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Colonialism in Chronology - chapter V.

5. Domination and terrorism against populations as a base for international "trade"

England, France, Portugal, Spain, Netherlands, "U.S.A.", James Cook, South Sea, Australia, China, Napoleon etc. 1750-1945

Map with English
                occupied Bengal of 1767 with Calcutta and Plassey  Wooden figurine of an
                    extraterrestrial from Tahiti from an expedition of
                    James Cook  Thomas Jefferson, a white racist of the first
                    moment of the "U.S.A.", portrait  Napoleon spreading terrorism, death and
                      misery without end
Map with English occupied Bengal of 1767 with Calcutta and Plassey [20] -
Wooden figurine of an extraterrestrial from Tahiti from an expedition of James Cook [56] -
Thomas Jefferson, a white racist of the first moment of the "U.S.A.", portrait [54] -
Napoleon spreading terrorism, death and misery without end [85]

by Michael Palomino (1999 / 2003 / 2005 / 2014 / 2015)

translated in 2014



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1. French and English "Christian" imperialists on the Indian subcontinent - Prussian Company - Dutch in Indonesia - Danish on Nicobar Islands

2. Earthquakes in Lisbon and in India of 1755 - Portugal is k.o. for big racist colonialism

3. Coalitions - Bengal - Hannover - Russian tsar - Frederick from Prussia - Afghan expansion

4. Expulsion of Jesuits from Portugal and it's colonies

5. Wars - China with port of Canton - Afghanistan - Mysore - tsar Peter III for 6 months - Prussia - New France is eliminated

6. French islands - British occupation of Oudh - Bengal with Clive - expulsion of Jesuits from Spain and it's colonies in 1767

7. Expeditions of James Cook to Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii, and Bering Strait - Boston Tea Party and war of independence of criminal racist "U.S.A." - India - "Peace of Versailles" of 1783

8. British racists in Bengal - British racists installing on Malaya - Australia as a colony of criminals against Aborigenes

9. French Revolution - industrial revolution with loom machinery - Napoleonic wars without end down to Waterloo - England "unifying" with Ireland

10. Nepal with ghurka soldiers - English Singapore against Holland - India - Opium Wars against China who never attacked anybody - liquidations of companies - sold towns in India - rising British racism in India - "Philippines" occupied by criminal racist "U.S.A."


Since 1492 the world war is going on and is looking for it's culmination point. Above all during the Napoleon Wars it's becoming clear what the world has to await. Techniques of the fleets are always more developed, the profits are always higher. Islands and countries are "changing" their European owner. In 1772 the so called "U.S.A." are founded thus the English "colony" on foreign native soil is getting an "independence". By this the world war is exponentiated because these "U.S.A." have to install their own economic base and economy yet. European towns and colonial towns are growing without end.

Did anybody say anything of any compensation for the local populations?

Michael Palomino
1999 / October 2003 / April 2005 / translation in 2014

Reinhard, Wolfgang: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion. Bd.I: Die Alte Welt bis 1818.

Huby, Felix: Traumreisen. Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker. Deutscher Bücherbund GmbH, Stuttgart, Hamburg, Munich 1980.

Structure data: DTV Lexicon of 1990


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1. French and English "Christian" imperialists on the Indian subcontinent - Prussian Company - Dutch in Indonesia - Danish on Nicobar Islands

since 1748
The will of the colonial powers for a complete domination in the colonies since 1748

Since 1748 - since the peace of Aachen and the peace for Austria's succession modus - the will is coming up in the colonial powers for a total territorial rulership of the "colonial states" being stated by the complete "economic, cultural and political dominance" until 1945, partly until 1975, and sometimes until the 1990s. The colonies are not serving just for trading and settlement any more, but there is a complete dominance as a complement for the European wars. A new type of European dominance is created now which is establishing in the 19th century (Reinhard, vol.I, p.214). The complete dominance is necessary against the other states for saving the profits. Where the complete dominance is not necessary it is not installed first. But then the situation is developing that far that the complete dominance is prescribed to be necessary for saving the profits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

India becomes "economically and politically the most important European possession" and at the same time it is a model for the colonialism in Asia which is developed later. The war about Madras was the beginning of a "new epoch" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.214). This war which began in India by the colonial powers is favored on and on by discord on the Indian subcontinent itself. The warmonger parties in this case are

-- the Nizam of Hyderabad
-- the prince of Nawab of Carmatic (countryside of the Coromandel Coast) which is dependent from the Nizam
-- several little Hindu princedoms
-- the Marathas (Hindus)
-- the English colonial army with it's center in Madras
-- the French colonial army with it's center in Pondichéry (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

The quarrels are favored with the same mechanism like in the Netherlands: A local prince is calling the French or the English colonial army "for help" maintaining the power of the local prince (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

Map of the Indian subcontinent in about
                        photo possibleMap of the Indian subcontinent in about 1750 [1]

F-India: war of succession in Hyderabad: Marathas and French
After the death of the first Nizam in Hyderabad a war of succession is developing. The old prince family of the Carnatic is returning with the support of the Marathas and is driving away the Nawabs who were ruling until this time. Dupleix is with a "competent" commander Charles-Joseph Patissier de Bussy and Dupleix is ready to take the power in Hyderabad. For this project he is even financing the war with his private fortune and with personal borrowed money. Also Bussy is lending money to him. The funds of the Company are hardly touched (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

Dupleix, portrait  Bussy, portrait
Dupleix, portrait [2] - Bussy, portrait [3] - two criminal French warmongers on the Indian subcontinent

since 1748
F-India: French war projects of Dupleix in India: Foundation of a hegemony against England
Dupleix is violating the peace of Aachen of 1748 and he is projecting new occupations on the Indian subcontinent. He is just considering that the French troops would be superior against the troops of the Indian prince. Thus it's Dupleix who is first moving from the principle of the trade profits and who is trying to install a political hegemony in the south of the Indian subcontinent driving English competition away (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

Dupleix is speculating that the Indian troops would be weak because there is no clear hierarchy in the command and there is no European military exercise in the Indian troops. The European troops are formed with their disciplined operations, they are superior and they are reaching a relatively high "fire velocity". In this way also victories can be performed with a minimum of soldiers. The handicap of the European troops is that these troops are consisting of detainees or of Indians ("Sepoys") - but this handicap is of no consequence (Reinhard, vol.I, p.223).

F-India: victory of the French armies in India: governor at the Coromandel Coast
In 1750 the superior French troops under Dupleix and Bussy are in fact winning at the Coromandel Coast. They can appoint the French pretender for being the next Nizam and they make him dependent politically. The French receive rich gifts. The French are the governors in all territories of the Coromandel Coast south of the Krishna River (before called Kistna River [web01]), and they are with governors in four provinces north of Masulipatam. In Paris the Crown  is watching the "successful events" with patience but also with critic but there is no intervention (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

GB: England lowering the interest rate to 3%
In 1750 the law is forcing the "United Company [...] to the East Indies" to a reduction of interest rates to 3% (Reinhard, vol.I, p.143).

Germany: The first Prussian East India Company
In 1750 (respectively in 1751 under Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Grosse) [web02]) a first German "Asian Company" is founded. The majority of the shareholders are Englishmen and people from Belgium. This Prussian company has the "normal characteristics". But the development of businesses is "not so favorable" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

Prussian Company, the ship "King of
Prussian Company, the ship "King of Prussia" [4]

since 1750
GB-Bengal: Raw silk of Bengal is directly invoiced in England directly - Warren Hastings
Since 1750 the raw silk from Bengal is so important for England that the bill is payed directly now and not passing the "President" of the company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174). And in the same year of 1750 Warren Hastings is beginning his work as a "writer" for the company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

since 1750
China-Europe: adaption of the Chinese silver price
Since 1750 the Chinese silver price is adapting to the European silver price. The trade of European silver is sinking to 50 to 60% so, and the rest is settled with European goods (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

GB-F-India: English victory in Carnatic against the French army, captain Robert Clive, occupation of Arcot, Dupleix is called back to France
The English reaction to the French occupations with "governors" at the Coromandel Coast is not waiting long. An English army under captain Robert Clive is winning in Carnatic against the French army. Dupleix is called back to France. In this way the Indian subcontinent is becoming the first battle ground between the greedy European "nations" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

Robert Clive from the
                    English East India Company
Robert Clive from the English East India Company [5]

[About death rates, numbers of dead people and injured the history books are not telling anything... - this is the normal "Christian" blood rite which is performed "without victims" officially...]

since 1751
European colonies: beginning of the world war for the absolute world wide domination
Since 1751 the "Europeans" are deciding about rulers and status of "colonial" territories and about the princes who are dependent from them (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

[and this concerns also chiefs of tribes, and since now wars in Europe are also provoking wars in the colonial territories. The world war for an absolute dominance has begun. If France had withdrawn from it's positions when England had not made war can only be speculated].

since 1752
DK-India: Danish trading post in Calicut
In 1752 the Danish "Asiatisk Kompagni" can open a trading post in Calicut (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

since 1753
Austria-Sweden: steady common capital stock for the Austrian Swedish "Kompaniet"
Since 1753 the Austrian Swedish "Ostindiska Kompaniet" is supplied with a steady common capital stock (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

NL-Indonesia: Dutch rulership over the sultanate of Bantam

In 1753 there is again war between Holland and England. Both are quarreling about the sultanate of Bantam. The Dutch are fixing definitely that the sultanate becomes a complete vassal of the Dutch (to 1813). The sultan itself has only his title nothing more (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

Germany-Bengal: German "Bengal Company" ("Bengalische Kompanie")
In 1753 a German "Bengal Company" is founded. This company is only a short living smoke screen (disguise) for English private interests (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

[The "Royal Prussian Bengal Trade Company" ("Königlich Preussische Bengalische Handelskompanie") was "hit by blows without end". The only ship "Prince of Prussia" was stranding at the end with the loaded goods on a sand bank and the goods had to be saved with another ship "King of Prussia" etc. [web03]

since 1754
DK-India: Danish trading post on the Nicobar Islands
In 1754 the Danish "Asiatisk Kompagni" can open a trading post on the Nicobar Islands before Sumatra (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

Map with India,
                          Ceylon, Nicobar Islands and Sumatra
Map with India, Ceylon, Nicobar Islands and Sumatra [6]

GB-F-"America": British French colonial war: world war for colonies
On North "America" the English colonies along the east coast are driving for expansion to the West pushing forward to French territories only with a little population, but the forts are well defending these territories. After constant frontier wars there are war actions in 1754 in the Ohio Valley (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

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2. Earthquakes in Lisbon and in India - Portugal is k.o. for big racist colonialism

Earthquake in Lisbon
(DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.287)

1.11.1755: The earthquake before Lisbon - Portugal breaking away from further colonialism developments - and a 3 tsunamis - tsunami up to "America"

Map of the
                                region of Lisbon with Tejo River
Map of the region of Lisbon with Tejo River [10]

The following data are from Wikipedia [web04]. [This earthquake with it's three tsunamis can be compared with the earthquakes in Arica in Chile].

Earthquake of
                                Lisbon from Nov 1, 1755
Earthquake of Lisbon from Nov 1, 1755 [7]. This quake was provoking fires without end, and 3 tsunami waves were tearing houses into the sea. The upper town and the red light district were not affected. After the quake the king was living in a tent camp [web04].

At 9:40 am on Nov 1, 1755 at the "Christian" festival days of "All Hallows" the quake was coming of a dreadful force and lasting 3 o 6 minutes. It was provoking fires without end. And then (within 1 hour [web05]) a 20 meters high tsunami came covering the port and going up the Tejo River. The tsunami was extinguishing many fires, but going back to the sea the tsunami was also tearing yet existing houses to the sea. And two more little tsunamis came. What the tsunami let be was mostly destroyed by the firestorm. Two more aftershocks lasted about 2 minutes each. Only the red light district (Alfama) and also big parts of the upper town were not affected.

In those times the region of Lisbon had 275,000 inhabitants. Of them 30,000 to 100,000 people died, as in the surrounding villages and little towns. In the hospital Hospital Real de Todos os Santos (Royal All Hollows Hospital) 100s of patients burnt.

The losses of buildings and cultural values were giant. Royal palaces, libraries, the Opera House and the State's Library with over 70,000 books and reports (Vasco da Gama etc.) and also precious paintings (Tizian, Rubens, Correggio etc.) were destroyed and lost without possibility of a recovery.

Lisbon at
                                around 1660
Lisbon at around 1660 [11]

Far effects of this big earthquake

This earthquake was that strong that also in Luxembourg houses were collapsing. In Venice yet houses were shaking. The earthquake could be felt up to Finland, Azores, Cape Verde Islands and in half of Africa. In Scotland and in Switzerland the water levels were suddenly rising and sinking again.

The tsunami of this earthquake was spreading up to North Sea, into the Mediterranean and left to the Caribbean provoking giant damages:
-- the southern coast of England was affected by a 3 meters high flood wave
-- in Holland and in Sweden ships were leaving their anchorages
-- at the norther coast line of Africa the 20 meters high flood wave was destroying everything
-- in the Caribbean the islands of Martinique and Barbados were destroyed.

