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Colonialism in chronology chapter II

2.2. United East Indian Company (V.O.C.) since 1602: Holland with mercantilism, maximum of profit and mass murder in India and Indonesia - China, Japan, Russia

Dutch galleon in Dutch colonialism
Dutch galleon in Dutch colonialism [91]

by Michael Palomino (1999 / 2003 / 2005 / 2009 / 2012)

Translation in 2014



-- Reinhard, Wolfgang: History of European Expansion (original in German: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion), vol.I: The Old World until 1818 (original in German: Die Alte Welt bis 1818); Editon Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Cologne/Mainz 1983

-- Huby, Felix: Dream trips (original in German: Traumreisen; Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker). Edition Deutscher Bücherbund, Stuttgart, Hamburg, Munich, 1980

-- Payer, Margarete: Chronic about the history of the Philippines (oringinal in German: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen);
Internet: http://machno.hbi-stuttgart.de/~payer/weltw43.html (estate March 2005)

-- some data are also from a little History Pocket Book Atlas from DTV, Munich

1602: Foundation of the "United East Indian Company" ("Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie", V.O.C.) - permission for any violence and occupation under Dutch rule

In 1602 several Dutch Indian trade companies are unifying forming the "United East Indian Company" ("Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie" VOC)
-- under leadership of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt
-- with the participation of six "General Federal States" of Holland: Amsterdam, Middelburg, Delft, Rotterdam, Hoorn, and Enkhuizen.

Ship of V.O.C.
Ship of V.O.C. [90]

Amsterdam and Middelburg are giving the main participation. With this a general permission is connected, a patent of the general federal states for tis V.O.C. having any right during 21 years
-- making wars
-- concluding treaties
-- conquering land
-- installing forts and fortresses.

The complete Dutch population can invest money with this company for being a partner and participant (Reinhard, vol.I, p.114).

There is a description of this company by the lawyer Mr. Pieter van Dam with his work: "Description of the East Indian Company" ("Beschryvinge van de Oostindische Compagnie", 1701/3) with the description of history, business performance, "trade territories", "administration" and "ecclesial service".

Military advantage of V.O.C. against the Portuguese forces
The Dutch are building more little and better movable ships, but they have a stronger armament and a better artillery. Additionally the crews are (at least at the beginning) better trained (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

Dutch galleon
                    in Dutch colonialism
Dutch galleon in Dutch colonialism [91]

The Dutch sea trade route to Java

The direct way to Sunda Strait
After having passed the Cape of Africa the Dutch ships are not going upwards along the African coast line but the Dutch Indian ships are heading directly to Australia using the south west trade wind and turning to the north with the monsoon to the Sunda Strait. In this way there Portuguese (and Arab) attacks are evaded.

Every year in September, on "Christmas" and on "Eastern" three fleets are leaving Amsterdam to Batavia. And two times the fleets start from Batavia to Holland: on "Christmas" and in January / February.

Map with the routes of V.O.C. from
                            Holland to Indian and Indonesia
Map with the routes of V.O.C. from Holland to Indian and Indonesia [92]
Map with Sunda Strait
                            between Sumatra and Java, and just aside is
                            Jakarta / Batavia
Map with Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java, and just aside is Jakarta / Batavia [93]

Low losses
Dutch fleets are suffering losses of an average of 4.5%, mostly because of overcharging (Reinhard, vol.I, p.125). The normal time for a trip is over six months. Awards are given for teams who are performing the trip under seven or even under six months. Losses are much less than with the Portuguese fleets above all because of more precise prescriptions for the construction of the ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.126). The food rations are generous, but the effective acting is another one. But the conditions have bettered insofar that the lethal cases are going back (Reinhard, vol.I, p.127).

Low wages and smuggling

The payment for simple semen is very low. After a successful trip to India the involved get a share with spices according to the grade as it is the case in the Portuguese system. Also corruption is installing. The seamen are even forming little stock corporations for illegal trade evading the monopoly of the employer's company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.128).

"Business methods" of Dutch V.O.C. - the development of "stocks"
Business of V.O.C. is following mostly the profits of Amsterdam oligarchy. Spice deposits are considered as secret reserves. When cash is low - and this is only known to the management - short time loans are accepted with high interest rates but all shareholders have to pay for the interests (Reinhard, vol.I, p.115). Dividends are given in form of spices (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122). But the owners are filling their pockets with the profits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.115).

V.O.C. has got a privileged position with some statal rights and got also the duty to balance with all share holders every ten years, and there was also the duty to pay the shareholders off with interests inclusive. The balancing is evaded in 1612 when V.O.C. is liberated from the general federal states. Also the capability for paying all shareholders off is ignored. Thus stocks ("actie") are introduced more and more since 1606. The value of the "stock" ("actie") is fluctuating depending on the business situation (Reinhard, vol.I, p.116).

Projects of Dutch V.O.C.
From 1602 to 1607 the activities of V.O.C. are mostly headed against Portugal. The company is following a geopolitical concept with occupations of military bases. Aims are above all the occupation of Mozambique in Africa, of Ceylon Island near India, of Malacca peninsula with Malacca Strait, and Goa in India. Further more occupations are projected on the Indian subcontinent for textile production for the exchange trade for spices from Southeast Asia.

In Holland a contradiction is coming up against these projects, above all by the Mennonites who are denying a right of capturing ships. Therefore Mennonites being shareholders with V.O.C. are even giving a part of the robbed goods away. But an "academic evaluation" of the V.O.C. lawyer Mr. Hugo Grotius "De Jura Praedae Commentarius" is permitting the right of capturing ships. Dutch admiral justice is then also deciding in favor of this robbing policy of the company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.117).


World trade companies, the first "modern big businessman"

The term of "mercantilism" is principally a "polemic creation" of physiocrats and of Mr. Adam Smith (Reinhard, vol.I, p.157). In the center is above all profitability and stockpiling of profits by foreign business. To the contrary to the Papal motivated occupations of the Portuguese and Spanish (where also incredible theft and murder was committed) these trips to India and "America" since the entry of the Dutch companies have profits as it's first criterion. This is the early form of the "modern big businessman". Monopoly is a guarantee for profits and is a self purpose and contains also rights for concluding treaties and for making war.

At the same time a monopoly society is obliged to perform reinvestments, performing control and repair of the fleet and of the military bases. The company should refinance itself thus there will be no charge for the public sector [but this is hardly possible, not even half of the companies reach this aim] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.156).

Religious fight and fight about the "world cake" for "self preservation"
In the sense of religious wars in Europe between Protestants and Catholics the different states are making their wars in the whole world now. A fight about the "world cake" is beginning for "self preservation" only for profits and for reputation [always on foreign soil]. Since this time the trade balance showing it's value with noble metals is the new index of any state (Reinhard, vol.I, p.157).

Intensifying of domestic economy and forced adaptions / restructuring
At the same time during the installing of the trade company for the "foreign policy" (and wars) there is a more intensive inner activity with production. Production processes from abroad are copied or improved. At the same time there are dangers:

-- the new importations are partly provoking the collapse of companies in the home country provoking unemployment thus statal measures and corrections are necessary creating new streams of commerce which are not equalizing mutually

-- theorists and historians thinking in a liberal way are denouncing again and again the monopoly situation and are appealing for a free world trade

-- in certain trade companies the state is playing a too dominant role: kings are exerting pressure so there is no optimal distribution of capital (Reinhard, vol.I, p.157).

The tendency of the trade from century to century
First mostly spices are traded  between Europe and Asia. Russia is lured to it's expansion by the profitable fur trade. By the time to the spices are added textiles, coffee from Persia, tea from China, and all this is provoking new possibilities for the European foreign trade. Little states are improving their balances partly by smuggling and by help for hidden economy (Reinhard, vol.I, p.166).

Silver circulation provoked by "America"

Silver as a robbed and cheap European currency in Asia
For the trade with Asia the European needed mostly silver because European goods were hardly attractive for Asia. The silver was robbed in "America" and was coming in huge quantities by Spain with a cheap price to the European market and then could be sold for a high price passing the Mediterranean and the Middle East ("Levant") in India and in East India. A part of the silver is also passing the Pacific coming from "America" directly to Manila to the Spanish "Philippines" for being used in the trade with China. The relations with gold were the following ones:

Table: Silver as robbed cheap European currency in Asia
in "America" silver : gold 17:1
in Europe silver : gold 15:1
in India silver : gold 12:1
in East Asia
silver : gold 9:1

(Reinhard, vol.I, p.169)

With this enormous robbery of metal in Central and South "America" Europe can stockpile it's richness and luxury step by step which is not given away until today. Additionally Japan is also contributing with cheap noble metals (silver and gold) supporting the European trade activities in Asia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.169).

Gold and silver
                            trade circulation: Robbery and trade of gold
                            and silver in about 1600, scheme by Michael
                            Palomino; from: Reinhard, vol.I, p.101
Gold and silver trade circulation: Robbery and trade of gold and silver in about 1600, scheme by Michael Palomino; from: Reinhard, vol.I, p.101 [94]

Silver is transported for free from Mexico and South "America" to the "Philippines" and to Portugal. From Portugal silver is flowing to India. Also gold is coming from southeast Africa to India, from Egypt and from Syria are streaming gold and silver to India, also from Persia. Silver is streaming from India to the Moluccas. China receives silver from the "Philippines" and from India. From China gold is streaming to India and to Japan, and from Japan silver is streaming to China.

Russian expansion with occupations - Dutch "golden century"

Siberia 1604: foundation of the town of Tomsk
Tomsk is founded by cossacks as a new "seat of government" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.87)

The reasons for the Russian expansion: fur trade and wild animals
The driving force for the Russian expansion to the east is above all the profitable fur trade chasing animals. In 1644 fur trade profits were already 10% of the statal income of Russia. The natives are always subdued very easily because of lack of technical equipment or because they are not forming a united front against the new enemy.

The vanguard of the Cossacks are fur hunter, fur trader and representatives of the tsar and Cossacks with their following banned people, settlers and adventurers of "all kind". The territories are administered with forts of the tsar. The forts have the special name of "voivodes".

The natives have to pay tax to the tsar, additionally 10% of value added tax (VAT) and they have to permit the "statal huntings" against the animals. When the fur animals are more seldom then the first mineral resources are detected in Siberia already. And then the exploitation of this Siberian treasure begins (Reinhard, vol.I, p.87).

"Golden century" for the Netherlands

For the Netherlands this 17th century is becoming a "golden age" by it's "expansion", by racist motivated foundations of colonies and by murder methods against the natives (Reinhard, vol.I, p.108).

Rising significance of Indian textiles in the Asian trade since 1600
Main production centers for the fine, white, printed and painted cotton fabrics are the regions of Punjab, Gujarat, Coromandel Coast and Bengalen. These textiles are very loved in Europe as also in East Asia thus the Europeans can use these textiles as a currency for spices (Reinhard, vol.I, p.171).

Map of India with Punjab Province
Map of India with Punjab Province [95]

Map of India with the sultanate of
                              Gujerat / Gujarat
Map of India with the sultanate of Gujerat / Gujarat [96]

Map of India and Bengalen
Map of India and Bengalen [97]
Western coast: Malabar Coast Map with India's coasts:
                            Malabar Coast (left) and Coromandel Coast
Map with India's coasts: Malabar Coast (left) and Coromandel Coast (right) [98]

Eastern coast: Coromandel Coast

In the following time V.O.C. tries systematically installing itself at the Coromandel Coast for getting textiles using them for exchange trade for spices. English "East India Company" is trying the same with textiles from Gujerat / Gujarat (Reinhard, vol.I, p.171).

