The chronology presented here shows the beginning colonialism with Vikings up to Columbus, with Marco Polo' China trip, with compensative Portuguese seafaring along the African coast line to India and Spanish competition. This chronology also gives a comprising view about the supposed reasons for colonialism, about expansion policy, about exchange trade and about robbery as a mean against crises in Europe.
Arab colonialism is happening at the same time down to the "Philippines" and Molucca Islands.
Add to this some world maps are shown demonstrating the European idea of the world of these times.
About Marco Polo there are some scientific indications that his trip was not true because in his descriptions of hit trip some impossibilities could be found. All in all European history does not change much when Marco Polo's trip has not happened. Only Italian pride is reduced a little bit.
1998 / October 2003 / April 2005 / December 2005 / May 2007 / 2009, translation in 2012
Reinhard, Wolfgang: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion.
- Bd.I: Die Alte Welt bis 1818. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Köln/Mainz 1983
- Bd.II: Die Neue Welt. Verlag W.Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln, Mainz. Verlagsort: Stuttgart, 1985
Huby, Felix. Traumreisen; Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker. Deutscher Bücherbund GmbH, Stuttgart, Hamburg, München, 1980
about Columbus: Internet: H.Mückler: Kolumbus, Christoph:
about Philippines: Internet: Payer, Margarete: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen
Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library
maps: Seibold, Jim: Cartographic Images: The Late Medieval Maps 1300-1500
4. Italian colonialism during "High Middle Ages" - pestilence in Europe and persecution of the Jews - Portugal's Africa expeditions - "Philippines" are Hindu and Muslim - economic crises in Portugal - Italy gets spices' monopoly in the Mediterranean - civil war in Spain, war between Portugal, Spain and France
5. First Portuguese colonies in Africa - wars within Italy - Medici and "fostering of art" - beginning of European slavery in Portuguese colonies in 1441 - Islam on Banda Islands - first European world maps
6. Spanish fleet competing Portugal's sea power - thesis from Florence for a direct seaway to India - sultanate Sulu on the "Philippines" - Islam on Banda Islands - Spain occupying the Canary Islands - Portugal with new currency "Cruzado" - Portugal's gold trade with Africa - Italy's culmination point with Oriental commerce
7. Portugal occupying Muslim towns in Africa - Portugal's gold robbery in Ghana - Spain and Portugal making war against each other by war of heritage - foundation of sultanate of "Mindanao" on the "Philippines" - thesis of Columbus: "way west" to India - Spain with inquisition since 1478 - in 1479 treaty of Alcáçovas: Spain is not permitted in Africa - Portugal's gold from Sudan
8. "Rise" of Fugger family - Earth is "round" - Columbus with dreams for India - "Casa de India" of Portugal - Papal "bull against witchcraft" in 1484 - Columbus making propaganda for a "west way" at the Spanish king - Portugal drawing the African coast line - "Cape of Storms", then "Cape of Good Hope"
9. Islam on Spice Islands in 1490 - first trip to India by Portugal - Portugal swimming in African gold - Spanish crown giving permission for "est way" to India - Granada 1492 occupied by Spain, expulsion of Jews and Moors - Columbus' expedition reaching Caribbean Sea
Italian colonialism during the "High Middle Ages" - pestilence in Europe and persecution of the Jews - Portugal's Africa expeditions - "Philippines" are Hindu ans Muslim - economic crises in Portugal - Italy gets spices' monopoly in the Mediterranean - civil war in Spain, war between Portugal, Spain and France
Supplement: "Christian" defeat in the "Holy Land" - "Christian" will for fighting and colonialism
The definite defeat of the "Christians" in the "Holy Land" and the retreat of the "Christian" institutions from the "Holy Land" are the reason for the royals in Italy, Spain and Portugal installing a new will for fighting and keeping on with world war against Muslim world - not important how corrupt and how defrauding the "Christians" were in the "Holy Land".
There is for example a website about potato history describing this in the following way (from: www.kartoffel-geschichte.de):
<The occupants of the New World wanted to create a new home - with the lance. They had been educated with the story that occupations were something normal, that endless fight (and at the end a victory) with the Muslims would go on and on. There was a not written law that a Hidalgo had to fight for the loan of his own family and for his fortune. Normal work at home was not without honor, and craftsmen were well paid in Spain. But a royal who wanted to be something special working and not fighting showed that he had no courage winning his loan and fortune in a more dangerous way. The occupants, the children of twenty fighting generations, meant that there would be a duty to conquer the New World. And add to this the men called "non believers" had to be admitted in the flock of Christ - living or dead.> [web02]
[This is the principle of general "Christian" missionary terrorism on the whole world].
Italian expedition under the Vivaldi brothers
with two terrorist Franciscan monks on board (Huby, p.23).
Strong increase of goods in Middle and North European commerce - resulting in financial crises in Europe
[Commerce with the Orient provoked that many goods came in and money was flowing to the Orient], resulting in a financial crises in Europe, already before Marco Polo's death. And there was more and more money fluctuation in gold and silver. And therefore there was a big "trade deficit" in Europe.
European merchants have more and more the idea for new occupations or looking for new gold resources (Huby, p.22).
During the "High Middle Ages" Mediterranean commerce was developed with "Italian commercial sense, initiative and capital" - and Italian slavery was broadened
Italian ships are attacking also territories at the Atlantic shore.
Add to this the powerful towns, above all Genoa, are erecting new commercial bases and sugar plantation colonies
-- on the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Chios
-- in the Black Sea.
->> these Italian colonies and slave plantations were the models for the latter Portuguese and Spanish colonies (Reinhard, vol. II, p.38)
->> also in the south of Iberian Peninsula slave plantations are installed
->> later the slave plantage system is transferred also to the Atlantic island of São Tomé, and then also copied in Brazil and in "Western India" (Reinhard, vol. II, p.39).
The cause for seafaring passing the Atlantic: disagreement against Muslim countries
In Europe the powers are quarreling and there is no unity. Therefore a coalition against Muslim states is not possible, and the land route to India remains shut. The products from the Orient like cloves, ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg and pepper, but also plants for colors remain with high prices. Add to this there are pure luxury articles like jewels, weaving work, damask, brocade and silk. Arab world is continuing making profits and European trade deficit remains high (Huby, p.21).
[Elimination of the crusader states in the "Holy Land"
The "Christian" bases in Middle East are eliminated
-- because of disloyalty of the "Christians" among themselves
-- because of "Christian" occupation habits, monopolism and discrimination of other believes
-- because of slavery, faked coins, weapon deals to the Muslims
-- because of a wrong coalition policy provoked by the inner quarrels].
After 1291 after the defeat of Accon the European states are going blocking any further waste of force and money against Islam. Therefore European merchants are looking for other seaways for a direct sea passage to India evading the Muslim custom tax. Portugal is the first state beginning with this venture (Huby, p.21).
At the same time capital and government policies are concentrated supporting the over sea's commerce
The innovations in commerce and finance allow more and more long trips. The mercantile society is characterized by a kind of political coalition between the central government and the commercial class. Government are supporting Europeans expanding their markets also to other countries and also developing overseas activities.
This kind of governing is installing an economy policy supporting overseas commerce and the commercial class. By such a policy it's hardly possible to resist to an expansion.