At the coast line of the Mediterranean 10,000 people died by the earthquake and by the tsunami, for example in the today's Morocco.

Tsunami map of
                                the earthquake of Lisbon from Nov 1,
Tsunami map of the earthquake of Lisbon from Nov 1, 1755 [8]

Lisbon in around 1540 appr. (yet
                                  with town wall with pointed ends which
                                  are missing in 1755), and the losses
                                  by the firestorm and the tsunamis by
                                  the earthquake of Nov 1, 1755
vergrössern Lisbon in around 1540 appr. (yet with town wall with pointed ends which are missing in 1755), and the losses by the firestorm and the tsunamis by the earthquake of Nov 1, 1755 [9]

Reconstruction - disruption with big colonialism - philosophic questions

All in all the fires were "working" during 5 days [web05]. Remembering this earthquake the Carmo Convent ("Convento do Carmo") was let in ruins in the center of Lisbon. The earthquake provoked the general disruption with "big" colonialism, and it also provoked philosophic questions why God would permit such evils in the world.

King Joseph I (José I) was living in a fear from earthquakes during the whole rest of his life living in a tent camp up the hills. Prime Minister Sebastião de Mello (later Marquês de Pombal) also survived the earthquake and was reacting absolutely pragmatically and scientifically: Deads had to be brought out and buried fast, survivors had to be given food, working groups with survivors had to take the bodies out for burying them in the sea, groups of survivors had to fight the fires, plunderers were scared away with gallows and 34 people were executed by the reproach of having plundered. The town was shut for evading a flight movement of the survivors because they were needed for the reconstruction. International help was given much because Lisbon had good relations to other big trade centers.

Reconstruction of Lisbon was performed with broader avenues and with big squares. Other affected towns in the region were reconstructed according to the same principles, sometimes also in a chequered pattern.

A survey by Prime Minister Pombal about the earthquake with surviving pastors survived at the "Torre do Pombo" and this was a collection of data leading to the first principles of modern seismology:

  • <the duration of the earthquake
  • the numbers of aftershocks
  • the damages by the earthquake
  • special manners of behavior of animals before the earthquake
  • specialties with ponds and water holes>
During the reconstruction were also first experiments with quake proof principles of engineering (earthquake engineering).

So what happened in Asia in the same year of 1755?

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3. Coalitions - Bengal - Hannover - Russian tsar - Frederick from Prussia - Afghan expansion

Rebellion in Java: partition of Mataram into Jogjacarta and Suracarta
In 1755 there is one more rebellion on Java Island. The mainland of Mataram is parted by the Dutch into the sultanates of Jogjacarta and Suracarta (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

Earthquake in India
In 1755 a heavy earthquake is destroying the documents of the Portuguese India Company "Casa da India" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.98).

[With these two earthquakes in the same year of 1755 Portugal is "k.o." and is saying good bye to the great and criminal colonialism - with the exception of Brazil].

since 1755
DK-India: Danish trading post in Serampore near Calcutta
In 1755 the Danish "Asiatisk Kompagni" can open a trading post in Bengal in Serampore near Calcutta (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

Danish Company "Asiatisk Kompagni",
Danish Company "Asiatisk Kompagni", ship [12]

India-GB: Tension in Bengal between the new Nawab Siraj and English troops
Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula is becoming the new Nawab [ruler in India] At the same time England is constructing Fort William / Calcutta as a prevention against eventual French attacks. But Nawab Siraj has got the suspicion that the English would be in contact with his enemies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula, profile
Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula, profile [13]

And look again how the criminal "noble Christians" are behaving in Europe:

since January 1756
GB-Germany: "Convention of Westminster" between England and Prussia
Frederick II (Friedrich II.) is looking for a partner for a protection of the electorate of Hannover (more or less today's Lower Saxony [web08]) concluding a contract with the British government in 1756. This is a British Prussian defensive treaty (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

Map with the electorate of Hannover, more or
                      less today's Lower Saxony
Map with the electorate of Hannover, more or less today's Lower Saxony [14]

Austria-F-Germany: Coalition between Austria and France against Prussia
Count Kaunitz-Rietberg, the Austrian state's chancellor making intrigues without end for an "upheaval of all alliances" after the Peace of Aachen, he is convincing Maria Theresia for a political balance with France (Marquise Pompadour) for forming a coalition against Prussia (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

since May 1756
F-Austria-Germany: "Treaty of Versailles": project for attacking and destruction of Prussia
In May 1756 the French Austrian alliance against Prussia is broadened by more states: tsarina Elisabeth (being member of the coalition by "personal reasons"), Saxonia, Sweden, and the Empire (without Hannover, Hesse Kassel, Braunschweig). The project is a common action in the next year (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

Tsarina Elisabeth I from
                          Russia, portrait
Tsarina Elisabeth I from Russia, portrait [15] - she has "personal reasons" against Prussia, so she had "something" with a Prussian prince or so, and now she wants to have a revenge, and therefore criminal "Christians" are making wars!

since August 1756
Germany-Europe: preventive war of Frederick II (Friedrich II.): "Seven Years War"
Frederick II is informed that there is a coalition against his country preparing war action in Versailles. He is acting before and lets occupy Saxonia by his troops. After the victory of Pirna [little town near Dresden] Saxonia is becoming a Prussian operation base. Frederick II is trying the split of the enemies by destructive strokes (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

And in India the English get into war with the local ruler in Calcutta:

India-GB: war about Fort William / Calcutta between the Nawab and the English troops - English propaganda
Now in 1756 the Nawab Siraj lets raid Fort William / Calcutta. Many English are taken prisoner and are dying in the little Bengal prisons. English authorities in England are making a big propaganda now pretending that there had been a big defeat and a revenge should be organized. The propaganda is indicating too many victims, a material damage of 200,000 Pounds is claimed and the victims are appointed to be martyrs. The English reaction is prepared in Madras (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

[So how is this behavior of "Christian" nobility? It's a clear escalation tactic for the destruction of the world and other cultures].


Germany: liquidation of the Prussian East India Company
In 1757 the Prussian East India Company is liquidated (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

And in Europe Prussia is in a two-front war. This could be foreseen.

Germany-F-Austria: victories of Prussia against Austrian and French troops - Russian occupation of East Prussia and Prussian defeats
1757 (-1758): The Prussian territory is in danger now from all sides. Frederick II is winning against Austrian troops near Prague and against French troops in Rossbach (Saxonia). But there is a defeat against Russian troops in Gross Jägersdorf (near Kaliningrad, Königsberg [web06]) and East Prussia is conquered by Russian troops. But near Zorndorf (Prussia) the Russian troops are defeated. After another victory in Leuthen (Silesia) the Austrian troops are winning near Kolin (CSR) and near Hochkirch (Saxonia) (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

And now imagine what the criminal "noble Christians" are doing in "America":

F-GB-"America": French victories in North "America" - overthrow of the Whig government in England
America: The war in Europe is a welcome opportunity for the "Christian" French and for the "Christian" English government for making war also in the colonies in "America" provoking massacres and destructions. French victories in North "America" against English settlers and against English troops are the beginning of the overthrow of the Whig government.

GB-Germany: English government Pitt - military assistance with weapons to Prussia
William Pitt is taking the political leadership now. He is reinforcing the fleet and the troops in "America". At the same time he lets deliver war material with the slogan: "Canada is won in Silesia" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

William Pitt,
William Pitt, portrait [16]

[Pitt's strategy is to weaken all other powers on the European continent and in the whole world - more destructiveness is not possible, but high "Christians" don't learn what peace is...]

And England is also "acting" in India with more destruction:

GB-India/Bengalen: English revenge and victory under Robert Clive against the Bengal Nawab - Afghan invasion to Delhi

From Madras England is sending a fleet of 12 ships with 1,600 men under the leadership of Robert Clive. 10 chips are reaching Calcutta (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222). Clive is using the rivalry between Indian princes and is winning back Calcutta (Fort William). A treachery is used as a "victory of Plassey" [in Bengal] against a 20 times superiority of French troops. In this way Clive is founding the English "dominance" in India (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283). The English captain Robert Clive is even achieving the occupation of the French capital of Arcot [near Madras]. At the same time he is also defending Arcot against a French revenge action with many fold superiority (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

Robert Clive, portrait  map
                          with Madras and Arcot
Robert Clive, portrait [17] - map with Madras and Arcot [18]

Again at the same time Afghan troops are beginning an invasion to the western parts of the Mogul Empire. The Afghan government under Ahmad Khan Abdali lets plunder Delhi (Reinhard, p.219). And now the Bengal Nawab becomes very weak and can be extorted easily (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

But at the end the Afghan Empire is not extending to Delhi:

Map of the Afghan
                        Empire of 1762
Map of the Afghan Empire of 1762 [19]

GB-India/Bengal: armistice of the Bengal Nawab with the Company
In an armistice the French have to acknowledge the English victory. At the same time the French can go on with their properties in Hyderabad. Because of his failures Dupleix is called back from India by the French Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220). The Indian ruler (called a Nawab) has to make confessions to the English Company now:

-- the controversial privileges of the Mogul Emperor have to be granted now to the English Company
-- also the rights for a fortification of Calcutta has to be granted
-- and the Bengal Nawab is forced to give compensations (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

GB-India/Bengal: further revenge projects of Nawab Siraj against the Company - conspiracy by Clive
But Nawab Siraj is considering more revenge actions against the English, and also Robert Clive is not quiet yet. He is conquering the French fort in Chandamagore and with a conspiracy with enemies of Siraj he is preparing the overthrow of Siraj. But Nawab Siraj is informed of this project thus a new conflict is preprogrammed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

India/Bengal: English victory by desertion in the battle of Plassey in - Nawab Siraj is killed by a new Nawab - confessions to the Company and to Robert Clive

At June 23, 1757, near Plassey (Palashi in Bengal [web09]), the troops of Nawab Siraj with 49,000 men with 40 cannons are prepared against the troops of Robert Clive with 3,200 men and 8 cannons. (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

Map of racist English occupied Bengal of
                        1767 with Calcutta and Plassey
Map of racist English occupied Bengal of 1767 with Calcutta and Plassey [20]

But Siraj has to watch how his "own" men are deserting to the English side even in groups because they also want an overthrow of Nawab Siraj (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222). Clive is winning the fight so with only 10 own losses (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283). After this Robert Clive is installing a new Nawab. This new Nawab lets kill the old Nawab Siraj at once and he has to make concessions to the Company:

-- guarantee of privileges for the Company
-- "heavy" compensations
-- surrender of custom duties from territories south of Fort William / Calcutta
-- payment of a special prime "jagir" to Clive by custom duties in the villages (Reinhard, vol.I, p.223).

But now see what follows under the English "Christian" dominance in Bengal:

GB-Bengal: English plundering actions without limits in Bengal

Since 1757 after a victorious "battle of Plassey" the staff members of the English Company can enrich themselves in Bengal almost without limits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224). The staff members are even competing each other during these "golden times of plundering Bengalen" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.231) who is plundering better in Bengalen (Reinhard, vol.I, p.231). The methods of plundering are easily prevailed with military force:

-- when a Nawab is heading for his ancient full power again, then he is regularly exchanged
-- every new Nawab has to provide new taxes to the Company and presents to the staff members
-- until 1765 the Company is making an income with this system of 10,731.683 Pounds, of this are 3,770.883 real cash, the rest as a basic pension
-- until 1765 the staff members of the Company are getting a cash amount of 2,169.665 Pounds (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

Additionally the staff members of the English Company have the possibility now to install new businesses:
-- they are freed of all charges
-- they are prevailing this liberalization of charges also by force
-- the Indian competition has to pay up to 40% of custom duties
-- Nawabs making propaganda for equal rights are overthrown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

The English robbery in Bengalen is that high that in 1757 the silver flow is changing the first time since Antique times thus silver is flowing to London. With the profits from Bengalen are financed

-- goods for Europe
-- the China trade
-- local war policy [in Bengal and in India] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

European war in Europe, "America", and in India: world war ("Seven Years' War")
Europe: In 1758 the French troops are attacking the Prussian town of Krefeld. Ferdinand of Braunschweig being in British service is defending the town from the French army (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

And now the European "Christians" make also their big war in North "America":

This is the map of North
                                    "America" before 1763 with
                                    New England, New France and New
                                    Spain, and all natives are not
This is the map of North "America" before 1763 with New England, New France and New Spain, and all natives are not existing... [21]

And principally France had the project to surround the English colonies sometimes and to throw them into the sea, but this was hindered by the English "expansion" - and all this happened on foreign soil...