Dutch are expelling the Portuguese from the Moluccas in 1605 - monopoly treaties between Banda Islands and Holland in 1605 - Portuguese "discoveries" of the Tuamotu archipelago and "Espiritu Santo" Island in 1605 - new Portuguese sub diocese Sâo Tomé-Maliapur in 1060 - Spanish reconquest of parts of Ternate and whole Tidore Island in 1606, rebellions - Dutch "detection" of "Australia" in 1606 - Spanish-Portuguese "detection" of "Australia" on the "Hebrides" - clove treaty between Ternate and Holland in 1607 - "America" since 1607: "successful" camps for natives - Portuguese Jesuits

In 1605 also the Portuguese military fort of Tidore is falling. The Dutch are expelling the Portuguese occupants from Tidore and Amboina definitely. The Dutch conclude monopoly treaties with the natives of the Bandu Islands (Reinhard, vol.I, p.117) which are not fulfilled by the natives because Java and England are also making offers to the natives. Then the Dutch aggression is rising (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73, 117).

In 1605 the Portuguese Quirós is starting an expedition with three ships with big missionary projects for the big continent in the south which is supposed. This "mission" is detecting the Tuamotu archipelago [near Tahiti] and "Espiritu Santo" Island of the today's "New Hebrides" [today it's the state Vanuatu]. But then the expedition is given up because of inner conflicts (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).

Map with the position of
                            Espiritu Santo Island, island of the
                            "New Hebrides", today's Vanuatu,
                            next to New Caledonia and Solomon Islands,
                            left of it New Guinea and Australia
Map with the position of Espiritu Santo Island, island of the "New Hebrides", today's Vanuatu, next to New Caledonia and Solomon Islands, left of it New Guinea and Australia [99]
Detailed map with Solomon
                            Islands, with Santa Cruz Islands, and with
                            Espiritu Santo Island (right down)
Detailed map with Solomon Islands, with Santa Cruz Islands, and with Espiritu Santo Island (right down) [100]
                              with New Zealand, Tahiti and Tuamotu
Map with New Zealand, Tahiti and Tuamotu archipelago [101]

Detailed map with Tahiti and Tuamotu
Detailed map with Tahiti and Tuamotu archipelago [102]

In 1606 Sâo Tomé-Mailapur on the central Indian eastern coastline becomes a new Portuguese sub diocese (Reinhard, vol.I, p.66)

In 1060 Spanish ships - which are under the government of the unified Spanish Portuguese government - are conquering back parts of Ternate and whole Tidore (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73,117). But in Ternate the Muslims are in a coalition with southern "Philippines". Thus there are repeated rebellions against the Spanish occupation (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

A Spanish expedition under the Portuguese Pedro Fernandez de Quirós is searching the legendary "southern continent" and is landing on the "Hebrides" Islands. Quirós means to be in Australia declaring all country "from here to the south pole" as a "Spanish territory" (Huby, p.18).

Just in the same year of 1606 Quirós is returning from "Espiritu Santo" to Portugal writing many "memorandums" for a conquest of the whole "southern continent". But at the end he dies without success (Reinhard vol.I, p.82).

At the same time in 1606 Dutch ships are setting their first landmark on "Australia" at "Cape York". When there were Portuguese sailors reaching Australia they never came back (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).

In other words:
In 1606 the Dutch expedition under the leadership of Willem Janzs is detecting the "south continent" when they were "searching" New Guinea when their ships were drifting into the Gulf of Carpentaria. Willem Jansz is considering "this beach" as a minor matter without significance (Huby, p.18).

Map with Cape York in Australia
Map with Cape York in Australia [103]
                                of Cape York
Peninsula of Cape York [104]
Willem Jansz on a Dutch stamp
Willem Jansz on a Dutch stamp [105]

In 1607 Ternate is coming under Dutch "protection". The sultan is concluding a monopoly treaty for cloves (Reinhard vol.I, p.117).

"America": Since 1607 the Portuguese Jesuit missions are installing "native camps" ("reductions"). These are collective settlements without private possession. They are always becoming bigger and bigger despite of constant attacks ("Entradas") by Brazilian slave hunters (DTV vol.I, p.277).

1607-1609: Spanish Dutch armistice negotiations, discussion about "free sea trade" - V.O.C. order in 1609 for the definition of a center of the Dutch colonies - first Dutch trade point in Japan in 1609 - 1609: Banda natives killing 46 Dutch for getting their will - 1609: geopolitic "program" by Jan Pieterszoon Coen - "America" in 1609: foundation of Dutch West Indian Company

From 1607 to 1609 there are Spanish Dutch armistice negotiations. Included is also a world wide new discussion about a "free sea trade" which is mentioned by the Dutch side. The Dutch side is stating the thesis that the use of free sea trade would benefit whole "mankind" as Hugo Grotius is saying it in his scientific evaluation about capturing actions in the chapter "Hugonis Groti Mare Liberum, sive De Iure quod Batavis competit ad Indicana commercia Dissertatio" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.117).

Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius [106]

In 1609 Grotius is publishing his chapter about a "free sea" ("Mare liberum"). But the public discussion is coming too late for this for being included within the armistice. But since then this topic is "in the air" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.118).

In 1609 V.O.C. management is ordering to the general governor to fix a center of the Dutch colonial Empire, may be Johore, Bantam, or Jacarta (Reinhard, vol.I, p.118).

In 1609 the Japanese Emperor Ieyasu permits a Dutch trading post on Hirado Island near Kyushu Island (Reinhard vol.I, p.84,117).

Japanese Emperor Ieyasu, Nippon
Japanese Emperor Ieyasu, Nippon [107]
Map with Hirado Island with
                            the town of Nagasaki, Nippon
Map with Hirado Island with the town of Nagasaki, Nippon [108]

In 1609 Holland wants to enforce  it's monopoly on the Banda Islands with force. This the natives don't accept defending themselves killing 46 Dutch, also the Dutch admiral is a victim of them. Then the Dutch can "reinstall" the control, but the Banda natives are continuing concluding treaties just according to their taste and don't want to be forced by anybody (Reinhard, vol.I, p.117).

Since 1609 Jan Pieterszoon Coen is the supreme accountant of the Dutch V.O.C., and then he is a general director under the governor Coen. Coen himself is reorganizing the accounting and is conceiving a geopolitical program for dominating the whole world with the title "Discoers aen de Edelen Heeren Bewinthebberen touscherende den nederlantsche Indischen staet" (Reinhard, vol. I, p.118).

"America": In 1609 follows the foundation of the Dutch West Indian Company with the goal of capturing of Spanish "silver fleets" and of conquering territory against the Spanish Portuguese colonial empires in Central and South "America" (DTV, vol.I, p.277).

Portuguese abdication of the spice monopoly on the Moluccas in 1610 - Jan Huyghens' travel report about Portugal's colonies in 1610 in French - since 1611: again persecution of Christians in Japan - 1611: first Dutch trading post in Jacarta - 1612: textiles of Coromandel Coast as a "left arm of the Moluccas Islands" - "Negro clothes" - first English trading post in Japan in 1613

In 1610 the Portuguese crown has to express especially it's abdication of the spice monopoly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73).

In 1610 the travel report of Jan Huyghen about the Portuguese colonies is published also in French (Reinhard, vol.I, p.113).

Since 1611 there are new persecutions of Christians in Japan again because the Japanese daimyos (Japanese princes) are loosing authority to the Christian "Lord" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

In 1611 in the princedom of Jacarta the Dutch get the permission for the installation of a first trading post without fortification. At the same time there is an English competition too (Reinhard, vol.I, p.118).

In 1612 a Dutch [no name indicated] is calling the Coromandel Coast with it's cotton production "the left arm of the Moluccas Islands". The exportation of textiles to Europe is only a side branch of the Asian business first but then it's rising fast. There are also clothes exportations to Africa and "America", above all for slaves who get special "Negro clothes" (Dutch: "negroskleden"). Racism is even speaking by the clothes as it seems... (Reinhard, vol.I, p.171).

In 1613 Japan is giving in to the idea of the Englishman Adams thus Japan is also permitting the construction of an English trading post in Japan on Hirado Island. In Japan there is developing a constant hatred now between the Catholics (Spain and Portuguese) against the Protestants (English and Dutch people) and vice versa. But the Portuguese are not kicked out of Japan because of the trade with Macao (Reinhard, vol.I, p.84,85).

1614: Harder persecution of Christians in Japan - 1614: fight of three on Java between Dutch, English and Java native nations - illegal Dutch fort

Since 1614 there are harder persecutions of Christians in Japan (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

In 1614 there are developing armed fights on Java in Bantam between the English and the Dutch trading post. The English are expelling the Dutch, the Java natives are expelling the English. Then Coen lets expel the Java natives. Additionally Mr. Coen lets install an illegal Dutch fort in Jacarta (Reinhard, vol.I, p.120).
Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Dutch mass murderer and
                      slave trader
Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Dutch mass murderer and slave trader [109]

1614: The geopolitical program of Coen rated by the V.O.C. management: projects for a world domination and for extortions - permission of the spice monopoly program - price collapse for spices in Europe - eradication of rebellions and destruction of competition plantations

The geopolitical "program" for a Dutch domination in the whole world is presented and discussed by the V.O.C. management and to the general federal states of Holland. The plan of Coen is consisting in three main points trade of land, trade of spices, and domination of settlements. the aim with it is to expel above all Portugal and Spain from the trade of land from India. The presented measures would be the followings.

-- building big fleets

-- the trade monopoly should be only for spices thus the company as a whole will be attractive also for people from outside and speculation drive will go on

-- the Dutch States-General should guarantee with their capital for a financial reserve of V.O.c.

-- installation of a sea police for keeping "order" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.118)

-- "control" of rice transports from Java to the Banda Islands controlling the Banda natives in this way because rice cannot be cultivate there (extortion by hunger)

-- long term projects should be: the occupation of Malacca, Macao, and then when the armistice is ending with Spain in 1621 also Manila should be conquered

-- Dutch freelancers who have "proved oneself" on the Moluccas Islands already can be hired again (Reinhard, vol.I, p.120).

These projects of Coen are answered with resistance by the investors in the Netherlands. These projects would cost too much. Additionally only short term profits are interesting. The V.O.C. management is permitting Coen only the program for organizing and monopoly, but no occupations (Reinhard, vol.I, p.120).

By the Dutch in the world wide trade the pepper price in Europe is coming down because of the regular high offer (Reinhard, vol.I, p.169). Capitalism is detecting that higher consumption with lower prices is not leading to more profits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.170). As a reaction the Dutch V.O.C. is following a brute monopoly policy eliminating the natives in whole regions and destroying plantations on other islands (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122). Dutch wars against England during the second half of 17th century with the aim to enforce also an own pepper monopoly are only partly successful (Reinhard, vol.I, p.170).

Dutch contacts to Yemen in 1615 - too high risks for Portuguese spice treaties since 1616 - Dutch trading post in Surat since 1616 - 1616: first Dutch joy of coffee by Dutch Pieter van den Broecke - participation of V.O.C. in the coffee business since 1616 - 1618-1675: Russian Chinese contacts without results

In 1615 Dutch merchant Pieter van den Broecke is contacting Yemen the first time (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

Since 1616 the risks on the Portuguese trips to India are always higher because of Dutch and English fleets thus the Portuguese spice treaties are "not profitable" at all any more (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

In 1616 the Dutch can install a trading post in Surat in India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

India: map
                    with the position of the town of Surat in the
                    sultanate of Gujarat / Gujerat
India: map with the position of the town of Surat in the sultanate of Gujarat / Gujerat [110]

In Mocca the "co-founder" of the Dutch trade empire in the western Indian Ocean, Pieter van den Broecke, gets to know "a kind of black beans with which they are making black water which they drink warm".