(see in the Internet: http://web.history.ufl.edu/west1/expan.htm (1998)
Italian sailors are serving for Portugal
Portugal is fostering a "Genoen sailor's colony" in his country. Italian sailors are managing the seafaring for Portugal (Reinhard, vol. II, p.39).
[This is the case because Portugal has got the coast with the Atlantic, but the Italians have got the maps which were an absolute secret in these times yet...]
Death of Polo
14. / 15. Jh.
"Philippines": influence of Indonesian Majapahit empire and tribute to China
-- Hinduist Indonesian Majapahit empire is enlarging step by step it's influence
-- Philippine tribal chiefs have are dependent on to Chinese Ming empire with tributes [web01].
Pestilence in Europe - ivory from Africa - "Greenland" remaining without population
[Pestilence is generally explained by terrorist "Christian" church as a punishment of God. Medicine of these times cannot prove anything of the cause, so the Jewish population is blamed for it and as a consequence of their stupidity the terrorist "Christian" mob is organizing many expulsions of the Jews whereas also many Jews are falling ill and are dying by pestilence. The cause is an agent transmitted by flees on rats. The rats came with Italian freighters from Crimea, and].
Norway and Iceland are hit severly by pestilence, with heavy consequences on commerce with Iceland and "Greenland". Add to this, after the Portuguese opening of commercial routes with Africa the demand for Nordic ivory is going back drastically because African ivory is cheaper in the European market. That's why "Greenland" is beginning with a depopulation movement (Huby, p.37).
The "Little Ice Age" provokes one famine after the other in Europe, so the immune systems of men are very weak. Since the introduction of potatoes in 1530 the populations get stronger immune systems and pestilence is less.
Map with pestilence spreading in Europe coming from Italian trade ships from Crimea 
Add to this people surviving pestilence is getting rich by "heritage", as the website of potato history is reporting (www.kartoffel-geschcihte.de):
<Between 1350 and 1550 Europe had a period of relative wealth; the real wages were as high as never in these times, and this is provoked by the depopulation movement provoked by pestilence. In the towns wealth is provoked by happy heirs provoking a strong demand for luxury products, but also among the craftsmen pestilence had made it's action, and therefore the prices and the wages were rising, and therefore also the power and the influence of the guilds.> [web02]Question: why Portugal?
Since the crusades Portugal is intermediary base for Italian sea trade enterprises performing sea trade between Mediterranean and Flanders and England. Italian merchants are working in Portugal, and in 1317 king Dinis is naming Emanuele Pessagno (Manuel Pessanha) as his admiral as a signal of collaboration. All in all the admiral's title is bequested five times to members of this family (Huby, p.38).
King Dinis of Portugal 
First Portuguese expeditions at the African coast line - Canary Islands and Madeira
Canary Islands were known to the sailors of Carthago already. In 1312 these islands are rediscoverd by the Genoese sailor Lancellotto Malocello. From him comes the name of one island "Lanzarote". In a diary of an anonymous Franciscan ["Christian" terrorist], the book "Libro del Conoscimiento de todos reynos" ["Book about the knowledge of all kingdoms"] all islands are listed: Canary Islands, Madeira, Lanzarote, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, Ferro, Puerto Santo etc. (Huby, p.38).
In 14th century the Portuguese finance administrator (feitor) is in today's Belgium in Bruges. He is the boss of the Portuguese colonies and agent of royal economy at the same time (Huby, p.90).
from 1380 on
"Philippines": intruding Islam coming from Borneo in 1381
and the first Muslim Sufis are installed on Sulu Island [web01]
Milan wants more power and Milan's wars are splitting Italy
Giangaleazzo is enlarging the state of Milan with the aim for being king of Italy. There is the project to conquer the whole Italian peninsula. There are fights with Venice, Florence and Naples (DTV History Atlas vol. 1, p.217).
Portugal's economic crises since 1383
High trace deficit with Muslim states is compensated by a bad coin production. This provokes an inflation and therefore is a search for new gold resources for more gold coin production. The king has in project to enforce the trade with Africa, with the gold country of "Wangara", with the today's upper Niger (Bambuk), Senegal and with upper Volta (Lobi). Also a "quiet trade" (intermediate trade and commerce with common deposit) should be enforced in Mali which stands under the rule of Mansa Mussa.
Map of commercial relations between Portugal and Africa 
Only Jewish merchants can mediate the commerce between the enemy parties of Muslims and Christians [both terrorists against Human Rights], because the two big parties want both to keep secret their trade networks. What is the merchandise? Above all gold, but also ivory and slaves (Huby, p.40). Add to this the fishing grounds before Africa are very attractive and there should be searched also for new plantation territories and for slaves for sugar plantations on the islands before Africa (Huby, p.41).
Financial crises in Portugal and Spain
Because of the wars of recovery (reconquista) against Muslims the financial situation on Iberian Peninsula is very harsh during the Late Middle Ages. War and civil war in Spain and in Portugal are financed by inflationary bad coin production provoking a financial chaos (Reinhard, vol. II, p.48).
Spanish coin reform is a success
but because of the heritage wars and because of the wars with the Muslims the financial situation of the state's treasury is harsh (Reinhard, vol. II, p.49).
Prince Henry the "Navigator" (1385-1433)
The son of king John I of Portugal, Henry, is born in this time. The powers of the Middle Ages, England, France, and Castile, are quarreling in that time in a "Hundred Year's War". Prince Henry and his father are working directly against the Islamic Africa, first against the neighboring state of Morocco (Reinhard, vol. II, p.28).
"Henry the navigator"
Statue of Henry the "Navigator" in Lagos 
Henry the "Navigator", portrait 
Beginning of 15th century
From 1405 to 1417 Chinese ships reach Manila. In 1417 a tribute and trade commission from Sulu is visiting Beijing [web01].
Italy has got the spice monopoly for whole Europe
Italian monopolists are going on with their spice trade collaborating with Arab commercial partners in Beirut. Venetian spice monopoly is going on existing (Huby, p.104).
Since 1420 the buying price for spices in Beirut is sinking because the sultan is exchanging Jeddah with Aden and therefore the traffic in the Red Sea is safer (Huby, p.104).
Alternative researches for a water way to India
Asian world has established in European world with spices and fabrics since 200 years now. Land way is dangerous yet, and therefore the ware can be sold for a very high price.
Europe's capitalists and royal houses are dreaming of a water way for cheap transportation and higher quantities per delivery. The intelligence knows that the world is round and it should be possible to reach Asia also on the western way. The key question only is the distance [web03].
Installation of the first banking system in Europe
European trade companies are that rich that they can found the first merchant banks. Bank locations are created in Genoa, Florence (Bardi, Strozzi a.o.), in Augsburg (Wels house) and in Antwerp.
Home worker are working with the raw materials with lent instruments. The products are resold by the "editor".
The export enterprise of the bank house is managing the big commerce (textiles, metal works). Often the big capitalists are seeking for a monopoly, which also gives political influence. In other states the state itself is representative of the monopoly (DTV History Atlas, vol. 1, p.215).
Italian wars: Florence defeating Pisa
(DTV History Atlas, vol. 1, p.217).