"America": In 1758 the English troops in "America" are pushing the French colonialists back to the Ohio River and the English can occupy the forts of Louisbourg and Duquesne (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220?). Fort Duquesne is Pittsburg later (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

India: French troops are defeating English troops on native soil in "America" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

Structural reforms in the English company: residential system - Hastings in Moorshedabad
In 1758 the English East India Company gets a reform according to the Dutch model with a residential system. Mr. Warren Hastings becomes a resident at the Nawab in Murshidabad (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

Warren Hastings,
                            portrait  map
                              with English occupied Bengal of 1767 with
Warren Hastings, portrait [22] - map with English occupied Bengal of 1767 with Moorshedabad [23]

since 1758
GB-India: war preparations of Indian rulers against the English
Since 1758 one of the dismissed nawabs is forming an alliance with the nawab (or wazir) of Oudh (today called Awadh [web10]) and with the Mogul Emperor. The goal is to expel the English from India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

Map with the upper part of
                                      the Indian subcontinent with
                                      Bengal, Orisa, Oudh (Audh, later
                                      Awadh), Panjab, Sindh, Gudjrat
                                      (Gujarat) etc.
Map with the upper part of the Indian subcontinent with Bengal, Orisa, Oudh (Audh, later Awadh), Panjab, Sindh, Gudjrat (Gujarat) etc. [24]

Thus one can see that "India" did not at all exist as a big state yet but these were little princedoms as also were in Europe until 1600. All this "big state policy" and centralism of the later times was only for wars as a "pooling of power".

since 1758
GB-Bengal: reduced English silver deliveries from Bengal because of war preparations in India
Since 1758 the silver deliveries from Bengal to London are reducing because of war preparations in India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

World War ("Seven Years' War")

Europe: In 1759 French troops are attacking the Prussian town of Minden, but again Ferdinand of Braunschweig being in British services is successful "defending". Now follows a common Russian Austrian attack. In the battle near Kunersdorf almost the complete Prussian army is destroyed. But the alliance is divided over the partition of the pray. Berlin is plundered, but a "miracle of the House of Brandenburg" is hindering the partition of Prussia (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

And in "America" there is also war between the "high Christians":

"America" / Caribbean: In 1759 the English troops are pushing through up to the Saint Lawrence River taking Quebec, the "heart of the enemy power". Additionally English ships are conquering the French island of Guadeloupe (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

And war in Bengal again, look what the "high Christians" are doing in Bengal:

Bengal: Dutch V.O.C. is starting an attack against the English Bengal now. But Robert Clive can defend the Dutch. After another victory of the English the English Company is definitely the ruler of Bengal. All businesses are under English control or with an English permission. The Nawab is completely dependent on the British. The last Frenchmen are driven away (Reinhard, vol.I, p.223), so from Balasore, from Dacca, and from Patna (Reinhard, vol.I, p.155).

Map of English occupied Bengal
                                    of 1767 with Balasore (below), Dacca
                                    (middle), and Patna (left above)
Map of English occupied Bengal of 1767 with Balasore (below), Dacca (middle), and Patna (left above) [25]

Since 1759 Robert Clive is projecting gaining the complete sovereignty of the British in Bengal, not important if by the Company or by the British government. The profits would be that high that the deficit of the English national budget cold be balanced by it (Reinhard, vol.I, p.223).

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4. Expulsion of Jesuits from Portugal and it's colonies

1759: Portugal, colonies: Jesuits are expelled from Portugal and from the Portuguese colonies
(DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.287)

September 3, 1759: The expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal [from: web11]

"Christians" are making propaganda against "Christians" - this is just normal. These are just "Christians". The expulsion of the Jesuits did not come "just by the way", but there are many lies and imperialism behind this:

-- world wide the Jesuits are resisting to the enlightenment, but they are also resisting to absolutism, and therefore they are an enemy for Portugal e.g. for the enlightened minister Marquis of Pombal (who was a consequent enemy of the Jesuits making maneuvers without end against them [web12])
-- then the Jesuits were blamed that natives in Brazil did not accept an exchange of territories with Spain with a resettlement thus the natives were provoking a 5 year long little war against Portugal
-- Pombal was also inventing the reproach that the Jesuits would form a "state in the state"
-- at the end of 1755 - after the big earthquake of Lisbon (Nov 1, 1755) - an Italian Jesuit was preaching that this would be the penalty for a godless policy hostile to the Church
Jesuit Gabriel Malagrida,
Jesuit Gabriel Malagrida, portrait [26]

-- in September 1758 there was an attack against the Portuguese king and now Pombal was blaming the Jesuits again without any proof, but now Jesuit preachers were detained (Malagrida and others) and a decree (Jan 19, 1759) was deciding that all fortunes of the Jesuits were confiscated and all flats of the Jesuits had to be left and that there was a prohibition for all Jesuits having contact with secular orientated people, and on Set 3, 1759 there was coming the order for expulsion which was realized in October 1759 [web11].

So this is a good example demonstrating the "Christian" understanding for democracy...

It can be admitted that the Jesuits had big territories but that in Lisbon after the earthquake had not been remained much of it concerning houses and buildings or possessions...

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5. Wars - China with port of Canton - Afghanistan - Mysore - tsar Peter III for 6 months - Prussia - New France is eliminated


There is a European world war in Europe, in the "Americas", in Africa, and in India ("Seven Years' War")

The criminal "Christians" are affecting half of the world with their wars:

: The Prussian troops of Frederick II (Friedrich II.) can win a battle near Torgau (near Leipzig) against Austrian troops, and there is one more victory near Liegnitz (Silesia). Prussia can save itself with minor coining. Austria is going down with it's national debt (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).
"America": destruction of New France: In the same year of 1760 English troops of the Pitt government are conquering the French Montreal. And the English can break through now against the French forts up to the Great Lakes (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).
Africa: Until 1760 all French military bases in Senegambia (today Senegal and Gambia [web12]) are conquered by the British. British ships are winning the naval battles in Lagos and in Quiberon and they are committing raids against French ports (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).
India: The French army is losing a battle near Wandiwash (=Vandavasi [web13]) between Madras and Pondichéry.

Map of today's Tamil Nadu province with
                        Madras and Vandavasi (anglicized: Wandiwash)  Eyre
                          Coote, portrait  Thomas
                            Arthur Comte de Lally, portrait
Map of today's Tamil Nadu province with Madras and Vandavasi (anglicized: Wandiwash) [27] -
Eyre Coote, portrait [28] - Thomas Arthur Comte de Lally, portrait [29]

The French occupied territories are lost against the English naval supremacy and because of the English commander Eyre Coote. French leadership with the French supreme commander Thomas Arthur Comte de Lally is acting clumsy at the same time. The French commander Charles-Joseph Patissier de Bussy is called back from Hyderabad (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

China limiting the European powers to Canton
In 1760 the Chinese government is limiting the European ["Christian"] powers to the port of Canton (Reinhard, p.86,176).

Map of China with Canton / Guangzhou
                        (border lines of the 21th century)  China without Tibet+Manchuria but with
                            Korea, map of Robert&Gibson of 1759vergrössern
Map of China with Canton / Guangzhou (border lines of the 21th century)
[30] - China without Tibet+Manchuria but with Korea, map of Robert&Gibson of 1759 [31]

England: Robert Clives presenting his victories in Great Britain - Clive in the House of Commons as a "Baron Clive of Plassey" - Clive's maneuvers against the leadership of the "East India Company", Laurence Sulivan - Clive becoming governor of Bengal again

Now Clive with his reputation and his fortune is winning a big attention. The former simple staff member of the "East India Company" is living an aristocrat life style with a "Lord" as a title. And he is not the only one reaching a rise to aristocracy with colonial fights in India and in Bengal.

[Just all the losers are never mentioned because they are mostly killed and they have no voice!]

Clive is making politics now and is converting into a "Baron Clive of Plassey" with a seat in the House of Commons. In the "East India House" a statue of Clive is installed with a Roman imperial costume, and the king of England is appointing Clive for being a "Knight of the Bath Order" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.223).

At the same time Clive tries a maneuver against the leadership of the "East India Company" which is not according to his aggressive taste. Laurence Sulivan, the authoritative director of the company, does not want any expansive policy. At the same time Sulivan with his meaning is threatening the "jagir" (leased land on the Indian subcontinent [web14]) of Clive which he has got from Sulivan without permission and is the base for his richness. With the purchase of shares by front men Clive is trying to drive Laurence Sulivan away but he is not succeeding (Reinhard, vol.I, p.223).

Laurence Sulivan from the English East
                        India Company, portrait
Laurence Sulivan from the English East India Company, portrait [32]. He does not permit being driven away by Clive.

But at least Clive can prevail of being appointed one more time as a governor of Bengal for "clearing out the Augean stables". Against the private enrichment of the Company's staff members should be "intervened" energetically... (Reinhard, vol.I, p.223).

India: Afghan victory against the Marathas near Panipat
In 1761 the Afghan troops are expanding their invasion to the Indian subcontinent and near Panipat the Afghan troops are winning against the Marathas. Therefore the pressure against Bengal and southern princedoms on the Indian subcontinent by the rebellious Marathas is lifted for some time (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

Map with Lahore,
                          Delhi, and Panipat
Map with Lahore, Delhi, and Panipat [33] - Afghanistan

1761 (until 1782)
India: Muslim leader Haidar Ali in the princedom of Mysore
In 1761 Muslim leader Haidar Ali is getting the power in Hindu princedom of Mysore in southern India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

Map of the Indian subcontinent of 1760 with
                      Sindh, Marathan States, Mysore, Nizam Dominion
                      with Hyderabad, Oudh, and Bengal etc.
Map of the Indian subcontinent of 1760 with Sindh, Marathan States, Mysore, Nizam Dominion with Hyderabad, Oudh, and Bengal etc. [34]

Sp: world war ("Seven Years' War") in the Caribbean, East Asia and in India
Caribbean and East Asia: In 1761 after the entry into the war by Spain against England some English troops are conquering Cuba and the "Philippines" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

F-GB-India: French defeat against GB on native soil -  death sentence against Thomas Arthur in France
India: In Pondichéry the French troops under Thomas Arthur Comte de Lally have to surrender to the English. Thomas Arthur is sentenced to death because of his defeat (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

Change during the world war ("Seven Years' War"):

Death of the Russian tsarina Elisabeth - successor Peter III is leaving the alliance against Prussia - and Peter III is murdered
In 1762 the Russian tsarina Elisabeth is dying. The successor Peter III is an admirer of Frederick II (Friedrich II). He is leaving the alliance against Prussia and for this action he is murdered (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283) or not. Decide yourself!

Tsar Peter III of Russia,
                                        tsar in the first 6 months of
Tsar Peter III of Russia, tsar in the first 6 months of 1762 [35]

Tsar Peter III was a German Russian child from Schleswig Holstein (today North Germany) and was admiring Frederick II from Prussia and was in a regular direct correspondence with him. When a successor was missing in Russia then he was forced to go to Petersburg, he was forced to a marriage with Katharina whom he was detesting. Katharina had her own lovers then. As a tsar Peter III began his work in January 7162 and he was a social revolutionist then. Additionally he made peace with Russia which could be understood in Russia, also his project for an Indian trade could be understood. But Russian troops in Prussian uniforms for Prussia were too much, above all because Katharina was against Prussia. At the end Peter III was deprived of power by an intrigue. When Katharina got a son from one of her lovers this was the signal for an abdication for Peter III. A little military coup was organized and Peter had to sign that he would not be capable to fulfill his office. Then he was brought to an isolated location where he was "dying under unclear circumstances" on July 6, 1762 (Julian calendar) with 34 years only. Rumors say again and again that Katharina was ordering a murder against her enforced bridegroom. But it can also have been a natural death (he was very alcoholic according to some sources [web16]). After Peter's abdication and death the Russian population was reacting just with 5 upheavals against the "Christian Orthodox" regime of succeeding Katharina II ... [web15]

This is just normal "Christian" behavior of the "high noble class"!

Successor Katharina II is ending the war - enforced negotiations
The successor now is Katharina II. She lets stop the war against Prussia and lets "continue" the tired alliance partners Austria, France, and Sweden alone (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

Caribbean: English ships are occupying the "French" island of Martinique in the Caribbean
(DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283)

"Peace of Hubertusburg" for Europe: Prussia becoming a world power

In this new "peace" [which never lasts a long time because th criminal "Christians" remain criminal "Christians"] the distribution of territories remains the same of the "Peace of Aachen" of 1748. Frederick II (Friedrich II.) becomes a "Frederick the Great" ("Friedrich der Grosse") now and he is the person instigating a first national feeling of all Germans. Prussia is the 5th acknowledged "world power" now. At the same time France and it's failings are provoking big critics against the French Crown (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

Frederick the Great
                          (Friedrich der Grosse), portrait
Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Grosse), portrait [36]

World war: "Peace of Paris" for "America", Africa, and India

British Empire with "America" and India is created

1763: New France is destroyed:

Map with North
                              "America" of 1763 with English,
                              Spanish and Russian occupied territories
                              and some French occupied islands
Map with North "America" of 1763 with English, Spanish and Russian occupied territories and some French occupied islands [37]

-- Great Britain is "winning" the Mississippi border line
-- Canada from France and Florida from Spain also go to England
-- Louisiana [in those times a giant territory from the Caribbean to the Rockies] is given to Spain (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283)

[-- New France is destroyed - the natives are never asked or are driven away by the racist English and later by the "Americans" ("March of Tears" etc.)]