Map with coastal bases of European
                            colonialism in Arab and Indian areas
Map with coastal bases of European colonialism in Arab and Indian areas [111]

In the Arab area these coastal basis of European colonialism are the coastal stations of Mocca, Aden, Basra, Bombroon, Hormuz, Jask, Sohar, and Muscat. On the Indian coast the European coastal stations are Surat, Bombay (Mumbay), Rajpur, Goa, Bhatkal, Mangalore, Cochin, Cape Comorin, Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Pulicat, Madras, Masulipatnam, Balasore, and Calcutta.

In those times the Muslim culture knows about coffee since more than 100 years already. There is presumed that the coffee bean came in the 15th century from Abyssinia to southern Arabia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

Since 1616 V.O.C. is participating within the coffee trade of Persia and India - only participating (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

From 1618 to 1675 there are regular contacts between Russia and China. Russian ambassadors are speaking in Beijing regularly about "exploration of territory" and about "trade relationships". As the Russians - as before the Portuguese - don't want to accept the Chinese tributary system, there are no business treaties concluded until 1675 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.88).

1619: Cossacks are founding the town of Yeniseysk - Dutch thesis of "Mare clausum" by John Selden in 1619 - Jan Pieterszoon Coen new Dutch supreme governor violating the regulations of V.O.C. - new "Dutch center" of Batavia since 1619 - treaty between England and Holland in 1619 against Spain for wars since 1621 - Dutch trading post in Mocca in 1620 - 1620 appr.: claim to power of the sultan of Mataram over whole Java Island

In 1619 the Cossacks are "founding" Yeniseysk (Reinhard, vol.I, p.87).

In 1619 the enemies of a "free sea trade" get support by a memorandum of John Seldens "The closed sea or: About domination of the sea" (original Latin: "Mare Clausum seu De Dominio Maris"). Selden comes with his thesis that Holland should install as fast as possible a "mare clausum" in East India against Portugal. the strategy of a monopoly would be justified (Reinhard, vol.I, p.118).

In 1619 Jan Pieterszoon Coen become a new Dutch general governor of the Dutch colonies. His procedure for creating a stable "colonial empire" and installing an absolute monopoly for the spice trade is brutal and contradicting to all points of the standards of the shareholders of V.O.C. His three main points of
-- trade with territories,
-- spice trade and
-- domination of settlements

are enforced under his leadership. He is beginning his program which was presented to the V.O.C. in 1614 already - and he is not leaving out one point of it. Coen becomes a "Portuguese Albuquerque" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.118).

In 1619 Coen is founding the new Dutch center "Batavia". Arbitrarily he is renaming the town of Jacarta (Reinhard, vol.I, p.120). [How the territory is occupied for "Batavia" is not described...] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

Map with the
                    position of Batavia / Jacarta
Map with the position of Batavia / Jacarta [112]: it's position is directly next tu Sunda Street and the Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands are not far either

In 1619 England and Holland know that in 1621 the armistice between Holland and Spain is ending. England and Holland are parting their ranges of interest for having a common strategy against Spain:

-- the Dutch are leaving England 1/3 of the spice trade
-- England may install an own trading post in "Batavia"
-- but the project of a common East India Company is given up (Reinhard, vol.I, p.120).

Arabia: In 1620 the Dutch are installing a trading post in  with the permission of the sultan, but the policy of the Dutch is that extremely egoistic that this trading post is not existing for a long time (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

Java: In 1620 appr. the sultan of Central Java Empire "Mataram" is claiming the rulership over whole Java and is giving himself the title of "Susuhunan" ("Supreme Ruler"). Within the archipelago Mataram has got a decisive role providing the region with rice in Batavia, Sumatra, Malacca and on the Moluccas Islands. Fights with V.O.C. and with "East India Company" as also with other sultanates are preprogrammed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

1620-1629: Installation of a Dutch trade net in India by Pieter van den Broecke - Dutch silk trade with Persia

India: From 1620 to 1629 the Dutch V.O.C. can install a trade net in India as a precondition for a successful colonialism. The leader of the trading post of Surat, Pieter van den Broecke, which is calling himself also a "Director for Arabia, Persia, and India", is reaching that "bases" can be found in Broach, Cambay, and in the interior of India in Ahmadabad, Agra, and Purhanpur (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

V.O.C. is purchasing Chinese silk which is very cheap because of low wages. This silk is exchanged for noble metals in Japan. The noble metals are used for the business in India.

In a side business raw silk from Persia is becoming an essential part of the European importations with a share of about 15 to 20%. There is no direct access for the V.O.C. to China (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

1621: End of the armistice between Holland and Spain - Coen's "policy of stitches" since 1621 - Dutch Holocaust against the natives on the Banda Islands in 1621 - Dutch destruction of nutmeg trees  and of foreign clove trees since 1621 - in 1621 Shah Abbas is calling the Dutch for help - destruction of Hormuz, foundation of Bändär Abbas in 1622, Persian silk monopoly - 1622: Dutch big attack against Macao is in vain, Dutch occupation of "Pescadores" Islands, threats against Chinese coast line - "ballast loads"

In 1621 the armistice between Holland and Spain is ending. Since 1621 Coen is performing a "policy of stitches" against all sides in favor of his profit (Reinhard, vol.I, p.120).

Holocaust on the Banda Islands: In the same year of 1621 Coen is "pacifying" the Banda Islands. These islands are conquered first and then the natives are considered "subjects" according to the Roman Law from Holland. According to this law the upheaval of the Bandanese natives is rated as a "rebellion" with death penalty as punishment. Now the Bandanese natives are tortured by Dutch and Japanese [!] freelancers and 47 chiefs of them are slaughtered. Surviving Bandanese natives are sold as slaves or are driven to the mountains where they are confronted with the systematic death by hunger (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122).

Racist and massacrist Coen in Dutch
Racist and massacrist Coen in Dutch colonialism [113]

Nutmeg monopoly seems to be sure: Now the Bandanese natives are considered slaves and have to control nutmeg trees under Dutch rule. Additionally the number of nutmeg trees is deliberately limited thus the price is not collapsing (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122).

And now Coen is also making an expedition for the destruction of clove trees, the so called "Hongitochten" trips. The price for cloves is saved in this way and at the same time any competition is eliminated (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122).

In 1621 Shah Abbas "the Great" is calling the nobles from Habsburg against the Turks, but the house Habsburg does not want to help. Then Shah Abbas is calling the Dutch against the Turkish threat. At the same time a new silk trade route with Europe is projected evading the Turkish territory (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

In 1622 Dutch forces are helping to Shah Abbas to conquer the Portuguese Hormuz and to destroy it. Then Shah Abbas is founding a new town at the other side of the sea, "Bändär Abbas" (port of Abbas, Reinhard, vol.I, p.124). By this "help" Dutch and British are saving for themselves the Persian silk monopoly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

In 1622 a big Dutch attack against Macao is failing. The Portuguese are defending their trade monopoly with China successfully (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86, 123). Instead of this Coen lets occupy the "Pescadores Islands" [also called "Penghu"] and from there he lets threat the Chinese coast line (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

Map of
                    Portuguese colonial Pescadores Islands / Penghu
                    between the today's Taiwan and China
Map of Portuguese colonial Pescadores Islands / Penghu between the today's Taiwan and China [114]

"Ballast loads": indigo, niter, sugar, Japanese copper
As "ballast loads" English ships are transporting indigo and niter, Dutch ships are transporting sugar above all from Java, since 1621 also Japanese copper. Japanese copper can be sold in Amsterdam cheaper as the Swedish one but the profit is the same (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

Dutch trade with Japan: cheap noble metals
Japan is delivering cheap noble metals like silver, gold, and copper. The trade with Japan for the delivery of noble metals is becoming an extremely important factor for the Dutch (Reinhard, vol.I, p.180).

Withdrawal of the English trading post from Japan in 1623 - China expelling the Dutch from the Pescadores Islands in 1623 - Dutch trading post in Bändär Abbas in 1623 - "massacre of Amboina" in 1623 - 1624: expulsion of Spanish missioners from Japan - 1624: Dutch are conquering Taiwan / Formosa, fortress of "Zeelandia" - "America" in 1624: Dutch occupations in South "America" - sugar, coffee, slave trade

In 1623 the English trading post is withdrawn from Japan (Reinhard, vol.I,p.84,122).

In 1623 appr. the Dutch are driven away from the "Pescadores Islands" by Chinese armies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

In 1623 V.O.C. can install an own Dutch trading post in Bändär Abbas (Arabia) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

Mass murder on Amboina Island: In 1623 Coen on Amboina Island is listening conspirative rumors and lets murder 10 Englishmen, 10 Japanese men, and 1 Portuguese man of the local English trading post there, whereas the dissolution of this trading post had already been decided. This "massacre of Amboina" is suddenly a new slogan of world history. Tensions between Dutch and English are rising. English propaganda is repeating this event again and again for propaganda against Holland (Reinhard, vol.I, p.120), partly also during Boer War in South Africa yet (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122).

In 1624 Spanish missioners are driven away from Japan (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

In the same year of 1624 the Dutch are conquering Formosa Island from China (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86,123). Coen lets erect the Dutch fortress "Zeelandia" [are there natives working and dying?]. Under the Dutch rule Taiwan / Formosa is becoming a center for the trade and smuggling with China (Reinhard, vol.I,p.123).

The fortress of Zeelandia in the
                              Dutch colony of Formosa (today's Taiwan)
The fortress of Zeelandia in the Dutch colony of Formosa (today's Taiwan) [115]

It was named after the first Dutch ship reaching there - "Formosa". This fortress is on an island in front of the main island of Formosa and any coming ship has to pass it.

http://www.stumpfeldt.de/hcn29/desk.html (March 2005)

"America": In 1624 the Dutch West India Company is conquering the "Portuguese" province of Bahía [today in Brazil] and six more Portuguese princedoms at the coast line of South "America" (which is native territory principally). Now the Dutch are exploiting sugar and coffee plantations and they make profits in the slave trade (DTV vol.I,p.277).

Criminal Dutch "property trade system" of V.O.C.

When the Dutch are conquering Portuguese territories the Dutch are taking over the protective system of the Portuguese with passages and protection money which is applied also for the trade routes in the countries. By this the local population is driven into a Dutch tax system with extortions with protection money, and any competitive people is forced to change their trade routes. Additionally the customs duties are fully for the Dutch only. Thus V.O.C. has all the property trade fully in their own hands and can work at one's own expense. But the complete control of trade routes in the countryside is not possible because the rivals "never rest" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.180).

Prohibition of private trade in V.O.C.
There is a prohibition for the V.O.C. staff having own trade in the countryside. But this prohibition is undermined more and more by the own staff members (Reinhard, vol.I, p.180).

1628: Cossack occupation of the regions of Yenisei River, Tunguska River, and Angara River - 1628-1633: Portuguese "East India Company" without success - 1628/1629: siege of Jakarta / "Batavia" by the sultan of Mataram, withdrawal of the English trading post from Jakarta / "Batavia" to Bantam - since 1630 appr.: Makassar becoming an international trade center on Celebes Island - "America": 1630: Recife becoming a Dutch center for South "America" - 1632: Cossack foundation of Yakutsk - 1633: bankruptcy of Portuguese "East India Company"

In 1628 Cossacks can occupy the regions with the rivers Yenisei River, Tunguska River and Angara River (Reinhard, vol.I, p.87).