War between Florence and Milan: change of power in Florence
In this war with Milan the Florence family of Albizzi is loosing it's power to the Medici family (DTV History Atlas, vol. 1, p.217).
Emblem of Medici family 
Last proved visits of colonialists on Iceland
(Reinhard, vol.II, p.38).
First Portuguese colonies in Africa - wars within Italy - Medici and "fostering of art" - beginning of European slavery in Portuguese colonies in 1441 - Islam on Banda Islands - first European wold maps
Portugal's army conquering Ceuta
Ceuta is strategic bridgehead for Portugal's next expansion to Africa. Portugal was before Spain with that step. Ceuta is the base for the protection of the own and of the Italian trade and at the same time it's the beginning of the fight against Muslim trade competition. Add to this Ceuta is final station of the caravan path and therefore there is also the control of caravan trade. The three ambitious princes Duarte, Pedro and Henry who have performed this occupation are given the knighthood (Huby, p.39).
Caravan path is changing and not going to Ceuta any more (Huby, p.41).
Madeira becomes Portuguese - trial to conquer Canary Islands - the Guanches
From 1418 to 1425 the empty island of Madeira is taken by Portuguese forces and is populated. The trial to conquer Gran Canaria Island is failing because of resistance of the natives, the Guanches (Huby, p.41).
Map of Portugal with Canary islands 
1427: Azores, 1434: Cape Bojador
In 1427 the Portuguese ["Christian" terrorist] sailors are conquering the Azores. In 1434 Portuguese ships can overcome Cape Bojador invading southern territories. This is above all a psychological step because there was the rumor widely spread that Earth would not be habitable there any more because of heat and sea currents and there was the rumor that the sea water would be hot (Huby, p.41).
In the same year Portugal is reintroducing gold currency again (Huby, p.45).
Egoist motivation of Henry the "Navigator" in the name of ["Christian" terrorist] church
Well informed Portuguese royal chronicler Azurara at royal court of John II is listing the motives for the will of invasion of prince Henry:
-- he serves for God and for the king and wants to win more reputation winning against the Muslims and making new discoveries
-- he wants to find new "Christian" trade partners
-- he wants to spy the Muslim governmental circles
-- he wants to find "Christian" partners in the back of the Muslims for a common fight against the Muslims (Huby, p.41)
-- he wants to spread "Christian" [terrorist] belief "saving" souls
-- add to this Henry the "Navigator" beliefs in horoscopes because he would be determined to be a successful conquerer (Huby, p.42).
Two world maps of "Christian" culture from about 1430 / 1432
World map by Borgia (1410-1458), of 1430 appr. ; engraving on iron plate. The North is down, South with Africa is in the upper part of the map.
World map by Andrea Bianco of 1432 . The East is in the upper part, Mediterranean Sea is draining downwards.
Medici in Florence
The trade family becomes rich by Orient trade and by the monopoly of alum. Giovanni Medici is founding the biggest European banking and trade house "Medici" giving work with about 300 enterprises to 10,000 workers (DTV History Atlas, vol.1, p.215).
Medici fortress with round tower ("maschio"), Volterra 
Only now comes the acknowledgment for Marco PoloMore than 100 years after the death of Marco Polo there is the confirmation of his trip by many other travelers and the report of Marco Polo's China trip is rated believable and well accepted that China has got a higher culture than Europe. Marco Polo is even recognized as a "searcher" whereas he only was a merchant and a good observer (Huby, p.39).
Government in Florence: support of trade, and academy foundations
1434-1464: Cosimo the Old is "father of the fatherland" governing in a monarch way in republic shapes. He es fostering Petrarca and Boccaccio (DTV History Atlas, vol.1, p.215).
Giovanni Boccaccio, portrait,
Italian writer, poet and humanist 
Francesco Petrarca, portrait, Italian humanist and poet 
Cosimo de Medici, called "the old" ("il Vecchio") 
Foundation of "Platonic Academy" in Florence
given by Cosimo the Old (DTV History Atlas, vol.1, p.215).
Portuguese slavery - monopolized slavery
In the territory of Gold River (Rio de Oro) ["Christian" terrorist] Henry the "Navigator" is organizing his first "catching of slaves". In 1443 his brother and governor, Peter, is giving to Henry the "Navigator" the monopoly for trips south of Cape Bojador. Portugal's ships are developing a "slave hunt". Blacks are catched as "people without God" and are sent to Portugal as "house slaves" in "Christian services". Azurara is not mentioning plantation slavery. He is writing in 1444:
"At the end this was pleasing to God, the rewarder of good deeds giving a victory day for all the work which was done, with fame for all the efforts and as a compensation for the costs, because men, women and children were catched, 165 all in all, next to them who died or were killed." (Huby, p.42)
"Endlich gefiel es Gott, dem Belohner guter Taten, ihnen für die mannigfachen in seinem Dienst erlittenen Drangsal einen siegreichen Tag, Ruhm für ihre Mühen und Ersatz für ihre Kosten zu gewähren, denn an Männern, Frauen und Kindern wurden zusammen 165 Stück gefangen, neben denen, die umkamen oder getötet wurden." (Huby, S.42)
Expansion of Portuguese monopoly
Portuguese monopoly is expanded to Canary Islands (Huby, p.42). In the meantime the Africa trips are that profitable so 2/3 of the needed capital comes from foreign sources from Italian and from Jewish merchants (Huby, p.43). As a consequence the Portuguese conquerers try other attacks for an occupation of Canary Islands (Huby, p.42).
"Mendicants" (Begging monks) have no chance against slavery - racism by colonizers
With occupations in Africa and more extreme in "America" later begins the fight about slavery which should last hundreds of years up to 19th century.
["Christian" psycho terrorist] Mendicants partly protect the dwellers from the ["Christian" war terrorist] slave hunters, and ["Christian" psycho terrorist] mendicants give equal rights to anybody, writes for example the Spanish chronicler Lopez de Gómara:
"Humans come all from Adam, only the skin color is different, and culture and customs are different." [But they all should be "christianized" at the end].
"Die Menschen sind, abgesehen von der Hautfarbe, wie wir und stammen von Adam ab, wenn sie auch in Gesittung und Sitten unterschieden sind.")
Arguments of ["Christian" terrorist] colonialists and ["Christian" terrorist] capitalists:
-- men of other colors would be barbarian [but "Christ" is the barbarian with his wars killing and enslaving the others]
-- men of other colors would be untalented beings without reason [but it was the "Christ" searching for Oriental goods and luxury goods]
-- slavery would convert non-believers to Christians "transferring" them into a higher civilization (Huby, p.23).
->> and this barbaric view [of the "Christian" terrorist] against natives is dominating at the end
->> Europeans are developing world knowledge, but they are not taught in world wide responsibility in European and white colonial school systems (Huby, p.23)
[and therefore the whole white population of the world is taught against the population of other colors in a racism. Europe is converted into a "Christian" terrorist continent].