-- in Africa England is winning Cape Breton and Senegambia from France (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283)

-- in India the town of Pondichéry is given back to the French side, but the town is defined as an "open town" now. England is beginning with it's hegemony over India and Bengal successfully so (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

Pitt is celebrated as the "Third Builder of the British Empire" after the first two builders Cromwell and William III of Orange (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.283).

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6. French islands - British occupation of Oudh - Bengal with Clive - expulsion of Jesuits from Spain and it's colonies in 1767


F: Ile de Bourbon and Ile de France go to the French Crown
In 1764 Bourbon Island / Réunion Island and Mauritius Island (Ile de France) are surrendered to the French Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

F: French fortified colonial towns: Pondichéry, Chandarnagore, and Mahé
These town have French garrisons under leadership of the "Company" (French: "Compagnie") (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

GB-India: British victory against the Indian rebellion near Buxar - occupation of Oudh
In 1764 the alliance of the nawab of Oudh and of the Mogul Emperor is defeated by the British troops. The consequences are:

-- Oudh is conquered by the British
-- the Emperor is becoming again an ally of the British Company
-- Robert Clive is resigning to the occupation of Delhi
-- the English dominance over complete Bengalen is more steady yet
-- the nawab is dismissed and a surrogate of the Company is installed leading the complete administration there: Saiyid Muhammed Reza Khan (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

GB-India: "peace arrangement" by Robert Clive: Clive is selling the town of Oudh
-- for the price of 5 million rupees Clive is selling back the town of Oudh to it's nawab
-- now the town of Oudh is working as a buffer state at the north west border depending from the British (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

GB-India: Warren Hastings becoming a council member in Madras (until 1769)
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.225)

since 1765
GB-Bengal: cheap "silver" from Bengal in England - English system of promissory notes
Since 1765 the "East India Company" in Bengal can "purchase" silver cheaply and can finance with this the tea trade with China. The financing by England is performed by 80% with light British woolen fabrics. And a system of promissory notes is beginning to be established (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

[This silver from Bengal comes from other sellings to other countries probably].

F: execution of Thomas Arthur (Lally) in France
Because of the defeat in India Mr. Thomas Arthur Comte de Lally who was condemned to death in 1761 is executed in 1766 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

GB-India: Robert Clive is installing the "dual system" in India with the help of the Mogul Emperor
In 1767 Clive is installing the Mogul Emperor in the Allahabad District. The Emperor has just to pay a yearly tribute of 2.6 million rupees. The emperor himself is handing out the sovereignty of tax and also the juridical civil authority from Bengalen, Bihar [west up of Bengal], and Orissa [west down of Bengal] to the company. Therefore there is a separation of power between Emperor and Company:
-- the Company is arranging the taxes and the civil justice
-- the nawab is performing the military and the penalty courts (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

But in fact all rights are with the company because the company can exchange the nawab whenever the company wants (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

GB-Bengal: the measures of Clives against enrichment are only partly successful
In 1767 Clive can only limit the enrichment, but he cannot eliminate it. There is a silent agreement for more enrichment in Bengal on a low level because the directors deny rise of salaries for the company's staff members considering this as too expensive. Therefore it's easier for the company tolerating the enrichment (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

since 1767
GB: financial crisis of the "East India Company": high taxes because of the "American" colonies, speculations about Bengal and too high dividends
-- since 1767 the Company is obliged to pay 400,000 Pounds to London every year because England is spending yearly 480,000 Pounds for the "American" colonies
-- after the installation of the "dual system" in Bengal since 1767 the Bengal shares in London are winning so the Company is provoking even more speculation expecting high dividends (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

->> In this situation the Company has to raise short term credits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

Spain, colonies: expulsion of Jesuits
In 1767 the Jesuits are expelled by duke Aranda. Jesuits are all expelled from Spain and from the Spanish colonies (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.287). The Jesuit properties are sold cheaply provoking heavy social and economic crisis in the native reductions (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

[The white "Christian" racist from Europe has prevailed one more time. Nothing was given to the natives].

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7. Expeditions of James Cook to Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii, and Bering Strait - Boston Tea Party and war of independence of criminal racist "U.S.A." - India - "Peace of Versailles" of 1783

GB-Australia: expedition of James Cook to Tahiti
James Cook has got the map material of William Dampier passing the Magellan Strait (Huby, p.18). As a nutrition experiment against scurvy Cook's expedition has got malt and sourcrout on board [web17]. On Tahiti he is landing in the Matavai Bay mid of April 1769 (at Cape Venus, "Pointe Vénus" [web18]) and then his astronomer group is installing an observatory on the island for watching a planet constellation how Venus is passing in front of the Sun on June 3, 1769 [web17].

James Cook
                          with a map  map
                          of Tahiti in the Pacific  Tahiti panorama
James Cook with a map [38] - the map of Tahiti in the Pacific [39] - Tahiti panorama [40]

And this astronomic event is the basic purpose of the expedition:

(German text:
<Diese Expedition wurde auf Empfehlung der Royal Society unter der Präsidentschaft des Astronomen Lord Morton unternommen, um im Rahmen einer international angelegten Messkampagne den Durchgang des Planeten Venus vor der Sonnenscheibe – den Venustransit vom 3. Juni 1769 – auf Tahiti zu beobachten. Dieses astronomische Großprojekt hatte die Bestimmung der Entfernung Erde–Sonne und damit – auf Basis des dritten Kepler-Gesetzes – die Berechnung der Abstände aller anderen Planeten im Sonnensystem zum Ziel.> [web17])

<This expedition was undertaken by the suggestion of the Royal Society under the president of astronomer Lord Morton for being member in a measuring campaign watching the passage of Venus in front of the sun - the Venus transit of June 3, 1769 - on Tahiti. This big astronomic project hat the destination to find out the distance between Earth and Sun, and with this - on the base of the third Kepler law - the calculation of the distances of all other planets in the solar system was the aim.> [web17]

Additionally there is a group of botanists on board with nature searcher Joseph Banks and with the Swedish botanist Daniel Solander (both are members of the "Royal Society") [web17]. Between 0 and 2241m biodiversity is high for sure].

Impressions from Tahiti
Tahiti, Diademe Mountain
Tahiti, Diademe Mountain [41]
Tahiti, canoe catamaran
Tahiti, canoe catamaran [42]
Tahiti, flower crowns
Tahiti, flower crowns [43]

Tahiti, diving in reefs with
                                    brightly colored fishes
Tahiti, diving in reefs with brightly colored fishes [44]
Tahiti, market in Papeete
                                    (marché municipal)
Tahiti, market in Papeete (marché municipal) [45]
Tahiti, over water bungalow
Tahiti, over water bungalow [46]

Then captain James Cook is sailing on with the research teams with a local guide called "Tupaia" visiting more groups of islands [web17] before turning to the south heading for Australia (Huby, p.18). This turning to Australia is only announced after departing Tahiti because this order for the second part of the expedition is only allowed to be opened now. Science means in those times that there has to be a giant "southern continent" as a counter weight for the big continents in the north [web17].

F: French liberalization of foreign trade
In 1769 the French government is liberating the foreign trade. This is the beginning of the liquidation of the French Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149).

London: crash at the stock exchange
Because of too much speculation about the English colonies London is suffering a stock exchange crash and a financial crisis of the state (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

1769 (-1772)
GB: Warren Hastings leaving Madras working in London now
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.225)

1769 appr.
GB, New Zealand, Australia: expedition of James Cook - occupation of Australia

Map of the first Cook
                      expedition to Tahiti, New Zealand, and Australia,
                      from 1769-1771
Map of the first Cook expedition to Tahiti, New Zealand, and Australia, from 1769-1771 [39]

Cook is circumnavigating New Zealand and is mapping the islands (October 1769-March 1770 [web17]). Then he is "detecting" East Australia (from April 29, 1770, on, called "New Holland" yet [web17]). But he is stuck in the Endeavior Reef (within the Great Barrier Reef) and the ship needs a 6 week repair. During this time the crew is viewing kangaroos which are described as giant rabbits first. Later he is landing on Australia again [web17] calling it now "New South Wales" (Huby, p.18, [web17]). In this way he is "saving" the continent for the English Crown (Huby, p.18). Only on July 13, 1771 James Cook is back in England. The nutrition experiment against scurvy with malt and sourcrout was a full success [web17].

GB after the stock exchange crash: financial crisis
There is a big financial crisis England and Ireland with big unemployment (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

Bengal: Famine and death of millions because of crop failures and no measures of the Company
At the same time there is a big famine in Bengal (because of droughts and crop failures [web19]) provoking millions of deads (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224) because the East India Company is just ignoring the shortage of food there not taking any measure or lets plant also wrong products in times of a famine. Estimations indicate 10 million persons killed by this famine [web19].


GB: Robert Clives found not guilty
Now after the stock exchange crash during the famine and food speculation in Bengal there is a maneuver against Robert Clive being "blamed" for all this capitalist shit. He is charged but is found not guilty. Since then he is suffering depressions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.224).

[Well, this is just normal criminal "Christian" behavior blaming somebody - and mostly the wrongly blamed is also condemned in the criminal "Christian" countries]

India-GB: Marathas are coming up again with the Mogul Emperor in Delhi - now they are claiming for tributes by the Company
In 1771 the Marathas are "recovering" again. They are manipulating the Mogul Emperor of Delhi again on their side. And now tributes are claimed from the English Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

DK-China: Limitation of the monopoly of the Danish "Kompagni" - only China monopoly should be
Somebody [the Danish Crown?] is revising the regulations of the Danish "Kompagni" as it seems and then only the China monopoly is permitted again. The journeys to India are leased trip by trip (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

since August 1771
Cook's records kept secret - and faked information in the public
Under the pretext of being "of lacking literary quality" Cook's records are kept secret and not published. A novelist Mr. John Hawkesworth is publishing from the diaries of Cook and Banks, but remains imprecise. And Mr. Dailrymple with his work "Terra Australis" is changing the position of the southern continent where Cook hardly was searching. But the English admiralty knows what Cook with his maps has seen and has performed. Soon a second "scientific" expedition is wanted. Cook's original records are published in 1863 only [web17].


GB-India: The English Company is rejecting the tribute payments to Delhi
to the Mogul Emperor of the Marathas in Delhi (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

GB: again a stock exchange crash in London - support credit for the Company - call for statal interventions with the Company - credit, limitation of dividends, statal observation of the Company
In 1772 there is a second stock exchange crash in London. Now the English Company has to apply for a support credit at the government boards (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225). In London voices say that the state should intervene with the Company. But neither England nor India want to take the administration of Bengal now because there is no bureaucracy for it. The actions of the British government are the following ones:

-- the government is granting the Company a loan of 1.4 million Pounds
-- the Company has to accept the limitation of the height of dividends
-- the company has to accept the introduction of a statal observance (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

GB-India: Warren Hastings becomes the governor of Bengal
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.225)

Warren Hastings,
                          governor of Bengal
Warren Hastings, governor of Bengal [48]

GB-Australia: second expedition under James Cook
On this second expedition not only malt and sourcrout are stored against scurvy but also cabbage, carrot jelly and beer condensate. The expedition is of two ships now, this time with Johann Reinhold Forster, his son Georg Forster, with a classicist painter William Hodges, and with two astronomers (on every ship one) for controlling "time keepers". Now Cook is directly heading for the "south continent" heading down Africa and then passing in the cold near Antarctica in the direction of Australia. After reaching New Zealand half of the Pacific is searched and at the end Africa and Europe are reached again [web17]. After passing the Magellan Strait Cook is detecting the archipelago of "South Georgia" for the English Crown (Huby, p.18).

James Cook, map of
                          the second expedition 1772-1775
James Cook, map of the second expedition 1772-1775 [49]

since 1772
GB-China: tea is first product on the list of importation ware
Since 1772 the value of the English tea importation is rising the value of the cotton importation. The Chinese tea is running better than all other products (Reinhard, vol.I, p.178).


James Cook in the Antarctic ice
In January and February 1773 [during the Antarctic summer] the second Cook expedition is confronted with ice and fog. In the fog the two ships are loosing each other. For this case a meeting point in New Zealand is foreseen where both ships are meeting again in May 1773 in Queen Charlotte Sund. This is followed by a tour to the Tonga Islands and to Tahiti [web17].