In 1628 Portugal makes a trial copying the Dutch model founding an "East India Company". Investors come above all from the Portuguese crown and from the upper class from the Portuguese towns, above all from Lisbon. But this participation is "not at all voluntary" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

From 1628 to 1633 the Portuguese "East India Company" has only a modest "success" because the pepper prices remain low and the company remains not attractive for private capital. Because of "new Christs" with Jewish origin who are denied for being member the monopoly of the Portuguese  fleet on pepper is hold on (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

Java: In 1628/1629 the sultan of Mataram is sieging Batavia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215). English are withdrawing their trading post in "Batavia" going to Bantam having more distance to the Dutch (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122). But the sultan cannot expel the Dutch and cannot hinder the naval domination of the Dutch in the Java region (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

Since 1630 appr. the town of Makassar of the sultanate with the same name on Celebes Island / Sulawesi Island is becoming a center for spice trade for the Dutch, the English, the Portuguese, and the Danish (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

Indonesia: map with the position of
                            Celebes Island / Sulawesi Island
Indonesia: map with the position of Celebes Island / Sulawesi Island [116]
Map with Makassar /
                              Ujungpandang on Sulawesi Island
Map with Makassar / Ujungpandang on Sulawesi Island [117]

"America": Since 1630 Recife is "protecting" the Dutch dominated northern coast of South "America" (DTV vol.I, p.277).

Siberia: In 1632 the Cossacks are founding Yakutsk on Lena River (Reinhard, vol.I,p.87).

Portugal: In 1633 the Portuguese "East India Company" is dissolved because it's a failure (Reinhard, vol.I, p.97).

1634: Expulsion of Christians from Ethiopia - "America" in 1634: Dutch foundation of "Curaçao" - since 1635: xenophobe policy against foreigners in Japan - 1636: restrictions for Portuguese in Japan - Diemen becoming a new general governor of V.O.C. in 1636, campaigns against Ceylon and Malabar Coast - since 1636: V.O.C. blocking Goa every year - siege of Malacca - 1636: self appointment of Manchu ruler for being the Emperor of China - "America" 1636: Dutch "foundation" of "Guayana"

In 1634 the Christians from Ethiopia are driven away (Reinhard, vol.I,p.63).

"America" in 1634: Dutch foundation of "Curaçao" (DTV, vol.I,p.277) [before the natives of this Caribbean island were probably enslaved and exterminated].

In 1635 a xenophobe policy against foreigners is coming up in Japan. There is a general prohibition for all Japanese for trips abroad. Japanese people abroad have to return to Japan (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

In 1636 the Portuguese in Japan are restricted and are permitted only on the little artificial island of Deshima in the port of Nagasaki (Reinhard, vol.I,p.85).

In 1636 Antonio van Diemen is appointed for being a new general governor of Dutch V.O.C. (until 1645). Diemen is starting suddenly a campaign against Ceylon (because of the cinnamon trade) and against Malabar Coast of India (because of pepper trade). In Ceylon the Dutch are even called for help by the princedom of Kandy under the rajah (ruler) Sinha II - against the Portuguese occupation "clearing up" longer lasting conflicts (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

Antonio van Diemen
Antonio van Diemen [118]

Since 1636 Diemen lets block Goa every year with a new fleet. This sieges are blocking the Portuguese trade in the countryside and are blocking the connections to Macao and Malacca. Also Malacca is more and more sieged, the trade center for cloves (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

In China in 1636 the Manchu ruler is appointing himself as the Emperor of China. This is the father of the Shunzhi who will found the Manchu dynasty later (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

"America" in 1636: Dutch "foundation" of "Guayana" (DTV vol.I,p.277) [and it can be admitted also here that the natives are enslaved first or even exterminated. Then the whites were mixing with the black slaves].

1637: Japanese project to occupy the "Philippines", upheavals in Japan - 1637: cheap Bengali raw silk booming - 1638: Cossack foundation of Okhotsk at the Pacific coast line - Dutch occupation of Batticola in 1638

In 1637 Japan has the project to conquer the "Philippines" together with Dutch help. In the same year there are upheavals in Shimabara, and there are upheavals of impoverished farmers and pursued Christians and expelled samurais in western Kyushu. Dutch artillery on ships can stop the upheavals (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

In 1637 the Dutch British silk monopoly is big troubles because of conflicts in Persia. At the same time the European naval powers are discovering that Bengal raw silk is cheaper than the Persian and Chinese one. Thus from now on Bengal becomes an attractive location (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

Map with India and Bengalen
Map with India and Bengalen [119]

In 1638 the Cossacks are founding the town of Okhotsk at the Pacific coast line (Reinhard, vol.I,p.87).

In the same year of 1638 V.O.C. is conquering Batticaloa in the east of Ceylon (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

Ceylon: map with the
                    position of Batticaloa
Ceylon: map with the position of Batticaloa [120]

1639: Prohibition of trade against Portuguese in Japan - 1640: execution of the ambassador of Macao in Japan - since 1640: upheavals on the "Philippines" and decline of the Portuguese Manila trade - since 1640: fight for independence of Portugal against Spain - 1640: V.O.C. conquering cinnamon center of Galle - since 1640: world wide depression

In 1639 Japan is prohibiting any trade of Portuguese in Japan (Reinhard, vol.I,p.85). The stream of silver from Japan to China is reduced. By this the political crisis in China with the Ming Dynasty is becoming even worse (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

In 1640 Japan is enforcing it's authority against the Portuguese executing the Portuguese ambassador of Macao in Japan. Domestic policy of Japan is more and more radicalized. Every Japanese has to be registered in a temple now. Concerning foreign trade there is remaining a limited exchange of goods with Korea, with the Ryukyu Islands, with China, and there is a Dutch trading post (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

                            with Ryukyu Islands Map with Ryukyu Islands [121]

This archipelago was and is part of Japan and is almost as long as the Japanese main island itself.

http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/ wwii/okinawa/chapter1.htm

Since 1640 the Spanish Portuguese authority on the "Philippines" is declining and there are upheavals. Thus the Portuguese trade between Manila and China is also declining. And the political crisis of the Ming Dynasty in China is becoming even worse (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

In 1640 on the Iberian peninsula there is even beginning the fight for independence of Portugal against Spain (until 1668; Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

In 1640 V.O.C. is conquering the town of Galle in southern Ceylon, the cinnamon center of the island (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

Ceylon: Map
                    with the town of Galle in the south, and with the
                    town of Kandy in the middle of the island
Ceylon: Map with the town of Galle in the south, and with the town of Kandy in the middle of the island [122]

Since 1640 there begins a general world wide economic depression (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

Dutch in Ceylon
V.O.C. is working as a "trustee" of the rajah (ruler) of Kandy first. Since 1641 after the armistice with Spain and Portugal the Dutch try to part the cinnamon harvest with the Portuguese. Also in India the Dutch are aiming a deal with the Portuguese concerning the pepper trade at the Malabar Coast (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

Dutch tactics for keeping their monopolies

After having conquered the monopoly of cloves and nutmeg Holland is getting also more and more the cinnamon monopoly in his hands. The tactic is repeating:

-- the production is limited by force keeping the prices high
-- natives get only extremely low wages and prices if so
-- the Dutch are fixing high prices for Europe but also for Asia now thus the competition cannot purchase the product there and resell it in Europe for a good price
-- a too high price is provoking a sinking demand at once thus the Dutch can always estimate the optimal profits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.170).

Dutch ships in Australia - Tatars on Lake Baikal and on Bering Strait

1641: replacement of the Dutch trading post in Japan to Deshima - 1641: Malacca falls to Holland - 1642: Portuguese spice monopoly falling with the exception of cinnamon - 1642: Dutch expedition under Tasman: "discovery" of "Tasmania", Tonga Islands and Fiji Islands - 1644 appr.: Dutch load in Australia under Tasman

Since 1641 the Dutch trading post in Japan is replaced to Deshima [near Nagasaki]. "Dutch science" is having a certain influence yet providing some information about Japan also in Europe (Reinhard, vol.I,p.85). Trade with Japan is profitable for the Dutch yet. Until 1671 the profits are 1 to 2 million guilders (Reinhard, vol.I,p.123).

In 1641 Malacca is falling to Holland. The Portuguese have to withdraw from the eastern seas. Macao is remaining an isolated Portuguese sot. At the same time India gets the news about the beginning Portuguese fight against Spain and there is another news about an armistice between Holland and Spain. Diemen is not reacting yet, he is delaying the negotiations with the Portuguese and until 1643 he is sending more fleets every year blocking Goa (Reinhard, vol.I,p.124).

Only in 1642 the spice monopoly of the Portuguese crown is falling under the new national Portuguese dynasty of Braganza, and only the monopoly of cinnamon is dept because for a short time cinnamon is a better business than pepper (Reinhard, vol.I,p.97).

In 1642 a Dutch expedition under Abel Tasman is on the way to the legendary southern continent,

Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman [123]
Map with Australia with the position
                              of Tasmania
Map with Australia with the position of Tasmania [124]

"detecting" "Tasmania" and circumnavigating whole Australia without detecting the coast line,

Map with the position of New Zealand
landing in New Zealand [125]

and on the way back passing the Pacific "detecting" Tonga Islands and Fiji Islands (Huby, p.19).

Map with the position of Tonga
Map with the position of Tonga Islands [126]
Map with Fiji Islands
Map with Fiji Islands [127]
Fiji Islands and Tonga Islands in
Fiji Islands and Tonga Islands in detail [128]

In 1644 appr. Abel Tasman is again performing a Dutch expedition to the legendary southern continent landing on the northern coast of Australia (Huby, p.19).

1644: Suicide of the last Ming Emperor in China - since 1644: Manchu Dynasty in China, Emperor Shunzhi - since 1644: Shunzhi threatening Zheng Chenggong in southern China - 17th century: Jesuits in China under the Manchus, "China fashion"

1644: Rebels in China conquered Beijing. The last "Ming" Emperor is hanging himself. Successor is not the leader of the rebels, but the duke of the Tunguse tribes of the Manchus, Shunzhi (until 1661).

China: Manchu Quing Dynasty with Shunzhi
China: Manchu Quing Dynasty with Shunzhi [129]

With this the Manchu dynasty is beginning with the Quing (until 1911). These Quing are beginning now to threaten the ruler in southern China, Zheng Chenggong (Reinhard, vol.I,p.86).

Southern China:
                    ruler Zheng Chenggong
Southern China: ruler Zheng Chenggong [130]

17th century: After the Chinese government reform European Jesuits get the permission of staying at the Chinese court. This is provoking just a real "China fashion" in China (Reinhard, vol.I, p.85).

1646: Treaty between V.O.C. and the new ruler of Mataram, ruler Amangkurat I - Dutch trading post in Kayamkulam since 1647 - 1648: Cossacks subdue the whole continent down to Kamchatka Peninsula and "Bering Strait", submission of the region of Lake Baikal - 1648: end of Spanish Dutch war with "peace of Hague"

Java: In 1646 Amangkurat I (until 1677) is the new susuhunan (ruler) of Mataram. He is making a "deal" with the Dutch general governor:

-- V.O.C. is acknowledging the supreme government of the susuhunan
-- V.O.C. is paying tax to the new susuhunan
-- V.O.C. gets the monopoly of the sea trade and of the free trade in the inner of the country (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

India: In 1647 the Dutch can open their first own trading post in Kayamkulam at the Malabar Coast (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

Russia: In 1648 the Cossacks are subduing Kamchatka Peninsula, the region of "Bering Strait" and the region of Lake Baikal (Reinhard, vol.I, p.87).