1448: World map by Andreas Walsperger
World map of Andreas Walsperger of 1448 : North with Europe is in the lower part, South with Africa and Asia are in the upper part
Spanish fleet competing Portugal's sea power - thesis from Florence for a direct seaway to India - sultanate Sulu on the "Philippines" - Islam on Banda Islands - Spain occupying the Canary Islands - Portugal with new currency "Cruzado" - Portugal's gold trade with Africa - Italy's culmination point with Oriental commerce
Spanish ships getting more and more competitive for Portugal - ["Christian" terrorist] Pope calling for crusades
In 1449 the king of Spain takes the resolution to give the monopoly for sea trips to Cape Bojador to his duke of Medina, Sidonia. The Portuguese are protesting at the ["Christian" terrorist] Pope. This Pope is indicating in 1452 in a Papal bull "Dum diversas" a general monopoly for ["Christian" terrorist] crusader states (Huby, p.43).
at about 1450
Change of power in Milan
During the fights with Venice, Florence and Naples Condottiere Francesco Sforza is taking the power (DTV History Atlas, vol.1, p.217).
Francesco Sforza, founder of Sforza dynasty in Milan 
Portugal: birth of Bartholomeo Diaz
who will reach "Cape of Storms" / "Cape of Good Hope" first [web04].
from 1450 on appr.
Search for the seaway to India: thesis comes from Florence that there would be a direct seaway
Since a long time ago there is a wisdom in the well educated social classes in the Mediterranean describing Earth as a ball. In Italy an in the center Florence at that time, the mercantile interested humanists are interested for a way westward to India trying informing and influencing Portuguese ventures in this way, but without success (Reinhard, vol. II, p.39).
There are two main errors of the Florentine mercantile humanists:
-- they overestimate the extension of Asia
-- and they underestimate the circumference of the earth.
For example Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, an essential representative of Florentine group is describing the distance between Portugal and Japan with 3,000 today's sea miles (Reinhard, vol. II, p.39).
Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli 
"Philippines": Foundation of Muslim sultanate of Sulu
by sultan Sharif-ul-Hashim Abubakr from Palembang [web01].
Extension of Islam on Banda Islands 1450
Banda Islands (also called Molucca Islands) where nutmeg and nutmeg flowers are growing, are "missioned" by Islam. Sultanates are installed (Huby, p.70).
[Normally this Islam terrorism is a discrimination terrorism].
Birth of Christopher Columbus
in Genoa. He is a son of a Ligurian weaver's family (Reinhard vol. II, p.38). His father is wool weaver in Genoa [web03].
Islamic occupation of Constantinople - Portuguese military buildup and occupation program
In 1453 Constantinople is falling to Islam troops. Empire of Byzantium is eliminated of the map.
[This elimination of Byzantium is because nobody helped Byzantium but it was only corrupt and lazy and "Christian" terrorist kings in Central Europe fought themselves instead of helping Byzantium. Muslims were not this stupid and snapped at this chance getting the Dardanelles blocking also the access to the Black Sea and to the Silk Road. "Christian" terrorist leaders take this fall of Byzantium as a reason for world wide war terrorism, called "colonialism". The difference to Islam is only that Islam is mainly working with corruption and discrimination].
The Pope is calling to the "Christian states" for new crusades. King Alfonso V of Portugal is reacting with an armament program, but it's not only an armament program but it's a real conquest program (Reinhard, vol. I, p.43,45).
[That means that "Christian" war terrorism is executed now absolutely by war, mass killings and slavery in all the world occupying all possible territory against discriminating terrorism of Islam].
King Alfonso V of Portugal 
Spain conquering Canary Islands - Pope supporting the Portuguese monopoly around Africa with two "bulls" in 1455 and 1456
Competing Spanish ships are conquering Canary Islands and can expel the Portuguese from the islands (Reinhard, vol. I, p.42).
The ["Christian" terrorist] Popes Nicolas V and Calixtus III are now defending absolutely the Portuguese societies and the beginning armament of Alfonso V.
In 1455 ["Christian" terrorist] Pope is presenting the bull "Romanus Pontifex" authorizing ["Christian" terrorist] King John II and ["Christian" terrorist] Prince Henry the "Navigator" of Portugal with the fighting and submission and enslavement of all Muslims and "non believers" on African shores where Portuguese are shipping. All other princes and emperors on the world are forbidden to fight in the sea around Africa, nor fishing or commerce or occupations are allowed for the other powers.
As penalty is foreseen an excommunication for individuals and an interdict for collectives. An amnesty should be possible only after a agreement with the Portuguese crown (Huby, p.43).
In a second bull of 1456 "Inter cetera" the ["Christian" terrorist] Pope is deciding that the Portuguese Christian Order of 1318 under leadership of ["Christian" terrorist] Henry the "Navigator" will have all bishop rights in all Portuguese occupied territories. With this bull, Portuguese imperialism is approved materially and mentally (Huby, p.43).
Portugal: The new currency "Cruzado" - 1460: death of ["Christian" terrorist] Henry the "Navigator" - Portuguese fortresses down to Sierra Leone
After getting the ["Christian" terrorist] Papal bull with approving imperialism, Portugal can introduce the new gold currency "Cruzado" (English: "crossed"). "Gold mining" in Africa seems to be sure enough. The name of the currency is the program for more crusades against [corrupt and discriminating] Islam (Huby, p.43,45).
In the year when ["Christian" terrorist] Henry the "Navigator" is dying, he is leaving the world with a chain of Portuguese fortresses and bases down to Sierra Leone (Huby, p.45).
from about 1460 on
Christopher Columbus is with fisher boats
Columbus is on the sea as a little boy already (Huby, p.53). Christopher and his younger brother Bartholomeo only have few or no schooling at all. Instead of this they have to perform children's work with the father and have to comb raw wool [web03].
from about 1465 on
Portugal: Bartolomeo Diaz in gold trade in Africa - "flowering" Italy by monopolized Orient trade
As a youth Diaz is beginning with dangerous gold and ivory trade along the African gold coast and his career is going on being a captain at the end.
Bartolomeo Diaz 
At this time Italian towns get rich without end by commerce with India and Far East. Portugal and other European nations are anxious for getting a part of this commerce. Therefore one has to circuit Africa or one has to look for a way west... [web04]
["Christian" terrorist Catholic Italy did not want to share any profits...]
Government of Lorenzo il Magnifico in Florence
Lorenzo il Magnifico ("the bright") was significant as a statesman. He had a balanced Italian peace policy leading Florence to a great flourishing culture. At his court are working Renaissance artists like Botticelli and Michelangelo (DTV History Atlas, vol. 1, p.215).
Florence under Lorenzo de Medici il Magnifico
Lorenzo de Medici il Magnifico 
Botticelli portrait 
Botticelli: spring dance 
Michelangelo Buonarroti, bust 
Portugal occupying Muslim towns in Africa - Portugal's gold robbery in Ghana - Spain and Portugal making war against each other by war of heritage - foundation of sultanate of "Mindanao" on the "Philippines" - thesis of Columbus: "way west" to India - Spain with inquisition since 1478 - in 1479 treaty of Alcáçovas: Spain is not permitted in Africa - Portugal's gold from Sudan
Portugal's occupation of Africa: always more far...
In 1469 Portugal's ["Christian" terrorist] king Alfonso V is handing ceding the management of the African and discovery business to [the next "Christian" terrorist] Fernâo Gomes under the condition that every year has to be occupied a coast line of 100 "Leguas" (550 km). Gomes is fulfilling this timetable and can make enormous profits with this (Huby, p.45).