Afghanistan: death of the Afghan ruler Abdali
In 1773 the Afghan ruler Ahmad Khan Abdali is dying (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

Map of the Afghan Empire during the
                                18th century
Map of the Afghan Empire during the 18th century [50]

GB: Restructuring of the "East India Company": "Regulating Act": statement of accounts, corrected rights for vote and for duration of offices, introduction of the office of a "Governor General"

This "Regulating Act" of 1773 is made by the British government as a trial for stabilizing the leadership of the Company:

-- rise of the minimum of share possession for a right to vote in the "Court of Proprietors" to 1,000 Pounds

-- reduction of the multiple right of vote

-- prolongation of the time in office for directors to four years

-- the directors are accountable to the Minister of Finance for their financial policy of the Company

-- the directors are accountable to the "Secretaries of State" for their policy abroad (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

According to the recommendations of Robert Clive a new hierarchy is introduced:

-- the governor of Bengal becomes a Governor General being higher than the governors of Madras, Bombay and Bencoolen
-- the governor of Bengal is accompanied by a council of four, and the governor is dependent on them, and there is the limitation that only one member of the council may be a member of the Company
-- concerning the British in India a supreme court is installed for the disciplining of the British in India
->> this system results as not be balanced, above all because of quarrels of competence between India and England (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

And the regulations of the Company have to be approved all 20 years again by the English government (Reinhard, vol.I, p.230).

And now see what happens in the British colonies - so "Christian" behavior we have here:

GB, colonies: "Boston Tea Party - rebellion against England in "American" colonies
In 1773 a load of tee of three ships of the "East India Company" is destroyed and dumped in Boston as a sign of rebellion against the tax privileges of England. The English government is blocking the port then and is declaring a state of emergency (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

England was forbidding to the colonists in New England further settlement behind the borders protecting the natives installing even troops for the protection of the natives rising the taxes for the colonists for paying these troops [web21].
Sometimes the white Nazi racism of the "Americans" was not controllable any more and was fighting also against the English Crown then: Some white racists were disguised as natives penetrating into the port of Boston throwing some tea boxes into the sea. Taxes all in all were NOT the problem of this case [web21]. The events about this "independence" of the "U.S.A." between 1763 to 1788 are also called "American Revolution" [web20]. The English Crown was reacting with some measures [web21], but the Nazi racists and the expansionists of the New England colonies ("U.S.A.") could prevail with tricks and perfidy and all natives were getting their faith in concentrations camps at the end whereas this "method" was copied then also by England under the queen Victoria...

Boston Tea Party of
Boston Tea Party of 1773 [51]: Disguised racist people throwing tea into the sea because they want more expansion against the natives

James Cook again in Antarctic ice
During January and February 1774 (antarctic summer) Cook's second expedition is again heading to the south reaching the most southern point of the expedition now without stating any other land or continent. The way back is again passing Tahiti reaching it in April 1774. On a trip to New Zealand again he is detecting New Caledonia with his ship "Resolution". The contact to the partner ship "HMS Adventure" was lost and was sailing half a year earlier back to England reaching it in July 1774. Cook to the contrary is remaining with the southern latitudes looking for a continent in the south of the Earth occupying for the English Crown South Georgia Island and the Sandwich Islands [web17].

GB: Alleged suicide of Robert Clive
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.224)

GB-India: first Governor General of India: Warren Hastings (-1785)

First new Governor General for India becomes the governor of Bengal Warren Hastings (he has this office since 1772): Hastings has got the reputation of having relatively "clean hands" and to be an excellent expert about Bengal. He is incorporating a despotism of the Mogul Emperor with European ideas, he speaks Persian and Bengal, he understands Sanskrit (संस्कृत [web22]) and Urdu (خوش) [web23]. Hastings's activities in Bengal are of many kinds and are serving partly also to the understanding between the nations:

-- he is supporting scientific Indology, translations from Hindu and Muslim law into English, the Translation of English law into Bengali language
-- there is the goal to develop principles of law during a rulership with responsibility also for the exploited victims
-> for breaking with the normal patterns of action and for gathering taxes also in the lower classes regularly the Departments of Finance and Justice are taken from the authority of the nawab
->> Hastings lets install in Calcutta a British local tax administration and British juridical courts (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225). The local merchant agents of the Company are assigned to the "Board of Trade" in Calcutta (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).

But Hastings has to use more brutal means then for "defending" his position within the Company and against London.

All in all Hastings has to lead just three wars at the same time for the "Company". There is the financial need of London for the "American" colonies provoking in India under Hastings unscrupulous and brutal extortions for money against different Indian princes and princesses "in the name of the Company" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

GB, colonies: First "Continental Congress" in Philadelphia: resolution of a boycott of the "American" colonies against the "East India Company"
At the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia the delegates of the 13 New England States are taking the resolution to stop the trade with England until the law of 1763 is reinstalled (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).


Cook's expedition traveling back
From South Africa the second expedition is sailing looking for Mathew Island which is in Portuguese maps but cannot be found. The expedition is reaching England on July 30, 1775. The crew of 112 suffered 4 lethal victims, no one by scurvy. One Polynesian man called "Omai" is also arriving as a model for shows in England [web17].

And what are the "Christians" doing with the "ethnological" objects of southern peoples representing also extraterrestrials for sure?

Translation. <Ethnological objects collected during this expedition in the South Sea were distributed in the museums of Europe; a big part of them was reaching the collection of Cook/Foster in the Ethnological Museum of Göttingen in Germany.> [web17] - today the ethnological collection of Göttingen University [web26], just "Göttingen Collection" [web27].
(original in German: <Während der Expedition gesammelte völkerkundliche Objekte aus der Südsee wurden auf Museen Europas verteilt; ein großer Teil davon gelangte in die Cook/Forster-Sammlung des Völkerkundlichen Museums Göttingen.> [web17])

Austria: second Austrian East India Company
In 1775 queen Maria Theresia is providing to the former member of the "East India Company" William (alias Wilhelm Bolts) the monopoly for overseas trade for the Austrian ports of Trieste, Livorno and others. Asian bases are in the possession of the Crown yet from the times of Charles VI and can be used (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

1775 appr
India: turmoils about the succession of the Peshwa because of the governor of Bombay
In around 1775 difficulties can be foreseen concerning the succession of the Peshwa of Poona. The governor of Bombay is intervening into the question of succession and this is provoking turmoils (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

And now see this "Christian" war behavior on native soil:

April 18, 1775
GB-"US" colonies: Beginning of the war for independence in "America" against England (until 1783)
On April 18, 1775, British troops and "American" militia are having fights the first time near Lexington (in the colony of Massachussets [web24]). This conflict is developing now to a war for independence (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

1775 appr.
India: expansion of Mysore on the southern Indian subcontinent under Haidar Ali
In 1775 about the Muslim leader Haidar Ali of Mysore (Hyder Ali from Hyderabad [web25]) is beginning energetically with an expansion of his Empire to the Malabar and Coromandel Coast, also against the mismanagement in suffering Madras (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

Hyder Ali of
                          Hyderabad in Mysore
Hyder Ali of Hyderabad in Mysore [52] - when the criminal "Christians" are only making war then this model is copied...

"U.S.A." with declaration of independence of the "American" New England Colonies, the flag

[White "Christians" on foreign soil are claiming that they would be "independent" without giving any rights to the natives!]

["U.S.A." are implanting themselves on robbed soil...]

On July 4, 1776, the 13 English colonies in "America" are declaring their independence from England (symbolized with 13 stripes of the "American" flag) (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.13).

Flag of criminal and
                        racist white "U.S.A." of 1773 with 13
                        stars and stripes
Flag of criminal and racist white "U.S.A." of 1773 with 13 stars and stripes [53]

At the same time Thomas Jefferson is postulating the own constitution with the first "Human Rights" for the new "United States": "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" and from this a racist  right of resistance against all of another kind is derived. July 4 is called the "national day" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.13).

[The racist "Human Rights" of Jefferson
All these rights are counting only for white "Christians". The natives have no right of resistance, have no right of property. Now the holocaust against the natives in North "America" is just beginning. From the beginning the white Anglo Saxon racists in the governments of the "U.S.A." have the goal to conquer the complete continent for a direct trade with China and India with ports at the west coast. Native tribes are only "blocking" the way and the racists are making "no compromise". For alliances of convenience the natives are only short time partners. And the blacks have no rights at all, not even in faked treaties...]

Thomas Jefferson, a white racist of the
                        first moment of the "U.S.A.",
Thomas Jefferson, a white racist of the first moment of the "U.S.A.", portrait [54]

"U.S.A.": War of independence until 1783: England with German freelancers and native tribes against the own settlers

The British colonial army is partly consisting in the British Army, 17,000 German soldiers who are only partly reliable coming from Hesse and Braunschweig, there are England loyal "Americans" ("Loyalists") and there are native tribes who are allied with the British now. The newly founded "American" states are presenting three million settlers who have not a good military training who have hardly any financial means and war material. The second Congress is permitting George Washington the supreme command. He is a landowner from Virginia (Mount Vernon) (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.13).

"U.S.A.": War of independence: British defeat at Delaware River, settlers applying guerrilla tactic
In 1776 the British lead troops are suffering a defeat against the forces of the settlers at Delaware River near Trenton and Princeton. Against the guerrilla tactic of the settlers and because of difficulty of ordnance they are suffering further losses (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.13).

GB, New Zealand and Hawaii: 3d expedition of James Cook
Cook is heading a third time to New Zealand. Then he wants to detect the North West Passage between Asia and Europe (Huby, p.18). This North West Passage would be very interesting for naval traffic now because in the meantime Asia becomes really dangerous during war times. Bering was searching there in 1728 already. Additionally the Polynesian man "Omai" should be brought back. Additionally there is the painter John Webber and the later travelers George Vancouver and Heinrich Zimmermann. In the "high staff" there is William Bligh as a "sailing master" becoming the captain of the Bounty expedition later. In the meantime Cook's expeditions had become very respected. For Cook a special protection was delivers. The governments of France, Spain and "U.S.A." gave the order to their naval officers not to detain Cook because of his great new map material [for new wars!] also when they were in war with England [web17].

James Cook, map with his third expedition
                        1776-1780 to New Zealand, Hawaii, and Alaska
James Cook, map with his third expedition 1776-1780 to New Zealand, Hawaii, and Alaska [61]

During this trip he is measuring Kerguelen Island between Africa and Australia which Cook is calling "Poverty Islands" [web17]


Cook on Australia and on Hawaii
Cook lets land in Tasmania and after some island trips between April and August 1777 to Cook Islands, Tonga and Tahiti a.o. watching a solar eclipse on July 5, 1777, the Polynesian man "Omai" is brought to his home island "Huahine Island" on Oct 12, 1777 with a horse and with a knight's armor where also a house is built for him [web17].

DK-Sweden-India: Danish heritages of Swedish possessions in India and in Bengal
In 1777 the Danish Crown is taking the maintenance of the bases of the "Kompagni" in India and Bengal (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

Connection between "Asiatisk Kompagni" and "East India Company" - weapon trade for the Indian armies
The Danish "Kompagni" is taking more and more the back exchange of private silver profits from staff members of the English Company. The Danish "Kompagni" is providing the currency for the Indian trade in this way. Additionally there is the side effect supporting the English hidden economy. In the meantime also European weapons are a currency for the inner Indian wars. Besides English middlemen are providing Bengal textiles for the "Kompagni" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

And see now how the criminal "Christians" are escalating their war in the world again:

"U.S.A.": War of independence: success for the "settlers" - Franklin on propaganda tour in Paris - European help for the "U.S.A." against England - Spain+France against England
The settlers of the young "U.S.A." are winning one more battle near Saratoga against the British lead army. As a first ambassador of the "U.S.a." Benjamin Franklin is making propaganda for the "American Matter". Aristocrat volunteers, with them the Marquis de la Fayette, the Polish national hero Kosciuszko, and the Prussian general and organizer of the "American" army Mr. von Steuben are fighting for the "American" side now. The governments of France and Spain are intervening against England and are beginning with sieges of English colonial territories (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

Sp, Port., "Brazil": "Treaty of Ildefonso" between Spain and Portugal because of "America"
In 1777 Spain is acknowledging the extension of Portugal to the west on the Portuguese South "American" continent in the "treaty of Ildefonso" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

December 1777

Cook with more islands in the Pacific
Cook is going on on tour with islands in the Pacific detecting Kiritimati Island on Dec 24, 1777, and watching one more solar eclipse on Dec 30, 1777 on Eclipse Island [web17].


Jan 20, 1778
James Cook on Hawaii - stating Maoris have settled the Pacific islands
The high islands of Hawaii are appearing on the horizon on Jan 18, 1778, and Cook is landing on Kaua'i Island on Jan 20 [web17].

Hawaii Islands, map
Hawaii Islands, map [62]

The stay is 10 days. The expedition is stating a familiarity of culture and language to the far Tahiti [web17]. On Hawaii Cook is making "research" about the island's population of the Polynesians. Cook with his many maps and researches is one of the most successful researchers and geographers of Europe (Huby, p.18). It's noted that the Polynesians are very skilled sailors since about 500 years and they were populating the spread islands between Hawaii and New Zealand. At about 900 New Zealand was colonized by the tribe of the Maori. During clear weather the navigation of the Polynesians is going with the stars, during bad weather with wind and wave directions (Huby, p.18).