In 1648 the Spanish Dutch war is ending (Reinhard, vol.I,p.109). Spain has to recognize the Netherlands as an own republic in the "Peace of Hague". The Spanish project of Phillip II for hispanicizing the Netherlands is failing definitely (DTV vol.I, p.245).

Cossacks and Dutch reinforcing their occupied territories - coffee becoming a new factor

1650: Lisbon loosing it's significance as an international spice market - 1651: Cossack foundation of Irkutsk - 1652-1654: English Dutch war about monopoly of delivery and exportation in England - "America" since 1652 appr.: beginning Portuguese reconquest of the coast of South "America" - 1652: Cape Town becoming a Dutch colony

In 1650 Lisbon is loosing definitely it's significance as an international spice market. The defense of the Portuguese colonies is consuming high sums. the colonies in India are not profitable any more for Portugal, above all with the fight against the Netherlands. The profits are sinking slowly but steadily. The statal profits with spices are about 20% yet (Reinhard, vol.I, p.106).

The significance of India for Portugal is reducing, and at the same time the significance of Brazil is rising. The "leading" role of world wide economy is taken by the Netherlands now (Reinhard, vol.I,p.106).

Siberia: In 1651 the Cossacks are founding the town of Irkutsk (Reinhard, vol.I,p.87).

In 1652 the armistice between the Netherlands and Portugal is ending. But since the same year Holland is involved in a war against the English trade monopoly in English ports ("Navigation act", Reinhard, vol.I,p.124; DTV vol.I, p.267).

Since 1652 appr. Portuguese troops can perform a step-by-step reconquest of the Dutch occupied north east coast line of South "America" [native territory] (DTV vol.I, p.277).

In 1652 Cape Town is appointed to be a Dutch colony. Dutch ships traveling to India are permitted having a stay at the "Table Mountain" (Dutch: "Indischen Zeherberg") (Reinhard, vol.I, p.125).

1654: Holland has to accept the English "Navigation Act" - 1654: Portuguese reconquest of north eastern coast line of South "America" against Holland - new Dutch military campaign on Ceylon since 1654 - 1656: Dutch conquest of Colombo and Tuticorin - 1657: Dutch governor of Ceylon: Rijklof van Goens - India 1658: Jaffnapatam and Negapatam are Dutch, the whole coast line of Ceylon is Dutch

In 1654 Holland and England are finishing their naval war. Holland has to accept the English "Navigation Act" thus only English ships tan bring and export goods to and from England (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124; DTV vol.I, p.267).

"America": In 1654 Portuguese forces can complete their reconquest of the Portuguese princedoms at the north eastern coast of South "America" against the Dutch. The bases for the the Dutch West India Company remain Curaçao and Guayana (DTV vol.I, p.277).

Guayana and Curaçao
Map with the position of Guyana
                              within South "America"
Map with the position of Guyana within South "America" [131]
Map with the position
                            of Curaçao Island, also called "Dutch
                            Antilles" (several islands)
Map with the position of Curaçao Island, also called "Dutch Antilles" (several islands) [132]
Detailed map of the Dutch Antilles
                            (Aruba - Curaçao - Bonaire etc.)
Detailed map of the Dutch Antilles (Aruba - Curaçao - Bonaire etc.) [133]

Dutch Antilles are in front of Venezuela. These islands are Dutch until today and are a colonial remnant of Dutch colonialism.

Since 1654 V.O.C. has collected all it's force for military campaigns in India, especially against the Portuguese on Ceylon (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

In 1656 the town of Colombo on Ceylon is getting under Dutch dominance, also Tuticorin at the Coromandel Coast at the other side of Ceylon (Reinhard, vol.I,p.124).

India: map with Tuticorin on the
                            coast of East India
India: map with Tuticorin on the coast of East India [134]
Today this town of
                            Tuticorin is in the federal state of Tamil
                            Nadu in Toothukudi District, map
Today this town of Tuticorin is in the federal state of Tamil Nadu in Toothukudi District, map [135]

In 1657 the supreme commander of the V.O.C. in the Indian Ocean, Mr. Rijklof van Goens, is becoming the Dutch governor of Ceylon. Goens is following with his consequent aggressive policy against Portuguese spice trade structures (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

In 1658 V.O.C. is also conquering the town of Jaffnapatam in Ceylon and Negapatnam at the Coromandel Coast. Now the Dutch are controlling the whole coast line of Ceylon Island (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

Robbery of silver
                            and silver trade (silver circulation) world
                            wide during the epoch between 1650 to 1750,
                            scheme by Michael Palomino
Robbery of silver and silver trade (silver circulation) world wide during the epoch between 1650 to 1750, scheme by Michael Palomino [136]

From Mexico and South "America" the stream of free silver is flowing to the "Philippines" and to Spain / Portugal. From Spain / Portugal this silver is flowing to the Protestant racist towns of Amsterdam and London. From London and from Amsterdam the silver is flowing to India (Bombay, Surat) and to India (Madras and Calcutta) and to Indonesia (Batavia, today's Jacarta). From Spain / Portugal the silver is flowing over Egypt and Mocca as also over Syria and Persia to India (Surat, Bombay). From the Philippines silver is flowing to China (Kanton) and to India (Madras). Silver from Japan is flowing to Indonesia (Batavia, Jacarta).

Since 2nd half of 17th century: Rising copper prices, Holland profiting - V.O.C. reinforcing the control over Java - trade of the "Philippines" with the southern neighbors - since 1660 appr.: rising textile trade between Europe and India, French textile center Pondichéry - 1660-1669: Dutch "expeditions" against trade in Makassar - south-Chinese conquest of Formosa in 1661 - Quilon conquered by V.O.C. in 1661 - 1661-1682: anti Dutch sultan Agong in Bantam - first official coffee load in Amsterdam 1661/1662, "East India Company" in the coffee business

Since the second half of the 17th century the copper price is rising. Dutch deliveries of Japanese copper to Amsterdam are reinforcing (Reinhard, vol.I,p.179).

Since the second half of the 17th century V.O.C. is heading for a stronger political control on Java Island. Step by step the sultans have to make deals admitting more rights to V.O.C. in the "exchange" for more safety, or rebellious sultans are eliminated by coups (Reinhard, vol.I, p.214).

Also since the second half of the 17th century the "Philippines" are orientating more to Southeast India and Indonesia (Reinhard, vol.I,p.86).

Since 1660 appr. the textile trade between Europe and India is becoming more and more important. Indian workers have a high skillfulness in handicrafts (Reinhard, vol.I, p.170) and wages are low there thus the Indian products are attractive. England and France are installing competing trading posts, France for example is installing a textile center in the Indian town of Pondichéry (Reinhard, vol.I, p.171).

India: map of
                    the territory of the Union of Pondichéry, French
                    colonial territory in India
India: map of the territory of the Union of Pondichéry, French colonial territory in India [137]

Celebes / Sulawesi: From 1660 to 1669 the Dutch are performing three "expeditions" being eager for destroying any merchant function of the sultanate of Makassar (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

China: In 1661 Zheng is performing an attack against Taiwan / Formosa with 900 ships and 25,000 men driving the Dutch occupation away (Reinhard, vol.I,p.86).

India: In 1661 the Dutch are conquering the town of Quilon at the Malabar Coast (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

India, map
                    with the position of Quilon at Malabar Coast (west
                    coast) of India
India, map with the position of Quilon at Malabar Coast (west coast) of India [138]

Sumatra / Java: In 1661 (until 1682) sultan Agong gets the power in the sultanate of Bantam. This sultanate of Bangam is dominating the pepper production in southern Sumatra, is performing an independent spice market and is delivering spices to the English. All in all sultan Agong is performing a pro Muslim and anti Dutch policy (Reinhard, vol.I, p.214).

V.O.C. in these times has no force to interfere against Bantam because of wars on the Indian subcontinent against Portugal and against the central Java state of Mataram (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

In 1661 / 1662 the first coffee loads are reaching Amsterdam and are sold there on the market. There are only little quantities until 1690 (for getting high profits with high prices). And at the same time "East India Company" is involved with the coffee business for England (Reinhard, vol.I,p.175).

Cranganore conquered by V.O.C. in 1662, Portuguese driven away from Sâo Tomé - China in 1662: prohibition of navigation and forced resettlement away from the coast line for Chinese people of the Manchu dynasty - Spanish withdrawal from Manila in 1662 - Dutch Portuguese peace in 1662

In 1662 the Dutch are conquering Cranganore [today: Kodungallur / Kodungaloore] at the Malabar Coast (Reinhard, vol.I,p.124).

In 1662 forces of V.O.C. are assisting the ruler of Golkonda driving the Portuguese from Sâo Tomé near Madras away [today Chennai]. The Portuguese population is expelled to Goa (Reinhard, vol.I,p.124).

India, map with Goa (left) and
                              Madras (today's Chennai, right)
India, map with Goa (left) and Madras (today's Chennai, right) [139]

China: In 1662 is following the reaction of the Manchu dynasty concerning the south Chinese conquest. All Chinese under their government are forbidden to perform any navigation. Additionally all coastal population is forced to resettle in the inner of the country (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

Manila: In 1662 there is a rumor of a future Chinese attack against Manila and this provokes that the Spanish garrison in Manila is evacuated (Reinhard, vol.I, p.73,123). With this step Dutch attacks against Moluccas Islands are possible without any risk (Reinhard, vol.I,p.123).

In 1662 the Portuguese Dutch peace is ratified in Amsterdam. Despite of this ratification Goens lets put the Portuguese colonial empire under pressure and lets attack it again and again (Reinhard, vol.I, p.125).

1663: V.O.C. conquering Cochin and Cannanore - Portuguese expedition to Australia and "detection" of the Solomon Islands - 1669: destruction of Makassar by the Dutch enforcing the Dutch spice monopoly - expulsion of the Dutch from Mocca - 1670: fight of successor
and economic crisis and upheaval on Java Island against Amangkurat I - English drama about the "Massacre of Amboina" published in 1673

India: In 1663 the Dutch are conquering Cochin, the center of Portuguese pepper trade, and Cannanore (Reinhard, vol.I, p.124).

India, map
                    with the position of Cannanore at the west coast
                    (Malabar Coast)
India, map with the position of Cannanore at the west coast (Malabar Coast) [140]

South Pacific: In 1667 / 1668 two Portuguese expedition ships under the leadership of Mr. Alvaro de Mendana de Neira are performing a trip to the alleged "Golden Island in the West" which is described in a legend of the Inkas. Then these ships are "detecting" the Solomon Islands at the east of New Guinea, but a conquest is not allowed yet (Reinhard, vol.I, p.82).

Map with Australia and the position of the
                      Solomon Islands
Map with Australia and the position of the Solomon Islands [141]

In 1669 the Dutch achieve in destroying the international trade center of Makassar conquering in a military way. With this action the Dutch nutmeg and clove monopoly is saved definitely since 1669 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

As a counter blow against the brutal monopolizing economy the Dutch are driven away from Mocca (Reinhard, vol.I, p.123).

Since 1670 there is a fight on Java Island about the successor of susuhunan (ruler) Amangkurat I because there is no succession arrangement. Additionally in north of Java there is an economic crisis provoked by the Dutch monopoly thus there is an upheaval against the religious and political oppression by Amangkurat I (Reinhard, vol.I,p.215).