In 1471 ["Christian" terrorist] troops are conquering the Muslim towns of Tangier, Safi and three more towns. In 1475 the Portuguese ["Christian" terrorist] occupants reach the ecuator and southern territories of it, the region of today's Gabon (Huby, p.45).
from 1470 on
Christopher Columbus is a sailor
He is serving for Genoese merchant houses (Huby, p.38). First Columbus is partly also a pirate (Huby, p.15).
Christopher Columbus has got red hair and a reddish face. He is a quiet and deeply religious man. He is learning fast from experiences. Until he is 22 years old he is working with his father. He is working in a fisher's fleet on Sardinia, and perhaps is reaching also Corsica. At least one trip is also going to the African coast learning much of navigation and other basic seafaring elements [web03].
"Gold of Ashanti"
Under leadership of [the "Christian" terrorist] Ashanti the ["Christian" terrorist] occupants in Africa are detecting the gold mine with the "gold of Ashanti" in today's Ghana. ["Christian" terrorist] Gomes comes back to Portugal getting there the royal title "da Mina" ("from the mine") given by the Portuguese ["Christian" terrorist] king (Huby, p.45).
War of succession and war about privileges in Africa between ["Christian" terrorists] Portugal and Spain
Fighting for the succession in Spanish royal court there are the two sisters of the former king, Isabella (with Spanish husband Ferdinand of Arragon) and her daughter Johanna (which is wanted as a wife by the uncle Alfonso V of Portugal). The ["Christian" terrorists on Iberian Peninsula] are making war between the two nations (Huby, p.44).
[Well, this Bible is really not a book for peace, and futile destruction by "Christs" ("US" government) is going on until today. Church and Bible should be prohibited as racist and destructive forces].
In the same year the world map of Toscanelli is presented to the world showing Japan and India just next to Africa:
1474: World map by Toscanelli
Map of Atlantic by Toscanelli (copy of Hapgood) : the world map shows a direct connection from Europe to Japan / Cipango and India
This map of Toscanelli is the propaganda for a "west way": short distance and invented islands
Toscanelli is an Italian astrologist drawing this map of Atlantic showing Europe and India around it (Huby, p.53):
-- the distance between Europe and Asia is much too short
-- and Toscanelli is inventing some islands in the Atlantic which should facilitate the passage.
->> now Columbus is always more and more dominated by the idea to find the countries of Asia with their spices and gold using the west way when it's said that there are islands as bases on the way (Huby, p.53)
->> and Toscanelli let's also perform the map to the ["Christian" terrorist] Portuguese King John II [web05].
Add to this Columbus is more and more dominated by this idea looking for India in the west by the work "Imago Mundi" of Pierre d'Ailly. Already Aristoteles, Strabo and Seneca had this kind of thinking [web05].
Columbus installs his connections to Portugal
Columbus is developing connections to Portugal marrying the daughter of the captain of Porto Santo island near Madeira. This captain himself is from Italian descent and was a close employee of ["Christian" terrorist] Henry the "Navigator" (Reinhard, vol. II, p.38).
Columbus on an expedition
with the order of Genuese Centurione Bank (Banca Centurione) Columbus is making an expedition to Chios Island (Aegean) (Huby, p.65).
And Columbus is also making sea trips to England [web05].
Birth of Pizarro
Birth of Francisco Pizarro in Trujillo (Spain) as an illegitimate son of a Spanish sea captain. He gets his childhood with his grand parents in one of the poorest regions of Spain. Obviously he is not learning reading nor writing [web06].
"Philippines": Foundation of Muslim sultanate of Mindanao
and Islam is reaching central Luzon now [web01].
from 1476 on
Columbus is in Lisbon - making up schooling - thesis of "way west" to India
As a normal sailor Columbus is sailing on board of a Genoese merchant to Lisbon, to England and to Flanders. Because of war between the sea powers the ship is in a convoy which is also attacked after leaving the southern Portuguese coast. Columbus' ship is sinking. Columbus can save himself swimming coming to Lisbon where he is welcome by other Genoese sailors there. After a trip up to Iceland Columbus is settling in Lisbon [web03].
Columbus living in Lisbon is living in the center of seafaring of these times (Huby, p.53) because during the detections and occupations by ["Christian" terrorist] Henry the "Navigator" on the African coast also more and more Genoese sailors have changed to Lisbon, and Columbus sees a chance to be a sea captain under Portuguese flag. First Columbus has to make up his schooling, learning writing and reading Portuguese and Spanish, and also learning Latin reading the school books in geography. His actual profession is map drawer. Some more sea trips are completing his experiences of seafaring [web03].
In sailor's circles there is the wide spread general meaning of Aristoteles and Seneca indicating that Earth is round. One of the main aims of seafaring is to reach India crossing the Atlantic on the "west course" (Huby, p.53).
["Christian" terrorist] Spain installs inquisition system
This inquisition is headed against the mendicant order and against the Jews (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).
[Complement: In later Spanish colonies in Central and South "America" there are heavy discriminations of Jews who mean they could disguise themselves and they could be safe as "Christians" there. "Christian" terrorists are pursuing them because of their belief. This can be followed for example in the Jewish chronology of Scrolls of Fire].
Florence: thesis of a new continent on the west way to India1479
In 1478 in Florence there is a new result of theoretical investigation: There is stated that on the west way should be detected a fourth continent (Reinhard, vol. II, p.45).
Sp: Marriage of Columbus, change to Madeira - his wife Dona Felipa is providing Portuguese maps and plans
In 1479 Columbus is marrying Dona Felipa Perestrello. Her father was one of the captains of ["Christian" terrorist] Henry the "Navigator". Columbus has got a son Diego with her. Social class of Dona Felipa makes it possible to Columbus to meat important representatives of the Portuguese state. She is providing for him also maps and document collections of her father. From this material Columbus is winning the knowledge about the Portuguese detections and plans [web03].
["Christian" terrorist] Spain and ["Christian" terrorist] Portugal making peace of Alcáçova:
Spain is recognizing Portugal's Africa monopolies - Portugal is permitting the Spanish occupation of Canary Islands
The two ["Christian" terrorist] powers are solving their fights in the peace of Alcáçova:
-- ["Christian" terrorist] Isabella is recognizing the monopoly of Portugal for all territories south of the Canary Islands, and by this above all the merchant monopolies for gold, pepper, ivory and slaves are saved for ["Christian" terrorist] Portugal
-- ["Christian" terrorist] Portugal is permitting to ["Christian" terrorist] Spanish ships to submit the Canary Islands definitely (Huby, p.45).
This peace is an order from the ["Christian" terrorist] Pope ordering that ["Christian" terrorist] Spain is excluded from Africa (Reinhard, vol. II, p.39).
["Christian" terrorist] Portugal has got it's first "gold source", the mine in today's Sudan, the gold land "Punt". The transport of the gold is organized by caravan. Commercial centers are first locations in the Inner Africa, then the end points of the caravan routes at the coast of today's Morocco and Cadiz (Huby, p.22).
"Rise" of Fugger family - Earth is "round" - Columbus with dreams for India - "Casa de India" of Portugal - Papal "bull against witchcraft" in 1484 - Columbus making propaganda for a "west way" at the Spanish king - Portugal drawing the African coast line - "Cape of Storms", then "Cape of Good Hope"
South Germany: "rise" of Fugger in Augsburg
"Rise" of weaver's farmer's family in 15th century by commerce and financial businesses (DTV History Atlas, vol.1, p.215).