Map of
                            the Maori colonization in the South Sea
                            (South Pacific)
Map of the Maori colonization in the South Sea (South Pacific) [63]

Cook is calling the Hawaii Islands as "Sandwich Islands" first honoring the First Lord of English admiralty - but there are already existing the "Southern Sandwich Islands" in the southern Atlantic [web17].

Impressions from Hawaii
Hawaii, hula dancers
Hawaii, hula dancers [64]
Hawaii, hula dancer with
Hawaii, hula dancer with flowers [65]
Hawaii, bright flowers
Hawaii, bright flowers [66]

Hawaii, native leader Sielu
Hawaii, native leader Sielu Avea [67]
Hula dancer with coconut
                                      bikini (coconut bra)
Hula dancer with coconut bikini (coconut bra) [68]
Hawaii, Mahaiula beach
Hawaii, Mahaiula beach [69]
Hawaii, big wave surfing
Hawaii, big wave surfing [70]

Cook going to California, Oregon, Aleutian Islands and Bering Strait
Now the expedition of James Cook is crossing the Pacific to the east mapping during summer on the northern hemisphere the western coast of North "America" from California to Alaska. In 1579 Francis Drake had called California as "Nova Albion". In April 1778 there is a 4 weeks stopover on today's Vancouver Island at Nootka Sund (called by Cook "King George Sound"), and then the expedition is sailing along the Aleutian Islands [web17].

Map of
                        the third Cook expedition from Hawaii to
                        California, Oregon, Vancouver Island, Aleutian
                        Islands, Bering Strait and Petropawlowsk
Map of the third Cook expedition from Hawaii to California, Oregon, Vancouver Island, Aleutian Islands, Bering Strait and Petropawlowsk [71]

Then Cook is crossing Bering Strait but is stopped by pack ice. Sailing back he is reaching the Asian continent at Cape Dezhnev and reaching the Aleutian Islands again making a stopover on Unalaska meeting Russian fur traders making copies of maps of the Aleutian Islands and of Kamchatka Peninsula then. Cook is also getting - for a future expedition - a recommendation by the businessman Ismailow for the governor of Kamchatka and Petropawlowsk. From Unalaska Cook is also sending mail to the British admiralty [web17].

GB: Readiness for war of the "East India Company" - since 1778: deficit of the Company - Hastings with difficulties of authority
In 1778 the Company has 67,000 soldiers. The income of 3.8 million Pounds are confronted with payments of 5 million Pounds (included the tax for London for the "American" colonies which are normal since 1767). The first time this negative balance is coming out. Additionally the governors of Madras and Bombay are not willing to follow to the new Governor General Hastings (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

GB-India: First Anglo-Maratha War
In 1778 (to 1782) the "First Anglo-Maratha War" is executed by the Company against the Marathas because of the succession of the Peshwa of Poona (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

since October 1778
Cook's expedition again on Hawaii - Lono festival
Cook's expedition is leaving the "North" leaving the winter sailing to Hawaii where they arrive at the end of December 1778 [web17].

since 1778
"U.S.A.": War of Independence as a World War: France against England
Since 1778 the French troops are entering the War of Independence in "America" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).


February 1779
Death of Cook on Hawaii - slained because of a sloop?
During a festival for the God "Lono" there are quarrels coming up between the Hawaiian natives and the whites of the Cook expedition. When a dead sailor should be buried where normally only chiefs of the natives are buried the mood is going absolutely down. Two days after the case Cook's expedition is leaving Hawaii on Feb 4, 1779. But because of a damaged mast the ship "Resolution" has to come back to Hawaii on Feb 11, 1779. And now the natives begin to steal [web17]. There is a rumor that the island settlers have stolen sloop of the expedition of James Cook. There is a quarrel coming up between Cook's crew and the island dwellers. Cook wants to mediate and during this trial of mediation he is slained (Huby, p.18). Wikipedia indicates that Cook was reacting with an escalation himself trying to take the king as a hostage. For this Cook is paying with his life on Feb 14, 1779 with some deads on both sides [web17].

[Where the sloop really was is not reported. This is the second great sailor being slained on a Pacific island by natives, the first had been Magellan].

The dead bodies of the whites are cut into parts and distributed to native families. Some families are burning the pieces, also as a honor for the died "chief" [Cook] Until Feb 20, 1779, the expedition now under lieutenant Charles Clerke is waiting for some parts of white dead bodies for their burial. On Feb 21 1779 the sea burial is performed for Cook. On Feb 22 the expedition is leaving Hawaii for Petropawlowsk on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The expedition wants to try it again at the Bering Strait, also without Cook [web17].

Summer 1779
Bering Strait: Cook's expedition stopped by pack ice again
Successor Charles Clerke is trying again to look for a North West passage but is failing because of pack ice again like Cook one year before. During the return to Petropawlowsk Clerke is dying and his successor is John Gore bringing back the two ships to England until October 1780 [web17].

since 1779
"U.S.A.": War of independence as a World War: French Spanish siege of Gibraltar - Spanish occupation of Menorca
French and Spanish troops are sieging Gibraltar (until 1782). Spanish troops are conquering Menorca Island which was English before (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

Map with Europe, "America", and
                        "U.S.A." 1779
Map with Europe, "America", and "U.S.A." 1779 [74]


Austria: Threatening collapse of the Austrian East India Company
(Reinhard, S.153).

"U.S.A.": War of Independence as a World War: Some states decide a naval neutrality with England
The British side is not without action but is raiding the ships of the enemy states of their trade companies. The damages are that big that several states are declaring a "naval neutrality" concerning England. These states are: Russia, France, Spain, Holland, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, and Prussia (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

World War: French occupation of Rhode Island
(DTV I. S.13)

World War: War of Mysore under Haidar Ali against the English Company
Haidar Ali, the Muslim leader of Mysore, lets raid the countryside of Madras ("Carnatic") and with this he is beginning a war against the English Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

World War: rebellion of the natives in South "American colonies 1780-1783
Rebellion of the "last Inca" Tupac Amaru 1780-1783 (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277)

Tupac Amarú in Cusco against 4 horses in
Tupac Amarú in Cusco against 4 horses in 1781 [75] - as this "kind" of execution was not successful he was then beheaded by the "friendly Christs" [web28]


Austria: restructuring of the Austrian East India Company
In 1781 the Austrian East India Company is put on a new base by queen Maria Theresia:
-- including duke Proli (son of a former Oostende director)
-- with the personal participation of the later Emperor Joseph II
-- under the new name "Société impériale pour le commerce asiatique de Trieste et d'Anvers" ["Imperial Society for Asian Trade of Trieste and Anvers"] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

Thanks to the involvement of the competitive parties with wars about "U.S." independence and because of an own "neutrality" this new Austrian "Société impériale" can make big profits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

After 1783 after the Piece of Versailles will come new conflicts between this Austrian "Société impériale" and the competitive companies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

World War: British naval victory in West India near Saint Vincent - "U.S.A." conquering Yorktown
(DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13) at the coast line of "Virginia" [web29]. "U.S." forces can defeat English forces (under Charles Marquis Cornwallis) driving them away from Yorktown detaining 7,200 of them, under them is Gneisenau (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13), a Prussian general organizing fights in "America". His success will be against Napoleon... [web30]

Indian subcontinent: In 1781 British forces are winning a naval battle near Saint Vincent in West India (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

In Holland debts are rising and rising:

NL: debts of V.O.C.
In 1781 V.O.C. is on a debt mountain of 22 million guilder. This is more than tree times the own capital resources. The reasons of this indebtment are
-- no good modernization and adaption to the always changing competition
-- there were always payed high dividends and no reserves were formed
-- oligarchy in Holland are administrating this V.O.C. and the responsible banks at the same time
-- a big smuggling system was developed
-- more and more products are wanted in Europe where V.O.C. has no monopoly for them
-- secrecy is pretending to the public that there would be no problems thus no warning to the oligarchy is possible (Reinhard, vol.I, p.129).


GB-India: End of the First Anglo-Maratha War: hardly any change of the status quo
In 1782 the "First Anglo-Maratha War" is ending. "Status quo" between the Marathas and the Company did not change (Reinhard, vol.I, p.225).

India: Prolongation of the war of Mysore against the Company under Tipu Sultan
The successor of Haidar Ali, his son Tipu Sultan, is continuing the war against the English Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

Tipu Sultan (English: Tippoo Sultan),
Tipu Sultan (English: Tippoo Sultan), profile [76] - just copying the "Christian" policy of war...

World War: British naval victory near Santo Domingo - French admiral Pierre André de Suffren winning against the British
In 1782 British ships are winning near Santo Domingo . But this victory cannot bring a change any more for England (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

In 1782 the French admiral Pierre André de Suffren is operating just successfully against the English (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

F-Sp: Spain introducing French bureaucracy in Spanish colonies with intendants
According to French patterns the Spanish Crown is introducing a bureaucracy with intendants in the Spanish colonies in South "America". But this bureaucracy is using 80% of the tax receipts and it is not profitable at all (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).


F-India: French expedition in India against England
In 1783 the French troops under the very experienced Marquis de Bussy are reaching India. Paris means that victories against the English Company will be and new territories in India would be French then (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

Peace of Versailles: acknowledgment of the "independence" of the "U.S.A."

Map of North "America" after the
                        "Peace of Versailles" of 1783
Map of North "America" after the "Peace of Versailles" of 1783 [77]

With this peace there are several actions connected in the new "U.S.A.":

"Loyalists" are forced to emigrate - new "settlement policy" is introduced - Tobago/West India and Senegambia are French - Menorca and Florida are Spanish

In 1783 "American" delegates in Versailles can celebrate the independence of the "U.S.A." The winning settlers are claiming 70,000 deads. At the same time there are social changes in North "America" because all "Loyalists" have to emigrate to "Upper Canada" (DTV, vol.II, p.13). At the same time the white "American" "settlement policy" begins driving to the West (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.15).

Tobago/West India and Senegambia are attributed to France. Menorca and Florida were under British rule before and now are owned by Spain (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

And now after the independence of the "U.S.A." and with the bad mood in England and in France there is a power for revolution in France and there is a drive for more independence in South "America" from Catholic Spain:

F: fighters for independence are celebrated in Paris - financial crisis in Paris
In 1783 after the Peace of Versailles the French freedom fighters are celebrated and critic against the "Old Regime" ("Ancien Régime") of the Crown is always stated more and more. At the same time the French government is shaked by a financial crisis and by war debts (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.13).

GB: "hangover" and "comeback" in Britain - idea for giving up India - France would fill the gaps in India

After 1783 after having lost the "American" colonies a general political hangover is coming up, but at the same time there is also new political enthusiasm with new ideas and discussions. There are voices saying that India should be given up as a "colony" and that the Indian trade should be managed like the China trade. Other voices are stating that such an arrangement "would not be possible" any more because the trade with China would have it's "base" passing over India. And France would fill the gaps when the English administration and the troops would leave India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

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8. British racists in Bengal - British racists installing on Malaya - Australia as a colony of criminals against Aborigenes


F-GB-India: no war in India any more between France and Great Britain
In 1784 the arrangement of the Peace of Versailles is also known in India. Between the European powers there is a "peace of exhaustion" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

[This is a typical "Christian" behavior: peace only because of exhaustion. Better there would be no "Christians" any more and 90% of the wars in the world would not be!]

GB: British government reducing tea custom duties - reduced tea smuggling
In 1784 according to estimations the part of tea smuggled to England is over 50% yet (Reinhard, vol.I, p.178). In 1784 the British government is reacting to this eternal tea smuggling reducing the custom duties for tea (Reinhard, vol.I, p.178). Smuggling is reducing dramatically then because of the lower prices (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179). Additionally
-- also the Danish tea trade is suffering big losses (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151)
-- and the Brazil Portuguese gold is flowing into other channels (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

GB: the answer to the "hangover" in England: new India Concept and reform of the Company: "India Act" by William Pitt junior
After the loss of the New England colonies the British Prime Minister, Mr. William Pitt junior, is presenting a new India Program which should also serve to reduce the war debts (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31):

William Pitt
                            Junior, portrait
William Pitt Junior, portrait [78] - he wanted to limit the trade activities to trade again!

-- India should be governed by England until 1858
-- the authorities in India should be cleared, the administrative machinery in India should be more efficient
-- the share holder assembly of the Company should be disempowered and should only have the right to vote the directors
-- the owners of the highest offices of the Company can be degraded by the Crown
-- the directors can keep their offices and can go on controlling the commerce (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226)
-- a "Board of Control" is installed with six "Commissioners for the affairs of India" also controlling the Company's directors
-- the chairman of the "Commissioners" is like an "India Minister"
-- Pitt is prohibiting any policy for conquest or expansion in India because this is contradicting "to the will, honor and to the politic principles of the nation", only "defensive wars" are allowed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227)

->> as a reaction to this "India Act" the position of the Governor General in India is enforced against the "commissioners" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).