In 1673 the English poet John Dryden is writing a tragedy about the "massacre of Amboina" being published in 1623: "Amboyna, or, The Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Merchants" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122).

John Dryden, portrait, English colonialist,
                      massacre of Amboyna
John Dryden, portrait, English colonialist, massacre of Amboyna [142]

Dutch dominance in Ceylon Island and in India

The administration needed for the trade

In general the structures of Dutch rulership are similar to the Portuguese, but there are differences considering the rating of the fellow beings. There is only administered the soil which is worth for spice trade. There are so called "protectorates" on Java Island, on the Moluccas Island and on Celebes / Sulawesi Island, serving the "hither aims of V.O.C.". The projects of Mr. Coens of a tighter connection between the Netherlands and the Asian world are not developed, but the distance is kept now deliberately.

When there is a control over territories, then governors are appointed like in Batavia, Amboina, on the Moluccas Islands, on the Banda Islands, and on Ceylon, In Makassar, in North East Java, in Malacca, and in South Africa. In military bases dictators are appointed as on the Coromandel Coast, in Bengal, in Surate and in Bändär Abbas, in Malabar, in Galle and in Jaffnapatum. When the power of government is left to a duke then a Dutch governing resident is put aside (Reinhard, vol.I, p.125).

Trade over Batavia - greed for profits - recruiting sailors
Dutch system of V.O.C. has two big limiting conditions. First the whole trade has to be administered over Batavia which is causing considerable expenses for the towns of the Indian subcontinent. Only the Dutch trade with China is not administered by Batavia since 1729. Second the Dutch let "work" the money which is stored at home and thus are never leaving their home, or they are making a trip to the colonies for "fast money" returning fast again then.

Recruiting soldiers is not a problem because there is already existing a proletariat with sufficient unemployed people. Additionally there is the possibility for engaging also foreign people because Holland is more and more an attractive point also for other trade nations (Reinhard, vol.I, p.127).

Colonialism is beginning to "reinforce" the "identity" of the young republic of the Netherlands. For example this fact is expressed in colonial songs where racism and profit are glorified. The poet Joost van den Vondel who is near the line of Grotius and Oldenbarnevelt was making for example the following text:

"Where profit is leading us
to any sea and beach
loving or profit
we are exploring the ports of the wide world." (Reinhard, vol.I, p.128).

Joost van den
                              Vondel Holland Niederlande Kolonialismus
Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679) [143]

Johan van
                              Oldenbarnevelt Portrait, Kolonialismus
                              Holland Niederlande
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt [144]

Protestant racism inhibiting the foundation of families

Propaganda cannot make the progress in Holland presenting a positive idea about the natives in India. Additionally the Dutch sailors in India are reported to be very drunk and violent. With this both mentalities are heading to the contrary. Settlements on foreign soil have no success. Additionally V.O.C. is installing obstacles to the settlers for a profit sharing when the settler become free citizens ("vrijburger").

With all this there is no rise, and when there is a career it's not attractive. Snobbish V.O.C. is also rejecting the transportation of "adventurous" girls and thus is inhibiting the foundation of Dutch families in the colonies. Marriages with Indian women are rejected by the Indian side because the Dutch protestant hardliners are never accepted as son-in-laws. Marriages with Portuguese mixed-blood girls would be a connection with the catholic class enemy, and the connection to slave girls would be a degradation (Reinhard, vol.I, p.127).

In this way the Dutch are only stockpiling their wealth and at the same time they are loosing themselves with it's harsh protestantism and racism. But they are assimilated by Europe Asian mixed-blood people, mostly as a landlord of a restaurant. The Dutch are admitting the pidgin Portuguese language which is the dominating Indian colonial language from 1500 to the 18th century which is spoken soon in the V.O.C. and in the Dutch society. Only since the 18th century English is enforcing to be the colonial language in India and the number of Europeans is reaching a considerable number (Reinhard, vol.I, p.127).

Corruption and bankruptcy with V.O.C. at the end of the 17th century
At the end of the 17th century corruption in V.O.C. is rising up to the highest grades thus V.O.C. is suffering a heavy damage with it (Reinhard, vol.I, p.128). Now also highest ranks are involved with smuggling. Neutrality and distance rating the managements is not guaranteed any more because the highest ranks are only filled with persons by personal relationships within the urban leading groups, or working posts are even "sold" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.129).

V.O.C.: Religion and science

Tolerance for getting more profits - preachers as mediators of wisdom
V.O.C. is following a harsh and intolerant protestant line. They have churches and missions with their "subjects" until this church apparatus is too expensive and is not corresponding to their profit thinking any more. At the same time protestant "sects" are tolerated by profit thinking, thus German "Lutherans" and "Papists" are accepted. By reasons of sensibility V.O.C. is rejecting to any trial of mission in Japan and in Muslim territories.

Preachers are often installed as mediator of wisdom. Holland of the 17th century is becoming a leading country for Asian travel literature for example about Hinduism with the work by Abraham Rogerius "Open door to the secrets of non-believers" (original in Latin: "De open Deure tot het verborgen Heydendom"), 1651 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.127).

Dutch works about East Asia are further

-- a Dutch encyclopedia about India by François Valentijn "Ond en Nieuw Oost Indien" (1724-1726)
-- Dutch works about botany "Hortus Indicus Malabaricus" ["Indian garden in Malabar"] (1678-1703)
-- a special work about botany of Amboina Island by Georg Eberhard Rumpius "Amboinsch Kruidboek" (English: "Amboinan Herb Book"), 1697, published in Amsterdam 1741-1750
-- a special work is "Ambinische Rariteytskamer" (English: "Amboina Chamber of Rarities"), 1705, about sea shells, birds and stones.

Additionally there are reports about Japan by the leader of Desima, Isaac Tatsingh, and these reports are compiled in 1822 in the book "Illustrations of Japan" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.128).

1674: Breakdown of Mataram during a civil war, Dutch "help" for Amangkurat I. - 1675: projected Chinese action against Russia - 1677: death of Amangkurat, the successor leaving rights to the V.O.C.: provinces and importation monopoly for opium and for Indian textiles - 1678: general governor of V.O.C. crowning the new "susuhunan" of Mataram

In 1674 a big upheaval is organized in the sultanate of Mataram and the sultanate is collapsing. The "susuhunan" ("supreme ruler") Amangkurat is pleading for Dutch "help" for going on with his rulership (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

In 1675 the Beijing court Jesuit is giving an idea to the Russian ambassadors that China would project actions against Russia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.88).

In 1677 the "susuhunan" ("supreme ruler") of the sultanate of Mataram on Java is going to the sky and is leaving a country without order which is dependent from Dutch "help". The successor is making deals giving territories to the V.O.C.: territories south of Batavia, the territory of Krawang and the territory of Priangan and also the port of Semarang. V.O.C. is further getting the monopoly for the importation of opium and Indian textiles. The general governor of V.O.C. is becoming a "protector" and "father" of the susuhunan reinforcing the power concerning the population (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

In 1678 the new "susuhunan" of Mataram is crowned by the Dutch commander. For his protection a Dutch garrison is staying in his residence. Since now  the Netherlands can determine who is ruler on Java. During the next decades the rulers of Java are changed according to the will of the Dutch, always with more concessions by treaty for the V.O.C. (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

New factor South Africa, England and industrialization

since 1680: propaganda in Holland for new settlements in Cape Town - Bengal as a new textile production center - development of power looms in England

Since 1680 there is a propaganda in the Netherlands encouraging the masses for forming white settlement in Cape Town. These are the beginnings of "White South Africa" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.125).

India: Wars in the inner of India in Gujerat / Gujarat and on the souther coast line since 1680 as also the rising demand for fine fabrics are provoking the shifting of the textile production to Bengal. The cotton production in Surat for the "East India Company" is falling to almost zero. Bengal is becoming the most important territory of European textile Asian trade (Reinhard, vol.I, p.171).

Just by the way in England there are some technicians inventing the power loom (weaving machine). They have the firm idea to equalize the development edge of India concerning textile production. This is an essential impulse for the general industrialization process (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

"America" in 1680: Portuguese foundation of "Sacramento"
In 1680 the penetrating "wild gang fighters" ("bandeirantes") are founding the colony of "Sacramento" [today's Uruguay], (DTV vol.I, p.277).

[Search for noble metals makes possible any crossing of oceans...]

1682: Coup against sultan Agong of Bantam - the Dutch are driving the English from Bantam away because of the pepper monopoly

The Dutch are initiating an intrigue on the court and thus in 1682 the anti Dutch sultan Agong in Bantam is overthrown (Reinhard, vol.I,p.215), and the English are driven away from Bantam / Jakarta. The Dutch V.O.C. is always more reaching the last spice monopoly, the pepper monopoly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122).

Dutch project for pepper monopoly is failing - Dutch English "balance" in the pepper trade

English "East India Company" has big difficulties to hold it's ground against the Dutch murdering power. After having left Bantam England can "get" pepper over Benkoolen on Sumatra Island yet. Additionally V.O.C. is never succeeding to control the complete Malabar Coast. Additionally the balance of the Malabar towns are not so profitable first (Reinhard, vol.I, p.170).

Instead of installing a Dutch monopoly for pepper there is coming a "balance" between the two powers considering the pepper deliveries to Persia and China. V.O.C. and "East India Company" can use the profits from sellings to Persia and China for purchasing goods for Europe (Reinhard, vol.I, p.170).

China opening ports - Chinese Russian frontier war - English ships in Australia

1683: Manchus conquering Taiwan / Formosa - since 1684: sultanate of Bantam is vassal of Holland - 1685: opening of all Chinese ports in China - 1685: Chinese troops destroying Russian trade post of Albasin - 1687: Chinese siege of Albasin - 1688: English expedition of Australia - 1689: Russian Chinese treaty about a common frontier with a trade permission for Russians in Beijing - 1698-1718: 10 Russian trade caravans in Beijing

In 1683 Taiwan / Formosa is conquered by Quing Manchu dynasty (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

In 1684 the sultanate of Bantam becomes a vassal of V.O.C. which is
-- "taking" the pepper production of southern Sumatra
-- is installing own Dutch fortresses
-- is driving the last English people away from Bantam
-- is closing the port of Bantam for all non Dutch ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

After the occupation of Taiwan / Formosa In 1685 the Chinese ports are opened. Thus the Portuguese loose their monopoly in Macao (Reinhard, vol.I, p.86).

In the same year of 1685 Chinese troops in North China are destroying the Russian trading post of Albasin at Amur River. But the Russians are reconstructing immediately a new one (Reinhard, vol.I, p.88).

In 1687 Chinese troops are sieging the Russian trading post of Albasin. Kanxi Emperor is giving the order to the Chinese army to "eradicate" the Russians (Reinhard, vol.I, p.88).

1688: An English pirate expedition under William Dampier is landing on the north western coast of Australia, is "detecting" New Britain Island and is circumnavigating "New Guinea". Dampier is creating very precious and precise maps (Huby, p.18).