End of 15th century
The doctrine of round Earth is gaining acceptance
also on Iberian Peninsula. The thesis of a direct west way to China, Japan and India is spreading always more and more, and it seems more and more possible to evade the Arab merchant monopolies for spices (Huby, p.15).
Norwegians were known?
There are no proofs if Columbus had known of the Vikings who were on "Greenland" and Newfoundland (Reinhard, vol. II, p.38).
Christopher Columbus becoming a member in "Genuese colony" in Portugal
Also Columbus is full of ideas with the thesis that there should be a direct west way to India. But as the Florence group he is overestimating the extension of Asia, and is underestimating the circumference of the earth, and only estimates a distance corresponding to today's 2,400 sea miles from Portugal to Japan (Reinhard, vol.II, p.39).
Portugal: birth of Fernando de Magelanes (Portuguese: Fernao de Magelhaes)
probably in Porto, son of a Portuguese royal family [web07].
Christopher Columbus on an Africa trip in Portuguese services
with the ["Christian" terrorist] Portuguese king John II [web03].
Columbus can see a trip to the Portuguese African main base Elmina (today in Ghana). He can see all navigation and "colonial economy" in the base:
-- capitalism with factories
-- organization of slavery
-- gold robbery
-- spices (Reinhard, vol. II, p.39).
Portugal: erection of the ["Christian" terrorist] fortress "Fort Sâo Jorge da Mina", later "Elmina" (Huby, p.45).
Portugal: death of ["Christian" terrorist] king Alfonso V, successor is king John II (Huby, p.29).
from 1481/1482 on
Portuguese "trading companies": "Casa de Guiné" in Portugal - "Casa da India" - world wide trade network is the aim of Portugal
In 1481/82 John II is shifting the ["Christian" terrorist] colonial trade center "Casa de Guiné" from Africa to Portugal and is renaming it later as "Casa da India". ["Christian" terrorist] Portuguese crown is organizing the fleet traffic and the goods turnover, where for a little part also foreign investment money can be found (Huby, p.90).
The aim is the construction of a Portuguese trading post network (feitorias) from Africa to Japan (Huby, p.90).
since 1482 appr.
Contact between Columbus and Toscanelli
Columbus is contacting Toscanelli, and add to this Columbus gets support for his idea of a "west way" by the merchant Martin Behaim in Lisbon [web05].
since 1482 appr.
Calculations of distance for a "west way" to India: Bible, Marco Polo, "Imago Mundi" and archaeological findings are evidence
For a future trip to India Columbus is calculating the distance searching in the Bible, in texts of Marco Polo, and analyzing the work "Imago Mundi" of Pierre d'Ailly. And all information which is not fitting with his idea is rejected.
Other people make similar calculations like Columbus, but no one is that optimist like he. Some sailor adventure stories are supporting Columbus' thesis that there had been viewed land in the "Sea of Darkness" already.
Add to this some remnants washed ashore could be found on the Azores, and these peaces support one more time the thesis that it should be possible to "detect" land not so far away. At the end Columbus believes that Asia could be found in a distance of 3,000 miles [web03].
Christopher Columbus 
["Christian" war terrorist] Pope: bull against witchcraft
In 1484 the ["Christian" terrorist] Pope Innocent VIII is publishing his "bull against witchcraft" (DTV History Atlas vol.1, p.230) against women to whom are reproached "occult" forces or the "alliance with the devil" (DTV Lexicon vol.8, p.99).
Portugal: Columbus' project for a trip over the Atlantic is rejected by the Portuguese king
In 1484 Columbus is presenting his project for finding the direct sea way to India going west to ["Christian" terrorist] king John II evading the circumnavigation of Africa (Reinhard vol.II, p.39). In general the sea west of Portugal which is not known until this moment [officially] is called "Sea of Darkness" [web03].
John II creates a "scientific advisory council" and this council presents more realistic ideas for the circumference of the earth. That's why John II is skeptical and rejects the project (Reinhard vol. II, p.39).
Spain: Columbus presenting his project of a west way with king Ferdinand and queen Isabella - no decision yet - new marriage with Beatriz Enriquez de Harana
Columbus' wife Dona Felipa Perestrello died in the meantime. After a negative decision of the ["Christian" racist] Portuguese king Columbus is traveling with his son Diego to Spain making propaganda there for his project of looking for a "west way". Diego is put into a Franciscan monastery in La Rabida [web03],
as a signal of surrender to the Spanish king who perhaps could understand Columbus' project [web05].
Columbus is getting to know some important people there and they help him for a presentation of his project to find the "west way" at the ["Christian" terrorist] royal couple Ferdinand and Isabella. A government commission is convened and is revising the Columbus plan.
Columbus' request at the court of Castile and Arragon is not well amusing the rulers (Reinhard, vol.II, p.39):
Isabella and Ferdinand have only just married and unified the two royal dynasties of Castile and Arragon.
Both in common have the next project reconquering Granada for "Christendom" and to "liberate" Granada from the Arabs
[whereas Muslim culture is technically and in medicine much more developed].
-> ["Christian" terrorist] Castilian court wants to "finish" the war with the [psycho terrorist] Muslims first (Huby, p.53)
-> the commission is not deciding yet and lets Columbus wait
-> Columbus is marrying in Cordoba his second wife, Beatriz Enriquez de Harana. Later they have a common son Ferdinand / Fernando [web03].
since 1485 appr.
["Christian" war terrorist] Spain in war with [Muslim psycho terrorist] Granada
-> Spain is suffering a new financial shortage
-> Columbus is feeling his chance to get a permission for his "west way" expedition (Reinhard, vol. II, p.49).
from 1485 on
Columbus fighting for his way to "India"
During the next few years Columbus is fighting with all his energy for the permission of an expedition over the Atlantic:
-- he is arguing with ["Christian" terrorist] religion for his west route (Reinhard, vol.II, p.40):
"so one knows which way will be spreading our all but holy belief there" (Huby, p.22)
"damit man weiss, welche Wege man einschlagen muss, um unseren allerheiligsten Glauben daselbst zu verbreiten" (Huby, S.22)
-- he begins with a layout of commercial profit projects
-- he even is promising that he will conquer Jerusalem: When he could drive from Cape San Vicente directly to the west, so he will directly arrive in Jerusalem and he would attack the Arabs in their back: "taking the Muslims from their back side" (Huby, p.23).
-- at the same time his brother Bartolomeo Columbus is making propaganda for the west route at the ["Christian" terrorist] English and French courts
-- and add to all Christopher Columbus also is always demanding more and more in the case of a detection of the west route: rank, title, percentages of the profits and so on (Reinhard, vol.II, p.40).
[One sees that also Christopher Columbus is converting himself into a clear "Christian" terrorist, not with arms, but with all means of psycho terrorism].
Portugal: Detection of Congo River - project of an expedition under Diaz
The "research" at the African coast line are continued under ["Christian" terrorist] king John II. When Diogo Cam / Cao is reporting to the king that he had passed the whole coast line down to the Congo River, John II is projecting a new expedition which should go even more to the south. As a leader of the expedition Bartholomeo Diaz is elected [web04].