India: separation of administration and justice in India - project for a general tax collection
In 1784 the "India Act" is performed in every Indian province:
-- there is a "Collector" for taxes in every province
-- there is a "District Judge" as a civil judge and police chief
-- and criminal courts are installed in the four "most important towns of the country" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).

Additionally a program is elaborated for the tax collection on the lowest level. This project is called "Permanent Settlement" and should be realized in 1793 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).


F: new foundation of an "India Company" in France ("Compagnie des Indes")
In 1785 France is trying to arrange it's financial situation. And a new "India Company" ("Compagnie des Indes") is founded (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149).

Austria: bankrupt of the Austrian Asian Company
In 1785 Austria is loosing it's "Société impériale" which is going bankrupt because of "inner conflicts" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

Sp-"Philippines": second "Philippines Company" of Spain
In 1785 Spain is founding it's second "Philippines Company" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

GB-Ireland: "reduction" of custom duties between Britain and Ireland
The Protestants of England are more and more dominating the Catholic Ireland and custom duties between England and Ireland are "reduced" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31).

End of 18th century

GB: "Agency Houses" in England
At the end of the 18th century "Agency Houses" are founded with the profits from the hidden economy financing China business (Reinhard, vol.I, p.181).

GB: capital increase of the "United Company" 1786, 1789, 1793
In 1786 the capital of the company is increased again by 800,000 Pounds (Reinhard, vol.I, p.143).


GB-Bengal: new English Governor General in Bengal: Cornwallis - separation of trade staff and administration staff in India - will for new occupations

Charles Cornwallis, portrait
Charles Cornwallis, portrait [79] - an English warmonger on the Indian subcontinent

In 1786 the looser of the battle of Yorktown of the war of independence, Mr. Charles Marquis Cornwallis, is becoming the new Governor General of Bengal (until 1793). But Cornwallis can enjoy more authorities than his predecessor and he is "solving" the open problems in the administration, in the tax system and concerning justice. The trade staff and the administration staff are separated definitively now in India:
-- the local trade agents of the Company are not allowed in public offices any more
-- new officials with an office's salary are installed but who are excluded from the businesses at the same time
-- a "Civil Service" is founded in India (before in England itself is existing any "Civil Service" (!) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).

With the tax receipts from India have to be payed now the administration, the army, and the interest payments. So the facade is pretending the the money is remaining "in the country". But historian Bitterli is rating the procedure very critical:

"This does not mean that the money is remaining in the country and is favoring the Indian economy, but the chances for this were just better than in the decades after 1757 and 1766" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.231).
(original German text: "Das braucht nicht zu bedeuten, dass das Geld im Lande blieb und der indischen Wirtschaft zugute kam, aber die Chancen dafür standen doch besser als in den Jahrzehnten nach 1757 und 1766" (Reinhard, S.231).
"Just by the way" it's the goal of Cornwallis to evade the Pitt's prohibition of occupation actions. Cornwallis is projecting a "forward defense" and "subsidiary treaties" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227/228).

since 1786
GB-India: arrogance is supported by Governor General Cornwallis against people in India - racism in English "communities" - respect for India in well educated English circles

Cornwallis is keeping mental walls against "the Indian peoples":
-- all of India is rated as corrupt
-- he is excluding all Indian people from higher ranks in the new administration staff
-- he is introducing demonstrative gestures of British superiority what is fostering the English group spirit and arrogance at one side and the Indian humility at the other side (Reinhard, vol.I, p.233).

At the same time the English "communities" in the Indian towns are growing. In 1785 5,000 European soldiers and 2,000 white civilists are living in India already, 1,000 of them in Calcutta, but all in all only 200 to 300 white women (Reinhard, vol.I, p.232). By racist election the "communities" are fostering racism now forming the colonial state. The directors of the Company are preferring certain people for lower posts and jobs, and in this way a "closed society" is coming up. Family clans are formed with connection under each other (for example the families Chickeley, Plowden, or Thackeray). Additionally the British women are with prejudices of the English middle class living with them also in India provoking a narrow-minded "Christianity" against Hindus and Muslims. The Indian people is accepted within the white family only as a "servant" if ever (Reinhard, vol.I, p.233).

Just in another way than the "communities" is the mind of the well educated Englishmen in India. They show respect from the Indian culture and they have no limits of communication with the Muslim upper class where no caste limits are existing. Warren Hastings is the lightening example of such comprehension (Reinhard, vol.I, p.233).

since 1786
GB-NL-Malaya: Britain competing Holland with bases on Malaya
Since 1786 the British Company is competing the Dutch V.O.C. with a base in Penang on the Malayan Peninsula (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

Map with Indonesia
                          and Malaysia with Penang on the Malayan
Map with Indonesia and Malaysia with Penang on the Malayan Peninsula [80]



GB: Impeachment against Hastings because of reproaches of extortion
In London reproaches against Hastings are coming up Hastings had extorted Indian princes. But Hastings has many arguments for his acting of collecting high taxes from the princes in India because of the financial needs with many wars for the Company (in 1795 he is considered "not guilty") (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

GB-Australia: white "settlement" as an island for criminals - the countryside is defended by the Aborigenes
Since 1788 Australia is systematically settled by Britain with white prisoners (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31). The criminals being deported by force from England to Australia are forced to build the town of Sydney there. But the countryside is not developed because the natives are killing any foreigner and because the huge desert without water is hindering any expedition. The expeditions are dying of thirst, or the natives are robbing the food of the expeditions (Huby, p.19).

Wikipedia reports that this English racist scandal using foreign territory as a prison for whites was running until 1854 - and this is one more example for criminal racist "Christianity":

(original in German:
<Der Begriff Sträflingskolonie Australien ist für die Bezeichnung des frühen Australien üblich. In der ehemaligen Kolonie Australien gab es mehrere Sträflingskolonien zuerst in Sydney und dem daraus später entstehenden New South Wales, eine „Zweigstelle“ von Sydney auf Norfolk Island, ferner in Tasmanien, damals „Van Diemen’s Land“ und gegen Ende der Sträflingverschiffung für kurze Zeit in Western Australia. Der Vorgang der Verschiffung und Verbringung, der auf Englisch „Transportation“ genannt wird, wurde von 1788, dem Beginn der europäischen Besiedelung des Kontinents, bis ins Jahr 1854 praktiziert und gesetzlich am 26. Juni 1857 beendet.[1] Insgesamt wurden in dieser Zeitepoche 134.000 verurteilte Sträflinge aus England nach Australien gebracht.>

<The term of prisoner's colony of Australia is normal for the first time of Australia. In the former colony of Australia there were several prisoner's colonies, first in Sydney, then in New South Wales being developed by Sydney, then there was a "branch" of Sydney on Norfolk Island, and also in Tasmania (in those times "Van Diemen's Land") and shortly before the end also in West Australia. The procedure of shipping and housing which was simply called "transportation" by the English authorities began in 1788 with the European settlement and ended in 1854. The law for it was abrogated on June 26, 1857. All in all 134,000 convicted prisoners were brought from England to Australia.>

GB: The capital of the Company is increased again by 1 million Pounds
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.143)

GB-India: Cornwallis' occupations against Mysore
In 1789 "by mistrust on both sides" there is breaking out a war between the Governor General of India Cornwallis and the Tipu Sultan of Mysore. Cornwallis is conquering parts of Mysore, also parts of the southern Malabar Coast (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

And now only 7 years after the end of the independence war of the "U.S.A." the "spirit of freedom" of the criminal racist "U.S.A." is copied and a "French Revolution" is breaking out:

zum Inhalt    nach oben

9. French Revolution - industrial revolution with loom machinery - Napoleonic wars without end down to Waterloo - England "unifying" with Ireland


F: French Revolution: "Compagnie" is suspended - flight of the Dutch governor general to England
In 1790 by the French Revolution the French India Company ("Compagnie des Indes") is suspended (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149).

In 1790 the Dutch governor general is taking his flight to England (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

The reasons for the failure of the French "India Company"

-- the general reason of failure is that the French "Company" was only installed after the Dutch and the English one, so there hardly could be any recovery against the two big ones
-- there was a high dependency from the Crown: the French "Company" is just making a policy of power not of profitability
-- the Crown is always intervening into the Company's policy and staff administration and this is provoking "frictional losses"
-- by low profitability there is an ever lasting "lack of financial means" and a low capitalization
-- using international currency markets is rejected deliberately, for example the use of currency exchange in the "enemy" town of Amsterdam
-- the whole constellation is provoking that this "Company" is not attractive for the capital of French traders [but they invest in enemy states' companies probably]
-- additionally France has got the problem that France did not develop a central market yet but there are different competing markets splitting the country also according to the markets (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

Balance of the European Indian trade: mercantilism is fulfilled
The importations of spices, fabrics and stimulants are about 10 to 15%. The exportations of European goods to Asia are marginal (Reinhard, vol.I, p.181).

since the 1790s
GB: Britain is performing Industrial Revolution now with the weaving machine
Since the 1790s there is an "Industrial Revolution" in England. English technicians invent the weaving machine with the possibility of weaving large fabrics competing the Indian production by hand. Thus the sellings of Bengal textiles in England are going down (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

Spinning machine by
                        Hargrieves  cotton
                              fabric machines (cotton power looms) in
                              Manchester, 1914
Spinning machine by Hargrieves [81] - cotton fabric machines (cotton power looms) in Manchester, 1914 [82]

Canada: partition of Canada in an "Upper Canada" and a "Lower Canada"
With the big enforced emigration movement with England loyal dwellers from the "U.S.A." settling in the Province of Quebec there were new settlements at the other side of the Great Lakes. Considering the different languages and cultures this Province of Quebec was parted now [web32]. In other words: In 1791 the English government is parting Canada and in this way the English government is "binding" the French "settlers" who are not emigrating to other French territories any more. Both parts have their capitals - Ontario and Quebec - and the regions are different according to religion, language, customs and justice (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31).

Maps with the Province
                        of Quebec, the 13 New England colonies in 1774,
                        and with the racist "U.S.A." in 1783  map
                        with the partition of the Province of Quebec of
                        1791 into Upper Canada and Lower Canada
Maps with the Province of Quebec, the 13 New England colonies in 1774, and with the racist "U.S.A." in 1783 [83] - map with the partition of the Province of Quebec of 1791 into Upper Canada and Lower Canada [84]


GB: again increase of the capital resources of the Company
in 1793 the capital resources of the Company is risen again by 1 million Pounds. With this 6 million Pounds of capital resources are reached, and there is no more increase up to the end of the Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.143).

GB-India: balance of the last 10 years of the Indian trade: only an additional factor for England
Compared with the total fortune of England the financial significance of the Indian trade is very low. In 1760 Great Britain has got a total capital of 130 million Pounds and until 1770 there is a people's income of estimated 140 million Pounds. Thus there is a yearly accumulation of capital of 9.4 million Pounds. 500,000 to 600,000 Pounds of transfered private profits are just 0.36% of the people's income. The total profits of England from India are 17,828.071 Pounds, thus from 140 million Pounds these 17.8 million are almost 13%. The goal in India was only the personal enrichment (Reinhard, vol.I, p.232).

GB: approval of the Company's regulations for 20 more years
In 1793 the English government is approving the regulations without any problem for 20 more years (Reinhard, vol.I, p.230).

GB-India: introduction of basic taxes in India: project "Permanent Settlement" - large estate and speculation in India
In 1793 the project of 1784 for an introduction of taxes in the lower class is realized:
-- introduction of a basic tax
-- and the land gets a new building code enabling large estate possessions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).

This introduction of large estate properties has devastating consequences. Now speculators are penetrating India also in rural regions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).

But the "Christian" speculation with territories in India is not the only "Christian" sin in those times, because in Europe itself there is another "Christian" behavior developing: war without end - fucken "Christians" - this time with a "Napoleon":

Napoleon brings
                            terrorism, death and misery without end
Napoleon brings terrorism, death and misery without end [85]

since 1793
F: Napoleonic Wars, world war: war between France and England - French contacts to India, help for modernization by Indian armies - capturing war

Since 1793 there is a state of war between France and England. England has to install safeties in India because many European "adventurers", many Frenchmen with them, are serving for Indian princes and are helping to modernize the Indian armies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228). Thus the Indian armies are more and more equal to the European armies and cannot be defeated so easily any more being short-handed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.223). Also Tipu Sultan from Mysore who had been defeated by Cornwallis in 1789 is installing contacts to France hoping for a reconquest of lost territories against England (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

In the next 15 years different European coalitions are formed against the spread of revolutionary ideas from France (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25). At the same time England with admiral Nelson is beginning a grim fight about naval supremacy. French ports are blocked and French ans also neutral ships are captured. These actions are reinforcing the English fleet by about 2,000 ships yearly. And the English fleet is conquering so many French (and Dutch) naval bases as possible (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31).

[Where is CCC?
So why the criminal "Christians" of the upper class did not arrange their problems just with cookies, coffee and cake? Because this is not indicated in the stupid war book "Bible"! But in the Bible always a "destruction" of the enemy is indicated. And in this way the "leaders" of Europe did act again and again since 1492. But peace is just going with CCC!]


