during the 16th century
Map of India with the sultanates during the 16th century [82]

In the same year of 1595 the Spanish are celebrating on the "Philippines" the foundation of a new ecclesial province of Manila with three suffragans (bishop units) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.80).

And in the same year of 1595 the Portuguese government is permitting to "colonize" Solomon Islands by Mr. Alvaro de Mendana de Neira - because of the Spanish and English competitive pressure (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82). 

Map of Solomon Islands near Australia and New
Map of Solomon Islands near Australia and New Guinea [83]

At the same time the Portuguese expedition is penetrating down to the "Santa Cruz Islands".

Map of the Solomon Islands next to
                            New Guinea
Map of the Solomon Islands next to New Guinea [84]
Map with the Solomon
                            Islands (left), and Santa Cruz Islands
Map with the Solomon Islands (left), and Santa Cruz Islands (right) [85]

But the big "Golden Island" in the west is not detected. The expedition is parting. Supreme steerer Pedro Fernández de Quirós is returning passing the "Philippines" and "America" to Portugal making propaganda for more research trips (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).

And also in 1595 Dutch engineers are inventing a new type of ship with "Fluyt" for mass transports of goods. The advantage is a little crew and the big bellied form thus the surface on deck is kept low because until 1996 the "customs duties" are calculated according to the range of the deck (Reinhard, vol.I, p.109). For trips to India the Dutch as the Portuguese are using several mixed types of ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.109)

A Dutch fluyt
A Dutch fluyt [86]

Travel report by Jan Huyghen about Portugal's colonies in 1595 - Dutch ships in West Java in 1596 - propaganda by Quirós for new search for the "Golden Island in the West" in 1596 - 1596: Christian damnifications in Japan and upheavals - Spanish ideas of conquering China

In 1595 yet the Dutch merchant Jan Huyghen is publishing his travel report about the Portuguese colonies: "Travel report about shipping to the Portuguese colonies" ("Reysgeschrift van de Navigatien der Portugaloysers"). This is the first summary from the important sailing handbooks for India, but also with indications about the tops and the bad things of the Portuguese viceroyalty, and with information about West Java, that there the best pepper is coming from for example, but also cloves and nutmegs should be available there (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

[Therefore now the general counter attack of the Protestants can come against the arrogant Portuguese colonies].

In the same year yet in 1595 four Dutch ships of the "Overseas Trade Society" are starting with 248 men with their first trip to the Cape (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

In 1596 the Dutch ships of the "Overseas Trade Society" are reaching West Java (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

                            with Java Island in the context with Dutch
                            Eastern India, later Indonesia
Map with Java Island in the context with Dutch Eastern India, later Indonesia [87]

In 1596 Portugal's the propaganda of sailor Quirós has a success. Pope Clement VIII is supporting more research action for the "Golden Island in the West" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).

In the same year of 1596 a Spanish captain is running ashore in Japan and is shouting much arrogant statements against the "nonbelievers". Now an unrest is rising against these Spanish war monger bulldogs. But the Spanish desire for more occupations is not headed against Japan but rather against China (Reinhard, vol.I, p.84).

End of 16th century: Protests of "Philippine" natives with effect and rising rice production - since 1597 too high risk for Portuguese pepper treaties - first crucifixions of Christians in Japan in 1597 - since 1597: first direct trade between Holland and India with Java, competition and ideas of monopolies in Holland - 1598: Warning of Cron from Dutch fleet - 1598: travel report of Jahn Huyghens translated into English and German - since 1599: Dutch ships reaching the Moluccas Islands - since 1599: rising pepper price in Lisbon because of wars - glorification in the Portuguese literature

At the end of the 16th century protests of the "Philippine" native population have effect. As the islands are not subdued directly to the Spanish crown but to the government of Mexico-New Spain there is not a big battle and there is no massacre. Rice production can be risen considerably (Reinhard, vol.I, p.80).

Since 1597 the risks for pepper treaties in Portugal connected with the trade with India are too riskful because of Dutch and English fleets. There is a permanent danger of war [on foreign soil...] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

In 1597 Japanese Emperor Hideyoshi in Nagasaki is deciding that the first Christians there have to be crucified: 6 Spanish Franciscans, 17 Japanese Christians and 3 Portuguese Jesuits. But the follower of Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, is stopping the persecution of the Christians again (Reinhard, vol.I, p.84).