Portugal: Secret Portuguese projects for a "west way": invitation for Columbus
Instead of the rejecting resolution to Columbus the Portuguese court is prompting the working out of a project for a direct Atlantic way to "India" by Fleming Ferdinand van Olmen who is working in the Portuguese service. But there is never a trial with this project (Reinhard, vol. II, p.39).
Port.: Expansion project of ["Christian" terrorist] king John II - battles in Morocco
["Christian" terrorist] king John II is beginning a triple strategy now for going forward with the occupation and "missioning" respectively "enslaving" the "non believing" continent of Africa:
-- Africa should be "investigated" always more in the inner side (Huby, p.47)
-- circumnavigation around Africa should be completed as fast as possible
-- he is sending two ["Christian" terrorist] spies to inner African locations - in a Muslim disguise - passing Cairo: The first spy is Alfonso de Paiva with messages for priest king of John in far Africa, and the second spy is the multi lingual spy Pero da Covilhâ making investigations in India (Huby, p.48).
And in the same year battle fights in Morocco between ["Christian terrorists and Muslim psycho terrorists] are beginning (Huby, p.48).
Portugal: expedition under Bartholomeo Diaz south of Congo River
With two caravels and one supply ship Diaz is leaving Lisbon sailing from Cape Palmas directly to the Congo River reaching Cape Volta (Cabo de Volta), the today's Lüderitz [web04].
1487 / "Christian new year" 1488
Port.: sailor Diaz at the most sothern point of Africa - "Cape of Storms"
Díaz is sailing at the today's coast of Namibia, but a storm is taking him far to the south. When he is sailing back he is landing at the eastern side of the southern tip of Africa in the region of today's Mossel Bay (today's South African coast). The crew is rebelling and urging for going home. Passing the southern cape Diaz calls the rock "Cape of Storms" (Huby, p.47).
At New Year's day Diaz' expedition is surprised by a storm and driven to the south. Without noticing it they are passing the southern tip of Africa. After 13 days the expedition is driving eastwards but cannot find any coast line any more. Then the ships are going north landing in the location of today's Mossel Bay at the other side of the cape. And therefore the southern tip was circumnavigated [web04].
The crew was tired and fearful and is forcing Diaz to turn home instead of going on with the expedition to the Indian Ocean. During the return the expedition is passing the cape and Diaz is naming it "Cabo Tormentoso" ("Cape of Storms") [web04].
Portugal: The expedition of Diaz is coming home
Portugal: And now the "west way" is not important any more for Portugal
When Diaz is reporting about the circumnavigation of the cape, ["Christian" terrorist] king John II is assigning his priorities. The project of Columbus with a "west way" is superfluous for him. And Columbus definitely is going to Spain now [web03].
"Renaming" the southern tip of Africa: "Cape of Good Hope" - spies' mission for Portugal along Malabar coast and East African coast line
["Christian" terrorist] king John II is renaming the "Cape of Storms" in a psychological better wording like "Cape of Good Hope" (Huby, p.48).
The disguised spies de Paiva and de Covilhâ are coming to Cairo. De Paiva is dying before he can go on with his trip. De Covilhâ is going on traveling on the sea to India investigating spice trade on Malabar coast, and then is arriving at Africa's east coast investigating it down to today's Mozambique (Huby, p.49).
Portugal: silver coins
Between 1457 and 1489 by the monopolized Africa trade, ["Christian" terrorist] Portugal gets much investment money from abroad, and this makes it possible to introduce high-carat silver coins again (Huby, p.45).
1489: World map by Henricus Martellus
World map of Henricus Martellus, he is the first drawing Horn of Africa in 1489 
Congo region: "christianization" and slavery at the same time - spy da Covilhâ "in prison" with priest-king John - and the report of da Covilhâ is lost
In 1490 about the Congo River region is occupied by ["Christian" terrorist] forces and the contact with the ruler Mbanza Congo is installed. Portuguese ["Christian" psycho terrorist] missionaries are beginning with their [racist] "program of Christianization". At the same time ["Christian" terrorist] slavery and deportation is introduced which is absolutely contradictionary to "Christian schooling". But the economical "concern" is pushing through against the missionaries who are partly protesting (Huby, p.47).
Da Covilhâ can hand over his travel report about India and about the eastern African coast line in Cairo to a Jewish merchant with the order to bring the report to ["Christian" terrorist] Portugal. Da Covilhâ himself is going to Abyssinia to the priest-king getting married there. He himself is not returning back to Portugal because he is "in prison" there (Huby, p.49).
Covilhâ's report cannot be found and it's possible that it never reached ["Christian" terrorist] Portugal. The situation about this is not clear (Huby, p.49).
Islam on Spice Islands in 1490 - first trip to India by Portugal - Portugal swimming in African gold - Spanish crown giving permission for "west way" to India - Granada 1492 occupied by Spain, expulsion of Jews and Moors - Columbus' expedition reaching Caribbean Sea
Islam missioning Cloves Islands (Spice Islands)
Also on the Cloves Islands west of Molucca islands - and also the port island of Amboina - are missioned in an [psycho terrorist, corrupt and discriminating] Islamic way and sultanates are installed (Huby, p.69).
During this further "colonizations" there is coming out a "race" between [psycho terrorist, corrupt and discriminating terrorist] Islam and ["Christian" war terrorist] Rome church. Worst massacres by fanaticism and blindness to the fellow humans are preprogrammed (Huby, p.69).
Portugal: Order for a trip to India with Vasco de Gama as captain
Vasco de Gama gets the order for a drive for the spice trade city of Calicut in India at Malabar coast. More orders are not so precise and also wrong, so it can be admitted that the travel report of da Covilhâ was not known. Add to this Vasco de Gama is given gifts which are more for the customs in Africa (Huby, p.49).
["Christian" terrorist] Spain: Christopher Columbus meeting ["Christian" war terrorist] queen Isabella
["Christian" psycho terrorist] Franciscan monks are providing Columbus an access to the ["Christian" war terrorist] queen Isabella. The court of Ferdinand is discussing the project with it's advisors (Reinhard, vol. II, p.40).
Portugal: control about gold trade - Spanish crown has to act
Portugal is now controlling the European gold circulation more and more. The result of the trial of Bartholomeus Diaz and the realization of the circumnavigation of the "Cape of Good Hope" is that Lisbon is becoming now the first port for all Asian goods in Europe.
In the first years after the detection of the Cape of Good Hope, ["Christian" war terrorist] Portugal is systematically developing trips to Southern Asia with spice trade. The Spaniards can only watch the Portuguese success and decide to play also the game (for money and power). Therefore the project of Christopher Columbus will be soon successful and approved by ["Christian" war terrorist] queen Isabella I looking for a more easy way to India breaking the Portuguese monopoly with Asian spices and wares, and installing a gold commerce which would be much greater than the one of Portugal [web08].
[The richest "Christian" terrorist countries, Italy and Portugal - and then also Spain - are not willing to share their profits with other "Christian" states, but they are provoking that other "Christian" coastal states are also developing a racist war colonialism. Sharing is not foreseen in "Christian" capitalism].