The position of New Britain Island

Map with Papua New Guinea and next
                            to it is New Britain Island (Neubritannien
                            mit Rabaul)
Map with Papua New Guinea and next to it is New Britain Island (Neubritannien mit Rabaul)

In 1689 negotiations between Russians and Chinese are ending with a treaty concluded in the town of Nerchinsk at Shilca River. This is the first time that the Chinese Emperor is making an agreement with another state without demanding tributes. Here are the points of the agreement:

-- the Russians have to give up the trading post of Albasin and they have to give up the lower territories of Amur River
-- the frontier between Russia and China is along Argun River, the upper Amur River and then along the Stanovoy mountain range down to the sea
-- China is permitting an access to Beijing for Russian caravans for a custom duty free trade (Reinhard, vol.I, p.88).

since 1690: rising coffee business of V.O.C.
V.O.C. is engaging with a fast rising coffee business [the profit range seems to fall] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

"America" in 1693: Portuguese find gold in Minas Gerais
Portuguese "wild gang fighters" ("bandeirantes") find something in the inner of the South "American" continent. This new gold mine Minas Gerais is provoking the foundation of new settlements and the construction of new streets. And a confrontation with the Spanish is awaited (DTV, vol.I, p.277).

since 1696: first Dutch coffee plantation trials on Java
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.175)

From 1698 to 1718 10 Russian trade caravans are reaching Beijing (Reinhard, vol.I, p.88?).

Madness for profitability of V.O.C. and the colonial structure in the colonial trade territories since 1700

Until 1700 V.O.C. is limited to only a minimum of colonial law systems which is giving highest profits. Only for the territory of "Ommelanden" around Jacarta / "Batavia" is existing a European administration corpus. The rest of the Dutch dominance is administrated cheaply or even with profits by local staff members (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

Since 1700 V.O.C. is introducing an "Indian" administration on Java. On the local courts of the vassals Dutch "residents" are put aside watching and controlling the local governments. In Priangan south of Batavia the Dutch are even going as far not to fill the position of the sultan any more, but the 16 districts are put under Dutch rule directly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

In 1705 there is a new susuhunan of Mataram on Java. Also the new susuhunan is making concessions to the Dutch V.O.C. thus the Dutch get Cheribon and the East of Maduras. Additionally as a war compensation regular rice deliveries are introduced (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

Map with the
                    position of Madura Island next to Java Island, today
Map with the position of Madura Island next to Java Island, today Indonesia

1709: Cheribon and Madura on Java are parted into 43 "ruler's territories". The regents are exercising a harsh and unlimited control over the population not bewaring private property, matrimonial or familiar connections from measures. Justice is even sharper than under the sultans (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

1711: First successful Dutch coffee plantation on Java
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.175)

since 1716: Dutch "commissioners for native matters", without effect
In 1716 V.O.C. is introducing a counter part against the harsh dominance of the "regents" terrorizing the population in Priangan. Dutch "watchers" are introduced under "commissioners for native matter". In other territories the regents get "residents" aside. Both control mechanisms can hardly provoke any change (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

The prescriptions of V.O.C. for "regents" on Java - the absolute Dutch protection of dominance

The dictation of V.O.C. and the profit margin of the "regents"
First priority has the cheap delivery of trade goods like indigo and pepper, since 1711 also coffee:

-- the native population with it's farmers is obliged to yearly forced deliveries (gedwongen leveringen) respectively contingents for free or for a firm price ("Savah system")

-- the quantity and the "firm price" are dictated by V.O.C. from year to year according to the market situation thus there will be as much profit as possible

-- when the quotas are low the nomad farmers ("Ladang farmers") are ordered to work with the installation of rice terraces and irrigation systems in the region of Paring

-- and the profit margins are also a matter of definition of weights:
oo with the native population a regent is defining 1 "Picul" (one unity of weight) as 222 to 270 pounds
oo but the trading post administration is defining 1 "Picul" with the regent as 140 pounds
oo and the trading post administration is defining 1 "Picul" with the Dutch ships as 126 pounds.

Additionally the regent is using own not controlled and faked weights - tolerated by the V.O.C. (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

The conditions between V.O.C. and the regents: profits are wastes for nothing and debt
With this system the regents become rich with a yearly income of 50,000 to 100,000 guilders. But the regents are partly loosing this money by playing and they are asking for payments in advance for the deliveries. Therefore they are becoming absolutely dependent, and V.O.C. with the payments in advance is making an additional interest business (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

These credits are given by the general governor to the native commissioner with an interest of 3%, and this native commissioner is lending the money to the "regent" with 9-12 %. In this way the "native commissioners" are very loved positions, mostly filled by familiar members or good friends of the general governor (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

The native population: times without wars provoking growth
Despite of all hardship by the sultans and by the Dutch "protectors" the population on Java is growing. Epidemics can stop this growth only for a short time. This growth of the population is because of the protected position: Teh Dutch are fighting the English and the French in India already thus Java is never reached by English and French ships and there are never big wars (Reinhard, vol.I, p.218).

"America" in 1720: again gold is found by Portuguese: Matto Grosso
The Portuguese "wild gang fighters" can find one more time gold in the inner of the South "American" continent. The new gold mine Matto Grosso provokes more foundations of settlements and the construction of streets [on native soil]. By this movement the colonial border line is shifted more and more to the West to territory which is "defined" to be Spanish (DTV, vol.I, p.277).

1727: Russian Chinese treaty for a Mongolia frontier commission - mid of 18th century: China subduing Mongolia
In 1727 China and Russia are concluding a treaty in Kyakhta for the installation of a common commission which should fix a northern frontier to Mongolia. Additionally the Russians are permitted to install an own orthodox church with priests in Beijing, and also some students are permitted in Beijing (Reinhard, vol.I, p.88).

In the middle of the 18th century China is subduing Mongolia then (Reinhard, vol.I, p.88?).

Beginning decline of V.O.C.

Decline of V.O.C. is caused by old fashioned structures and never changing customs which are never adapted:
-- the sons are sent to Asia for making fast money, above all since the 18th century thus the experienced people within the company are always more rare
-- the regents are only interested in the existence of V.O.C. - so rumors tell - when there is missing another possibility for making profits
-- during the time of the best profits (1687-1736 there is always a "positive balance") always high dividends of 16.5% are given and secret reserves are neglected
-- stock prices for V.O.C. papers are always on an extremely high level (Reinhard, vol.I, p.129).

By this behavior a constant indebtedness is announcing which is only possible of course because the Dutch leading upper class is not only administered by V.O.C but also by the authorized credit banks:

-- no reserves are formed
-- long term indebtment by obligations is rising
-- short term debts are not payed but are shifted to other positions with the authorization of Amsterdam Credit Bank
-- secrecy has the consequence that outer circles have no access to the data and the upper class oligarchy is not warned of this dangerous situation
-- the public is tricked by the high dividends (Reinhard, vol.I,p.129).
The losses of V.O.C. are always rising during the 18th century:

-- because the demand in Europe is changing to goods where V.O.C. has no monopoly
-- because Dutch provinces have to pay the bill for losses thus more cover-up is possible
-- because an always bigger smuggling system is developing for the same goods (Reinhard, vol.I, p.129).

<<         >>

Photo sources
[1] king John II from Portugal: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_II._(Portugal)
[2] Tordesillas, bridge: http://www.motoclubtordesillas.com/ informacion_tordesillas.htm
[3a] map with the position of Tordesillas: http://www.ezilon.com/maps/europe/spain-maps.html
[3b] map with Tordesillas (Spain) at Duero River: http://www.pueblos-espana.org/castilla+y+leon/ valladolid/tordesillas/
[4] map with Papal Line from June 7, 1494: http://www.bigoid.de/conquista/lexikon/tordesillas.htm
[5] Vasco da Gama: http://www.bbc.net.uk/history/historic_figures/gama_vasco_da.shtml

[6] map with the positino of Calicut: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Calicut.shtml
[7] dwellers at the beach of Calicut / Kozhikode: http://robert-zeller.com/images/India-2003/Mysore/images.html
[8] sunset in Calicut / Kozhikode: http://www.calicut-kozhikode.indianvisit.com/about-calicut.html

Portugal as first "Christian" colonial power
[9] Portugal: king Manuel I: http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/royal5a.htm
[10] Pedro Álvares Cabral: www.superlegendas.com.br/valcir/pedro_alvares_cabral.htm
[11] Cabral on a Portuguese bank note: http://www.bportugal.pt/bnotes/types/1000/1000_p.htm

[12] India: map with the position of the state of Kerala: http://www.vacationpackages-india.com/cochin-tours.htm
[13] South India: map of the western coast line of India with Cannanore / Kannur: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Cannanore.shtm
[14] map with the slave island Sao Tomé: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_ST.aspx
[15] caravel ship, copy: http://www.vermietung.beroli.de/html/aktivitaten.html
[16] Galeon ship, model: http://www.sell-it-easy.de/shop_d/index.php?cp_sid=118966cb6c8e&cp_tpl=5501
[17] pepper corns: school TV: spices making history (Gewürze machen Geschichte): SWR: http://www.wissen.swr.de/sf/begleit/ bg0059/gg02b.htm
[18] pepper harvest on a pepper plant: http://www.indienerlebnis.de/g06/08/bpa05.html
[19] scurvy: http://www.bam-international.com/bam/homepage/ag/Patologias__Escorbuto.html

[20] map with Malacca peninsula: http://www.oldmapsbooks.com/MapPage/MapPages589xx/58991java.htm
[21] Malacca, house: http://www.malaysiasite.nl/malakkaeng.htm
[22] Malacca, elephant as a seal: http://www.malaysiasite.nl/malakkaeng.htm
[23] Malacca, rickshaw: http://www.malaysiasite.nl/malakkaeng.htm

[24] map with Sofala province of Mozambique: http://atlas.bestpricetravel.de/mosambik-karte.php
[25] map of Africa with Mozambique: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/ current_time_in_MZ.aspx

Tansania, Kilwa
[26] map of Africa with Tansania:http://www.worldtimeserver.com/ current_time_in_TZ.aspx
[27] fortress of Kilva on a stamp: http://www.cham.asso.fr/pages_site/ p_tanzanie_gb.php
[28] map of the coast line of Tansania with Kilva: http://geology.com/world/tanzania-satellite-image.shtml
[29] Kilva at the coast line of today's Tansania, detailed map: http://african-sky.com/activities/mapkilwa.html

[30] mapa with Mombasa, Kenia: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Mombasa.shtml

Sea routes and sea currents and sea winds
[31] map with sea routes from Lisbon to India: Goa and Cochin:
[32] map with an example of a sailor's route from Lisbon to India, Calicut, and Bombay (Mumbai):

[33] Affonso de Albuquerque: http://www.iolaire.co.uk/heads/

Socotra Island
[34] ma with Socotra Island at the "Horn of Africa" near Somalia: http://www.i-cias.com/e.o/socotra.htm
[35] Socotra, Wadi, river with palm trees: http://www.i-cias.com/e.o/socotra.htm
[36] Socotra, center square: http://asmialy.republika.pl/sokotra.htm

[37] map with trade locations at the Persian Gulf and at the Strait of Hormuz: http://www.dataxinfo.com/hormuz/intro.htm

India: sultanate of Gujarat
[38] map of Inida with the sultanate of Gujerat / Gujarat: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/File:India-GUJARAT.svg
[39] map with the town of Diu in the Indian sultanate of Gujerat / Gujarat: http://www.gesundheit-energie.ch/bea.peter/Routen/Route%205%20.htm
[40] map of India with sultanates in the 16th century: http://www215.pair.com/sacoins/images/maps/deccan_16thc.gif

Moluccas Islands
[41] map of Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands Ternate, Tidore, Seram / Ceram and Ambon: http://www.elaput.com/talbvlbs.htm
[42] map of Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands: Ternate and Tidore: http://www.elaput.com/talbvlbs.htm
[43] map of Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands: Little Amboina / Amboyna Island: http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/map24-nd.html