Map with
                    the position of Nagasaki at the western end of
                    Kyushu Island, Japan
Map with the position of Nagasaki at the western end of Kyushu Island, Japan [88]

In 1597 the Dutch are celebrating their first directly purchased load of spices from India. From the four ships which had started by the "Overseas Trade Society" and from the 248 men are returning three ships and 89 men. The trade is "prospering", competitive companies are founded against the Portuguese monopoly. Despite of higher losses the "business" is a "good bargain" and the profits are up to 400%. As the demand is rising the spice prices on Java are also rising. Dutch merchants are considering to install an own Dutch monopoly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

In 1598 the travel report of Jan Huyghens about the Portuguese colonies is also edited in German and in English (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

[This is the indirect order to destroy the Portuguese Spanish monopoly on the world].

In 1598 German Fugger family member Mr. Ferdinand Cron is warning the viceroy of Portugal from the starting Dutch fleet - Cron gets this information by his "connections" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

In 1599 Dutch expedition ships are reaching the Banda Islands. Dutch government is prepared for a fight with the Catholic Portuguese (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

Since 1599 the pepper price is rising in Lisbon because of wars in the Indian Ocean and because of failing pepper deliveries. Portugal is sometimes contacting the Turkish government for using the route passing the Red Sea. To the contrary Venice [with it's contacts to the Muslim world] is well provided one ore time (Reinhard, vol.I, p.105).

Portuguese literature is written about the colonial occupations always stressing a "Muslim trickery" and a "drive for wisdom". Critical voices against these actions are existing but the terrorism of the naval forces and the dreadful murdering actions, massacres and mutilations of the natives are never mentioned (Reinhard, vol.I, p.65).

Holland competing Portugal's spice trade

Since 1600: Dutch competition in Goa (India) - 1600: Dutch conquering Amboina - since 1600: doubled pepper production at Malabar Coast  - 1600-1605: Four new Dutch trading posts at the eastern coast of India - 1600: Dutch ships reaching Japan, Adams on Japan - since 1600: "Total war" for spice islands

Since the year 1600 the Portuguese connection to Goa in India gets more and more Dutch competition (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

In 1600 the Dutch are conquering Amboina Island installing a clove trading post there (Reinhard, vol.I, p.117).

Since 1600 the pepper production on the Malabar Coast is doubling (Reinhard, vol.I, p.98).

Map with the coasts of India:
                    the western coast is Malabar coast, the eastern
                    coast is Coromandel coast
Map with the coasts of India: the western coast is Malabar coast, the eastern coast is Coromandel coast [89]

From 1600 to 1605 the Dutch have no access to the western coast of India because of English and Portuguese resistance. But the Dutch strategists can install four trading posts on the eastern coast of India, in Masulipatam, in Nizampatam, in Pulicat, and in Teganapatam (Reinhard, vol.I, p.117).

In 1600 Dutch ships are reaching Japan (Reinhard, vol.I, p.84, 113). The steerer is an Englishman, Mr. William Adams. He is gaining the trust of the shogun [Japanese supreme commander] and is just accepted for a longer time (Reinhard, vol.I, p.84).

Since 1600 the "total war" is developing between Portugal and Spain on one side (Catholics) and the Dutch and the English on the other side (Protestants) for getting or keeping shares with the spice trade. The natives are partly suffering a poisoned mind, they are abused, and partly also killed or sold as slaves (Reinhard, vol.I, p.117).

since 1600 appr.: installation of a Manchu military state in north eastern China - 1600 appr.: Christian orientated south of China - 1st half of 17th century: change of government in China - "America" around 1600: Potosí second but largest town of the world

Since 1600 appr. the "Manchus" are installing a Manchu military state in the north east of China. To the contrary the south of China in 1600 appr. is more Christian orientated under the ruler Zheng Chenggong (also Guo Xingye, in Dutch called: Koxinga). And the south of China is permitting the trade with the European powers and is even speculating with European help (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

In the first half of the 17th century China is also falling in a big crisis. "Ming" Dynasty is crumbling, and there are natural disasters reinforcing the upheavals and rebel groups (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85-86).

"Silver town" of Potosí in South "America" is becoming the second but largest town of the world after London (DTV, vol.I, p.277).

[The many immigrants are hoping for their "luck" by the silver mines, and the holocaust against the natives in the mines is going on].