Death of crown prince, son Alfons
Spanish approval for a "west way" expedition to India
A group of Conversos (baptized Jews) and Genoese sailors from the group of king Ferdinand are voting decisively for the west way expedition of Columbus (Reinhard, vol. II, p.40).
Granada, the Nasrid empire is falling and victim of ["Christian" war terrorist] reconquest - ["Christian" terrorist occupation] (DTV History Atlas, vol.1, p.187)
This reconquest is "finished" now. It was not a crusade, but it was a frontier and gang war, less a war about belief. There was war about land and pray, and this war was made by the inferior royals. Above all the suffering, not inheritable younger sons were making this war because they only can get property by fight (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49).
[Now violence and inquisition are governing Granada, not at all "Christian", but really "very Christian", against any order of the Bible. Intelligence with doctors, music and architecture is driven out and primitive "Christian" gun and defamation and persecution is coming. Also the Jews are expelled with the reproach they would collaborate with the Muslims. But it were the Jews translating very important Arab literature into European languages bringing forward Europe in science...]
Defamations in ["Christian" war terrorist] Spain: expulsion of Jews and Moors
(DTV History Atlas vol.1, p.155,187).
Spain: bishops and order members are members of Inquisition now
From 1492 on bishops and order members can be bishop and inquisitionaries at the same time having both functions in one person (Reinhard, vol.II, p.82).
Approval for the "west way" expedition by ["Christian" war terrorist] queen Isabella: there is a "capitulación" ["treaty"]
(Reinhard vol. II., p.40)
This treaty for the "west way expedition" to East Asia is negotiated in Santafé on 17 April 1492:
-> Columbus gets three ships ("Santa Maria", "Pinta" and Niña") [web05]
-> Columbus gets the order to discover and to purchase islands and countries in the Ocean
-> Columbus' social rank is elevated to be a royal
-> Columbus becomes a inheritable admiral and viceroy of the detected territories
-> Columbus should get 10% of the profits
-> Columbus should be authorized to give up to 8% of the equipment of the ships by his own ideas and money
-> Columbus gets three ships from a private source (Reinhard vol. II, p.40), two little and agile caravels and one heavy nao ship
-> the expedition should start from Palos (Reinhard vol.II, p.41), because Palos has to construct the ships as a compensation for a bad action against ["Christian" war terrorists] Ferdinand and Isabella [web03].
"Christian" war terrorist queen Isabella I. of Castile 
3.8.1492Departure of the first west way expedition under Columbus
The departure is from Palos to the Canary Islands (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41). Columbus has got three ships with sub captains:
-- "Santa Maria" is the flagship which is commanded by Columbus himself
-- ship "Niña" is under the command of Vicente Yañez
-- and the convoying ship "Pinta" is under the command of Martin Alonso Pinzón (Huby, p.53).
And now the unknown trip comes - starting from the Canary Islands
Christopher Columbus is still heading the expedition, but the crew has to fight with psychological problems (Reinhard, vol. II, p.41).
Columbus' style of leadership without being hard
Christopher Columbus has no hard style of leadership but is arranging differences with good words and rich promises. This is more a appeasing than solving problems. But Columbus is pushing through with patience again and again (Huby, p.53).
But the situation becomes difficult when Toscanelli's map results a fake and the invented islands in the Atlantic cannot be found.
-> Martin Alonso Pinzón, captain of the ship "Pinta", and his brother Vicente Yañez, captain of the ship "Niña" again and again want to turn home
-> and Columbus is succeeding every time to go on for some days (Huby, p.53)
Persecution of the Jews in ["Christian" war terrorist] Spain
In 1492 the ["Christian" war terrorist] royal dynasty is beginning with a mass expulsion of Jews from Spain. The Jews have to fly to the African continent, also are flying to Holland [and England?] or stay in Portugal [as baptized Jews] (Huby, p.49).
Arrival of Columbus' expedition at Bahamas Islands
Columbus' expedition "discovering" Haiti
Columbus' expedition "discovering" Cuba
Columbus believes now that Cuba would be Zipangu (today's Japan), but he is disappointed because he cannot find any gold nor pearls there how is was described in the report of Marco Polo. Columbus believes that he would not be far from the Chinese Tatar empire of Kublai Khan (Huby, p.43).
[And because Columbus means that he would be near India, today's Caribbean is named "West India" on his maps].
[web01] Internet: M.Payer: chronicle about history of Philippines
[web02] potatoe history: http://www.kartoffel-geschichte.de/Erste_Furche/Gen_Europa/gen_europa.html
[web03] Internet: R.H. Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Columbus
[web04] Internet: R.H. Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Bartholomew Diaz
[web05] Internet: H.Mückler: Kolumbus, Christoph
[web06] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Francisco Pizarro
[web07] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Ferdinand Magellan
Maps and Henry of Portugal
 map with pestilence in Europe: http://www.geography.uc.edu/~weisner/courses/216/middle.htm
 king Dinis of Portugal: http://www.brasil.sk/kultura/historia/dinis.html
 map of trade relations between Portugal and Afrika: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/n_africa_mid_east_pol_95.jpg
 statue of Henry the "Navigator" in Lagos: http://algarve-kontakt.com/ges-heinrich.html
 Henry the "Navigator", portrait: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Henry%20the%20Navigator
Italy: Florence, Medici, Milan
 emblem of Medici: http://www.toskana-montaione.com/Florenz.htm
 map of Portugal Madeira Canarian Islands: http://www.answers.com/topic/madeira-islands world map by Borgia (1410-1458), 1430 appr., engraving on iron pad:
 world map of Andrea Bianco 1432. East is upside, Mediterranean is downside draining downwards.
 Medici fortress with round tower ("Maschio"), Volterra:
 Giovanni Boccaccio, portrait, Italian writer, poet and humanist:
 Francesco Petrarca, portrait, Italian humanist and poet: http://www.eckhart.de/litera.htm
 Cosimo de Medici, called "the Old" ("il Vecchio"): http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medici
 world map by Andreas Walsperger 1448: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/LMwebpages/245.html
Milan, Florence and then Portugal
 Francesco Sforza, founder of Sforza dynasty in Milan: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Sforza,_Duke_of_Milan
 Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli: http://utopia.utexas.edu/project/portraits/
 king Alfonso V. of Portugal: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfons_V._%28Portugal%29
 Genuese world map of 1457: http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/map/h_map/h_map.htm
 Bartolomeo Diaz: http://www.scuola.com/cinquecento/oceani/pag/ragazzi/cartografo/01.htm
 Lorenzo de Medici il Magnifico: http://www.liberliber.it/biblioteca/m/medici/
 Botticelli portrait: http://arliquido.blogs.sapo.pt/arquivo/2004_04.html
 Botticelli: spring dance: http://www.signumrecords.com/artists/concerto_delle_donne/
 Michelangelo Buonarroti, bust: http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/f/finelli/buonarro.html
 map of Atlantic by Toscanelli (Nachzeichnung von Hapgood) mit Japan / Cipango:
 Christopher Columbus: http://www.rinodistefano.com/it/articoli/
 world map by Henricus Martellus, als erster mit dem Horn von Afrika 1489:
 queen Isabella I. of Castilia: http://www.crimelibrary.com/notorious_murders/mass/torquemada/2.html