[44] mapwith Madeira Island in front of Africa: http://www.swr.de/kaffee-oder-tee/reise/2003/10/15
[45] map of trade towns on the Persian Gulf: http://www.dataxinfo.com/hormuz/intro.htm

[46] map with the route of Magellan: http://www.oepfu.ch/australien/history/00_01.htm
[47] Magellan, portrait: http://www.spiele-truhe.de/html/ besprechungen/magellan.html

Franz against Karl
[48] king Franz I of France: http://www.bundtschuh.de/Knechte.html
[49] Emperor Charles V, picture of Tizian: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_V._%28HRR%29

Gamellan Strait
[50] map wit Gamellan Strait: http://biblio.unibe.ch/stub/ryhiner/images/400/7907/Ryh_7907_7_A.jpg
[51] hills of Patagonia: http://wwwhephy.oeaw.ac.at/kraml/patagonia/welcome.html
[52] pinguins of Patagonia: http://wwwhephy.oeaw.ac.at/kraml/patagonia/welcome.html
[53] glaciers at the sea in Patagonia: http://www.condorjourneys-adventures.com/chile_mare_australis.asp

[54] robbery and trade of gold and silver at around 1520 (scheme by Michael Palomino): Reinhard, vol. II, p.101

Cebu and the killing of Magellan
[55] map with the position of Cebu Island: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cebu
[56] map of Cebu and Mactan: http://www.travelsmart.net/ph/Diving_Sites/Cebu-Mactan_Sitemap.htm
[57] Lapu-Lapu: http://www.eskrima-rotterdam.nl/html/docepares.htm

[58] Luzon with rice terraces: http://www.vivien-und-erhard.de/reise/Philippinen/nordluzon.htm

Olinda, Brazil
[59] map with the position of Olinda next to Recife: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/south_america/brazil/
[60] bay of Olinda: http://www.brasil-exterior.com/englisch/htm/Recife.htm
[61] house row in Olinda: http://www.adwbrasil.com.br/ english/recife.html
[62] women at carneval of Olinda: http://www.truenet.com.br/olinda-on-line/ portugues/normal/sabado/tvsab6.html
[63] men with trombones at Olinda carneval: http://www.truenet.com.br/olinda-on-line/portugues/normal/domingo/tvdom13.html

Natives of Brazil
[64] native of Brazil: http://www.comciencia.br/ reportagens/501anos/br16.htm
[65] native girl of Brazil: http://freeweb.supereva.com/ mensageiro.freeweb/n114/ospovos.htm?p
[66] native with bow and arrow during hunting: http://www.nord-brasil.com/9801.html?* session*id*key*=*session*id*val*
[67] natives of Brazil in hammocks: http://www.kulli.info/regenwald/zuruaha.htm

[68] Mogul Emperor Akbar: http://www.webindia123.com/history/MEDIEVAL/mughal%20period/mughal2.htm
[69] territory of Akbar in India and the extentions: http://www.webindia123.com/history/MEDIEVAL/mughal%20period/mughal2.htm

[70] Francis Drake: http://www.sosuanieuws.com/

[71] Jan Huyghen: http://www.linschoten-vereeniging.nl/1.html

[72] Spanish "silver fleet" being attacked: http://www.payer.de/bolivien2/bolivien0206.htm

Tomar (Portugal), court town for Phillipp II, 1581
[73] map with the position of Tomar: http://www.dee.estt.ipt.pt/jornadas_dee/informacoes.html
[74] center of Tomar: http://www.lefdal.cc/2003/Portugal2/index.php
[75] Tomar cathedral:: http://dejwy.net/cesty_sp.html
[76] Tomar cathedral, view from behind: http://www.kathi-und-peter.at/reisen/portugal/ port-gallery/pages/073-tomar.htm

[77] map of the "Phillippines" with Mindanao and Sulu archipelago: http://www.drgeorgepc.com/Tsunami1976Phillipines.html
[78] "Phillippines": map with Palavan Island: http://www.proel.org/mundo/palawan.htm

[79] map wit positino of Timor Island: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_TL.aspx

[80] Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi: http://www.japan-zone.com/omnibus/history1.shtml
[81] Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi, portrait: http://www.pauline.or.jp/history/e-history03.html

[82] map of sultanate of India during the 16th century: http://www215.pair.com/sacoins/images/maps/deccan_16thc.gif
[83] map with Solomon Islands near Australia: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_SB.aspx
[84] map with Solomon Islands next to New Guinee: http://www.asia.microsoft.com/games/combatfs2/map_santacruzislands.asp
[85] map with Solomon Islands and Santa Cruz Islands:
[86] a Dutch fluyt ship: http://www.malhatlantica.pt/mediateca/economia1600.htm

[87] map with Java Island in Dutch East India: http://www.blogigo.de/pisa/2004021

[88] map with Nagasaki on Kyushu Island, Japan: http://wwww.alexquinn.org/nihon/nagasaki.html

Dutch colonialism of V.O.C.
[89] ma with India's coast lines Malabar and Coromandel Coast: http://www.inde-en-ligne.com/geographie.htm
[90] ship of V.O.C.: http://www.diabenco.com/BATAVIA1/page_02.htm
[91] Dutch galeon ship: http://binky.thinkquest.nl/~jrc090/verhalen.html
[92] map with the routes of V.O.C. from Holland to India and Indonesia: http://www.bataviawerf.nl/en/voc_route.html
[93] map with Sunda Strait, Sumatra and Java with Jakarta / Batavia: http://www.haged.de/Indonesien/titel.htm
[94] gold and silver circle aroung 1600, scheme by Michael Palomino: Reinhard, vol.1, p.101

[95] map of India with the sultanate Punjab: http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punjab_(Indien)
[96] map of India with the sultanate Gujerat / Gujarat: http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarat
[97] map of India and Bengal: http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengalen
[98] map with India's coast lines: Malabar and Coromandel Coast: http://www.inde-en-ligne.com/geographie.htm

Pazific Islands
[99] map with Espiritu santo Island in the state of Vanuatu: http://maps.google.ch/
[100] detailed map with Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz Islands and Espiritu Santo Island: http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/wdiary3.html
[101] map with New Zealand, Tahiti and Tuamotu archipelago: http://www.polynesia.com/polynesian-triangle.html
[102] detailed map with Tahiti and Tuamotu archipelago: http://attahiti.free.fr/images/archipels.gif

[103] map with Capbe York in Australia: www.barrier-reef-holidays.com/ act4wdsafaris.htm
[104] peninsula of Cape York: http://benisworld.bdesign.org/ fotogalerie/k/kap-york-halbinsel.htm
[105] Willem Jansz on a Dutch stamp: http://www.deventerpostzegelclub.nl/html/Artikelen/Series/Nederlanders/bn_Blaeu.html

[106] Hugo Grotius: http://www.zuerich.de/wir_ueber_uns/leistung/innovator/archiv/hugo_grotius.jsp

[107] Japans Kaiser Ieyasu: http://www.japan-zone.com/omnibus/history1.shtml
[108] map with Hirado Island near Nagasaki: http://www.coara.or.jp/~lucyfer/f/profile-f.html

[109] Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Dutch mass murderer and slave trader: http://www.dit.is/jpcoen/

[110] India: map with the position of the town of Surat in the sultanate of Gujarat / Gujerat: http://www-cgi.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9812/28/india.01/

[111] map of coastal trading posts of European colonialism in Arab and Indian area: http://cf.hum.uva.nl/galle/avondster/blessing.html
[112] map with Batavia, Sunda Strait and Moluccas Islands: Frank E. Smitha: http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/map24-nd.html

Dutch racist colonialism
[113] racist and massacre producer Coen: www.numismania.cyberforce.nl/coin/nl/sets/prov/04wfr-us.htm
[114] map of Pescadores Islands between Taiwan and China: http://www.china-biz.org/Taiwan_Facts.htm
[115] fortress of Zeelandia in the Dutch colony of Formosa (today Taiwan): http://www.stumpfeldt.de/hcn29/desk.html
[116] Indonesia: mpa with the position of Celebes / Sulavesi Island: http://www.starfish.ch/dive/Sulawesi-info.html
[117] map with Makassar / Ujungpandang on Sulawesi Island: http://sites.uws.edu.au/vip/listerp/macass.htm
[118] Antonio van Diemen: http://home.wxs.nl/~arief/indonesia.htm

[119] Bengal: http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengalen
[120] Ceylon: map with Batticaloa: http://www.npcanada.org/html/english/sriMap.htm

[121] map with Ryukyu Islands (today Japan): http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/ wwii/okinawa/chapter1.htm

[122] Ceylon: map with the town of Galle in the south and with the town of Kandy in the middle: http://www.nojainpuglia.it/Laudadio/immagini/ceylon.GIF

Detections of Mr. Tasman with Pacific islands
[123] Abel Tasman: http://www.sculptor.co.nz/abel_tasman.htm
[124] map of Australia with the position of Tasmania: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tasmanien
[125] map with Australia and New Zealand: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_NZ.aspx
[126] map with the position of Tonga Islands: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_TO.aspx
[127] position of the Fiji Islands: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_FJ.aspx
[128] Fiji Islands and Tonga Islands in detail: http://www.worldoceans.com/samoa.htm

[129] China: Quing Emperor Shunzhi: http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Qing/qing-rulers.html
[130] southern China: ruler Zheng Chenggong: http://stephfer.free.fr/histoire3.htm

Guayana and Curaçao
[131] map with the position of Guyana within South "America": http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_GY.aspx
[132] map with the position of Curaçao Island, Dutch Antilles (several Islands):
[133] detailed map of Dutch Antilles (Curaçao, Bonaire, Aruba): http://playfair.homestead.com/files/scuba/curacao/map.html

[134] India: map with Tuticorin at India's eastern coast line: http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/tsunami-in-india/earthquake/tuticorin.html
[135] map of Indian federal state of Tamil Nadu in the district of Toothukudi: http://www.cultureholidays.com/states/tamil-nadu.htm

[136] robbery of silver and silver trade (silver circles) world wide during 1650-1750: scheme by Michael Palomino; IN: Reinhard; Geschichte der europäischen Expansion, vol.1, p.167

[137] India: map of the territory of theUnion of Pondichéry, French colonial territory in India: http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/asie/inde-pondicherry.htm
[138] India: map with the positino of Quilon at Indias Malabar Coast (western coast): http://www.calicutnet.com/travel/kollam/kollam%20map.htm
[139] India, map with Goa (left) and Madras (today's Chennai) (right): http://www.ecorentacar.com/about-eco-rent-car/network-franchises-affilates-eco-rent-car.html
[140] India: map with the position of Cannanore at the western coast (Malabar Coast): http://www.calicutnet.com/travel/kannur/kannur%20map.htm

Australia and Pazific Islands
[141] map with Australia and the position of Solomon Islands: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_SB.aspx

English and Dutch racists
[142] John Dryden portrait, colonialismu sEngland, massacre of Amboyna: http://news.lesen.ch/d/autoren/detail.cfm?ID=84e
[143] Joost van den Vondel 1587-1679: http://www.nederlands.nl/nedermap/poezie/poezie/ 39099.html?zoekresultaat=ja
[144] Johan van Oldenbarnevelt: http://www.anno.nl/anno/anno/i000205.html

[145] map with New Guinee and New Britanny Island: http://www.geogr.uni-goettingen.de/kus/apsa/pn/pn-index.html
[146] map with the position of Madura Island next to Java Island, today Indonesia: http://indonesie2000.krej.cz/home1.htm