<<         >>

Photo sources
[1] king John II from Portugal: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_II._(Portugal)
[2] Tordesillas, bridge: http://www.motoclubtordesillas.com/ informacion_tordesillas.htm
[3a] map with the position of Tordesillas: http://www.ezilon.com/maps/europe/spain-maps.html
[3b] map with Tordesillas (Spain) at Duero River: http://www.pueblos-espana.org/castilla+y+leon/ valladolid/tordesillas/
[4] map with Papal Line from June 7, 1494: http://www.bigoid.de/conquista/lexikon/tordesillas.htm
[5] Vasco da Gama: http://www.bbc.net.uk/history/historic_figures/gama_vasco_da.shtml

[6] map with the positino of Calicut: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Calicut.shtml
[7] dwellers at the beach of Calicut / Kozhikode: http://robert-zeller.com/images/India-2003/Mysore/images.html
[8] sunset in Calicut / Kozhikode: http://www.calicut-kozhikode.indianvisit.com/about-calicut.html

Portugal as first "Christian" colonial power
[9] Portugal: king Manuel I: http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/royal5a.htm
[10] Pedro Álvares Cabral: www.superlegendas.com.br/valcir/pedro_alvares_cabral.htm
[11] Cabral on a Portuguese bank note: http://www.bportugal.pt/bnotes/types/1000/1000_p.htm

[12] India: map with the position of the state of Kerala: http://www.vacationpackages-india.com/cochin-tours.htm
[13] South India: map of the western coast line of India with Cannanore / Kannur: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Cannanore.shtm
[14] map with the slave island Sao Tomé: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_ST.aspx
[15] caravel ship, copy: http://www.vermietung.beroli.de/html/aktivitaten.html
[16] Galeon ship, model: http://www.sell-it-easy.de/shop_d/index.php?cp_sid=118966cb6c8e&cp_tpl=5501
[17] pepper corns: school TV: spices making history (Gewürze machen Geschichte): SWR: http://www.wissen.swr.de/sf/begleit/ bg0059/gg02b.htm
[18] pepper harvest on a pepper plant: http://www.indienerlebnis.de/g06/08/bpa05.html
[19] scurvy: http://www.bam-international.com/bam/homepage/ag/Patologias__Escorbuto.html

[20] map with Malacca peninsula: http://www.oldmapsbooks.com/MapPage/MapPages589xx/58991java.htm
[21] Malacca, house: http://www.malaysiasite.nl/malakkaeng.htm
[22] Malacca, elephant as a seal: http://www.malaysiasite.nl/malakkaeng.htm
[23] Malacca, rickshaw: http://www.malaysiasite.nl/malakkaeng.htm

[24] map with Sofala province of Mozambique: http://atlas.bestpricetravel.de/mosambik-karte.php
[25] map of Africa with Mozambique: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/ current_time_in_MZ.aspx

Tansania, Kilwa
[26] map of Africa with Tansania:http://www.worldtimeserver.com/ current_time_in_TZ.aspx
[27] fortress of Kilva on a stamp: http://www.cham.asso.fr/pages_site/ p_tanzanie_gb.php
[28] map of the coast line of Tansania with Kilva: http://geology.com/world/tanzania-satellite-image.shtml
[29] Kilva at the coast line of today's Tansania, detailed map: http://african-sky.com/activities/mapkilwa.html

[30] mapa with Mombasa, Kenia: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Mombasa.shtml

Sea routes and sea currents and sea winds
[31] map with sea routes from Lisbon to India: Goa and Cochin:
[32] map with an example of a sailor's route from Lisbon to India, Calicut, and Bombay (Mumbai):

[33] Affonso de Albuquerque: http://www.iolaire.co.uk/heads/

Socotra Island
[34] ma with Socotra Island at the "Horn of Africa" near Somalia: http://www.i-cias.com/e.o/socotra.htm
[35] Socotra, Wadi, river with palm trees: http://www.i-cias.com/e.o/socotra.htm
[36] Socotra, center square: http://asmialy.republika.pl/sokotra.htm

[37] map with trade locations at the Persian Gulf and at the Strait of Hormuz: http://www.dataxinfo.com/hormuz/intro.htm

India: sultanate of Gujarat
[38] map of Inida with the sultanate of Gujerat / Gujarat: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/File:India-GUJARAT.svg
[39] map with the town of Diu in the Indian sultanate of Gujerat / Gujarat: http://www.gesundheit-energie.ch/bea.peter/Routen/Route%205%20.htm
[40] map of India with sultanates in the 16th century: http://www215.pair.com/sacoins/images/maps/deccan_16thc.gif

Moluccas Islands
[41] map of Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands Ternate, Tidore, Seram / Ceram and Ambon: http://www.elaput.com/talbvlbs.htm
[42] map of Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands: Ternate and Tidore: http://www.elaput.com/talbvlbs.htm
[43] map of Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands: Little Amboina / Amboyna Island: http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/map24-nd.html

[44] mapwith Madeira Island in front of Africa: http://www.swr.de/kaffee-oder-tee/reise/2003/10/15
[45] map of trade towns on the Persian Gulf: http://www.dataxinfo.com/hormuz/intro.htm

[46] map with the route of Magellan: http://www.oepfu.ch/australien/history/00_01.htm
[47] Magellan, portrait: http://www.spiele-truhe.de/html/ besprechungen/magellan.html

Franz against Karl
[48] king Franz I of France: http://www.bundtschuh.de/Knechte.html
[49] Emperor Charles V, picture of Tizian: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_V._%28HRR%29

Gamellan Strait
[50] map wit Gamellan Strait: http://biblio.unibe.ch/stub/ryhiner/images/400/7907/Ryh_7907_7_A.jpg
[51] hills of Patagonia: http://wwwhephy.oeaw.ac.at/kraml/patagonia/welcome.html
[52] pinguins of Patagonia: http://wwwhephy.oeaw.ac.at/kraml/patagonia/welcome.html
[53] glaciers at the sea in Patagonia: http://www.condorjourneys-adventures.com/chile_mare_australis.asp

[54] robbery and trade of gold and silver at around 1520 (scheme by Michael Palomino): Reinhard, vol. II, p.101

Cebu and the killing of Magellan
[55] map with the position of Cebu Island: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cebu
[56] map of Cebu and Mactan: http://www.travelsmart.net/ph/Diving_Sites/Cebu-Mactan_Sitemap.htm
[57] Lapu-Lapu: http://www.eskrima-rotterdam.nl/html/docepares.htm

[58] Luzon with rice terraces: http://www.vivien-und-erhard.de/reise/Philippinen/nordluzon.htm

Olinda, Brazil
[59] map with the position of Olinda next to Recife: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/south_america/brazil/
[60] bay of Olinda: http://www.brasil-exterior.com/englisch/htm/Recife.htm
[61] house row in Olinda: http://www.adwbrasil.com.br/ english/recife.html
[62] women at carneval of Olinda: http://www.truenet.com.br/olinda-on-line/ portugues/normal/sabado/tvsab6.html
[63] men with trombones at Olinda carneval: http://www.truenet.com.br/olinda-on-line/portugues/normal/domingo/tvdom13.html

Natives of Brazil
[64] native of Brazil: http://www.comciencia.br/ reportagens/501anos/br16.htm
[65] native girl of Brazil: http://freeweb.supereva.com/ mensageiro.freeweb/n114/ospovos.htm?p
[66] native with bow and arrow during hunting: http://www.nord-brasil.com/9801.html?* session*id*key*=*session*id*val*
[67] natives of Brazil in hammocks: http://www.kulli.info/regenwald/zuruaha.htm

[68] Mogul Emperor Akbar: http://www.webindia123.com/history/MEDIEVAL/mughal%20period/mughal2.htm
[69] territory of Akbar in India and the extentions: http://www.webindia123.com/history/MEDIEVAL/mughal%20period/mughal2.htm

[70] Francis Drake: http://www.sosuanieuws.com/

[71] Jan Huyghen: http://www.linschoten-vereeniging.nl/1.html

[72] Spanish "silver fleet" being attacked: http://www.payer.de/bolivien2/bolivien0206.htm

Tomar (Portugal), court town for Phillipp II, 1581
[73] map with the position of Tomar: http://www.dee.estt.ipt.pt/jornadas_dee/informacoes.html
[74] center of Tomar: http://www.lefdal.cc/2003/Portugal2/index.php
[75] Tomar cathedral:: http://dejwy.net/cesty_sp.html
[76] Tomar cathedral, view from behind: http://www.kathi-und-peter.at/reisen/portugal/ port-gallery/pages/073-tomar.htm

[77] map of the "Phillippines" with Mindanao and Sulu archipelago: http://www.drgeorgepc.com/Tsunami1976Phillipines.html
[78] "Phillippines": map with Palavan Island: http://www.proel.org/mundo/palawan.htm

[79] map wit positino of Timor Island: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_TL.aspx

[80] Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi: http://www.japan-zone.com/omnibus/history1.shtml
[81] Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi, portrait: http://www.pauline.or.jp/history/e-history03.html

[82] map of sultanate of India during the 16th century: http://www215.pair.com/sacoins/images/maps/deccan_16thc.gif
[83] map with Solomon Islands near Australia: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_SB.aspx
[84] map with Solomon Islands next to New Guinee: http://www.asia.microsoft.com/games/combatfs2/map_santacruzislands.asp
[85] map with Solomon Islands and Santa Cruz Islands:
[86] a Dutch fluyt ship: http://www.malhatlantica.pt/mediateca/economia1600.htm

[87] map with Java Island in Dutch East India: http://www.blogigo.de/pisa/2004021

[88] map with Nagasaki on Kyushu Island, Japan: http://wwww.alexquinn.org/nihon/nagasaki.html

Dutch colonialism of V.O.C.
[89] ma with India's coast lines Malabar and Coromandel Coast: http://www.inde-en-ligne.com/geographie.htm