GB: Hastings found not guilty in London
In 1795 the former Governor General of the "East India Company" - Hastings - is found not guilty concerning the reproaches of extortion actions against Indian princes (Reinhard, vol.I, p.226).

F-NL-GB: Napoleonic Wars, world war: Holland is becoming a satellite of France - Dutch colonies getting a British "administration"
In 1795 Holland is converted into a satellite of France with this (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

The former governor general of the Netherlands is in London since 1790. He gets the order to order to the Dutch colonies for being under British protection now. Therefore there are British occupations of the Cape Land [South Africa], Ceylon, Malacca, and the Moluccas Islands. Java remains Dutch because the Company allegedly fears the administration costs (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

India: victory of the Marathas against the Nizam of Hyderabad
In 1795 the Marathas can win a battle against the Nizam of Hyderabad. The English Company is not helping the Nizam against the Marathas (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

[And the Marathas are dominating half of the Indian subcontinent now].

Sp, colonies: liberalization of the Spanish trade
Only in 1797 Spain is liberating the trade with his colonies in South "America" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

GB-Ireland: Irish rebellion against England without success
(DTV history atlas, vol. II, p.31)


F-Eg: Napoleonic Wars, world war: "Egyptian campaign" - French occupation of Malta, Alexandria and Cairo in 1798 - English naval victory near Abukir

In 1798 Napoleon is starting a military campaign to Egypt [for the trade with India?]. The English government is expecting that Napoleon is pushing forward to India passing Syria by land or by Mauritius by the sea (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228). Napoleon lets conquer Malta and is landing in Alexandria with his giant French fleet wit 232 transport ships, 2,000 cannons, 32,300 soldiers and also with 175 engineers and scholars. A Muslim army is defeated near the pyramids and in 1798 the Napoleon army is conquering Cairo (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.23). The English fleet under admiral Nelson is destroying a part of the French naval power near Abukir (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

GB-India-F-Austria-Russia: Napoleonic Wars: English protection treaty with the Nizam of Nysore against Napoleon - English alliance with Austria and tsar Paul I against France

In 1798 as a prevention against Napoleon the English Governor General Mornington is fixing the Nizam of Nysore with a "Subsidiary Treaty" for "protection": England is guaranteeing the protection of the Nizam's rulership when he is accepting this protection and will pay for it (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).


By the impression of the French occupation of Malta Island and of the English naval victory of Abukir William Pitt junior can manipulate Austria and the tsar Paul I for a coalition against Napoleon (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

NL: "Batavian Republic" taking V.O.C. with a debt of 140 million guilder

French Revolution is attacking also the Dutch oligarchy. And only now V.O.C. is restructured which should have been since a long time [since decades] already. V.O.C. is taken by the "Batavian Republic" on Java as a protection of the Dutch colonies against Napoleon thus the Dutch colonies will not fall into his hands. V.O.C. has accumulated a debt of 140 million guilders (Reinhard, vol.I, p.129).

Bengal: "English measures" in Bengal are destroying the base for a private trade system (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

GB-India: wars of Mornington on the Indian subcontinent: victories against Tipu Sultan of Mysore
In 1798 and 1799 the troops of Governor General Mornington are winning against the troops of Tipu Sultan of Mysore. Mornington is appointed to be the "Marquis Wellesley". The complete southern Indian subcontinent is conquered now by the English, above all the coast lines. In the inner of the country complete relations of dependency are established. These annexations and dependencies are headed against France with Napoleon (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

[So how is this criminal "Christian" behavior? Because one "Christian" from France is making war other "Christians" from England are surrendering foreign countries and half continents. Was there a compensation for this "Christian" behavior? But this criminal "Christian" madness is even becoming worse!]

since 1798
GB-India: new English Governor General in India: Mornington - new colonial ideas during the Napoleonic Wars - expansion policy of Bombay

Since 1798 (until 1805) the new Governor General Richard Lord Mornington is leading the Company. Later Mr. Mornington is appointed to be a Marquis Wellesley and should come out as a brother of the "Duke of Wellington" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

Lord Richard Mornington
Lord Richard Mornington [86]

During the Napoleonic Wars there is always more the idea coming up that for a protection of world wide trade the political control would be a precondition when there should be an expansion of trade activities. As a consequence the government of Bombay is practicing a real expansionary policy under the influence of private interest groups. Additionally there are always more proponents of a forward strategy in the Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).


Napoleonic Wars, world war: English pocket tactic against the French army in Egypt - wars in whole central Europe - military dictatorship under Napoleon in France - tsar Paul I leaving the coalition with Napoleon because of Malta

In 1799 the English naval power under admiral Nelson is succeeding in cutting the French army in Egypt from it's motherland of France. A French invasion to Syria is failing before Acre (Accon). A French victory on land near Abukir is not leading to the wished liberation. Thus the French dominance in Egypt is ending fast. Napoleon's trial for hitting the British naval power in the eastern part of the Mediterranean have failed (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.23).

England, Russia, and Austria are resisting against the French troops now considerably:

-- archduke Charles (Karl) is winning in March 1799 against Jourdan near Osterach and Stockach
-- General Suworow is winning in April 1799 against Moreau near Cassano
-- archduke Charles is winning in June 1799 against Massena near Zurich
-- in August 1799 Joubert is loosing against the coalition near Novi
-- Russian operations in Switzerland remain without success
-- a British Russian invasion near Alkmaar (in Holland) is provoking a French victory (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25)
-- and Malta and the eastern part of the Mediterranean are dominated by the British again (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.23).

Napoleon is succeeding escaping to France, is overthrowing the directorate and is installing a military dictatorship. His offers for peace are rejected by the counter coalition. At the same time tsar Paul I is angry about the English occupation of Malta and in October 1799 he is jumping from the coalition against Napoleon (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).


Napoleonic Wars, world war: French victories in Europe - French purchase of Louisiana - French landing on Martinique Island and Haiti Island

With the dictatorial conditions in France Napoleon and Moreau can celebrate victories for France near Marengo and Hohenlinden against the coalition (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

In 1800 as a step for "reformation" of the French "colonial empire" Napoleon can purchase the native territory of Louisiana from Spain [in those times a giant territory from the Caribbean to the Rocky Mountains] and he can set French troops in "West India" on Martinique Island and in Haiti (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

[And the criminal "Christians" are not stopping their world war!]


GB-India: wars of Mornington in India: reduction of Oudh
In 1801 Mornington lets "reduce" the sultanate of Oudh. And he has further projects for defeating the Marathas definitely (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

Napoleonic Wars, world war: "Peace of Lunéville" between France and Austria
Austria has to confirm the conditions of "Campo Formio":
-- France is definitely winning the border at the Rhine River, and is winning Belgium and Milan from Austria
-- Austria is "taking" the republic of Venice (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

A "Northern Coalition" for neutral trade
There is a group of states with the idea to create a "neutral trade": Russia, Sweden, Denmark, and Prussia are concluding a first trade alliance. Great Britain with William Pitt does not want to accept such a "neutrality of trade" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

Napoleonic Wars: British peace projects and overthrow of the Pitt government in Britain
The opposition leader of the "Whigs", Charles James Fox, is urging for a finish with the fights against Napoleon. He is provoking the overthrow of the Pitt government (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31).

Napoleonic Wars: a coalition of Napoleon with Russia against India is failing
In 1801 Napoleon and Russia's tsar Paul I are making a coalition for the occupation of India. But the coalition is failing because Paul I is murdered (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31).

GB-Ireland: "Union"
In 1801 Ireland is "united" with the "United Kingdom of Great Britain" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31). The new independence of Ireland is coming in 1922 [web32].

This "unification" was not at all voluntarily but an Irish rebellion of 1798 was suppressed and then also the autonomy of Ireland too so it was "united" [web33].

Map with Great
                          Britain with "united" Ireland
Map with Great Britain with "united" Ireland 1801-1922 [87]


GB-India: English "protection treaty" with the Peshwa (Prime Minister of the Marathas [web07])
In 1802 the Indian Governor General Mornington is concluding a protection contract with the Maratha Prime Minister (Peshwa) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

F-Eg: End of the French occupation of Egypt
(DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.23)

NL-Java: Dutch reform project for Java from governor Hogendorp
The Dutch governor Dirk van Hogendorp is projecting a "liberal" reform program for Java (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228):
-- possession of properties should be allowed for Java natives
-- forces deliveries should be abrogated
-- tax should be introduced
-- forced military services should be abrogated
-- the trade should be liberated
-- and the salary for officials should be risen sufficiently.
->> But this project is not realized during the next years (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

Napoleonic Wars, world war: Napoleon's trial for an occupation of "West India" is failing
In 1802 a big French fleet is trying to conquer "West India" with the erection of a "Caribbean Empire". But the fleet is "stopped" by British ships (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31).

March 1802
"Peace of Amiens": F and GB are deciding over the colonies
England is resigning to all colonial conquests with the exceptions of Ceylon and Trinidad. France is assuring giving up Egypt (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

Napoleon is selling Louisiana to the "U.S.A." - and Napoleon lets occupy Hannover
Napoleon wants to win the "U.S.A." for his projects against England. For this Napoleon is selling the huge native territory of Louisiana [in those times a giant territory from the Caribbean to the Rocky Mountains] to Washington (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31). [It can be admitted that there was a secret lodge connection].

Map with the
                            selling of the big Louisiana territory to
                            the racist "U.S.A." in 1803
Map with the selling of the big Louisiana territory to the racist "U.S.A." in 1803 [88] -
with this action Napoleon supports racism on the world decisively against all his ideas!

In the same year of 1803 Napoleon lets occupy Hannover against England and with this action he is breaking the "Peace of Basel" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

since 1803
GB-India: Wars of Mornington: Second Anglo-Maratha War (until 1805)
In 1803 (until 1805) the English Governor General Mornington is executing his projects against the Marathas conquering the northern plain with Delhi almost up to the frontier of Punjab. The Mogul Emperor is again converted into a "fellow" of the Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

Map of the Indian subcontinent of
                              1804 with further English racist
                              occupations under Mornington (red
Map of the Indian subcontinent of 1804 with further English racist occupations under Mornington (red stripes) [89]

[For making trade not the domination of a country is needed but good relations...]

Napoleon becoming an Emperor - introduction of the "Code civil" in France
Napoleon is reaching that after his successes he is crowned an Emperor. His family members receive the title of princes. His ministers and generals are honored people and marshals now. In the same year he lets introduce the civil law ("code civil") guaranteeing the population "personal freedoms", "equality of rights", private possession, civil marriage and divorce. The upper classes remains a leading power. The noble families who have fled from the Revolution emigrating [abroad] are called to come back (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.27).

[But the "Christian" madness does not stop - criminal "Christians" are leading the world to a massacre without limits]:

Napoleonic Wars, world war: French project for an occupation of Australia and for a destruction of England - counter coalition of William Pitt junior with Russia

Napoleon is driving for preparations of an invasion of Australia and against England itself (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31). With the slogan "Dominating the Channel for six hours we will be the dominators of the world" (in German: "Beherrschen wir auf sechs Stunden den Kanal, so sind wir die Herren der Welt!") England should be intimidated (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

William Pitt junior is reacting with a coalition with tsar Alexander I. And  Austria, Sweden, and Naples are joining this "Third Coalition" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

Napoleonic Wars, world war: French invasion in Vienna - English naval victory near Trafalgar - Austrian victories in Upper Italy - French victory near Austerlitz - "Peace of Schönbrunn" between France and Prussia - "Peace of Pressburg" between France and Austria

After the encirclement and after the capitulation of the Austrian army near Ulm Napoleon is invading Vienna. On Oct 21 England is winning the naval battle near Trafalgar (south of Cadiz) maintaining the British naval dominance (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25) against the French and Spanish fleet (DTV lexicon, vol.18, p.258). archduke Charles (Karl) is winning in Caldiero (Upper Italy). Prussia is driving for a mediation but is coming too late because Napoleon is winning on Dec 2 already the "Three Emperors' Battle" near Austerlitz. Archduke Charles (Karl) is withdrawing passing Hungary for a unification of all armies against Napoleon. In the "Treaty of Schönbrunn" Prussia is achieving an exchange of territories with France: Kleve, Neuenburg (Neuchâtel in today's Switzerland), Ansbach-Bayreuth are exchanged with the princedom of Hannover. And Prussia is concluding a assistance coalition with Napoleon.

On Dec 25, 1805, Austria is forced by France to the "Peace of Bratislava" and is loosing
-- Venice and Dalmatia to the Republic of Italy
-- Tirol, Vorarlberg and Lindau to Bavaria
-- Breisgau and Constance to Baden and Wurttemberg
-- and at the same time Austria wins Salzburg (DTV history atlas vol.II, p.25).

GB-India: recall of Mornington after failures - since 1805: "reserved" policy with treaties of the Company under the new Governor General Minto

After some failures the English Governor General Mornington is recalled from India. Under the new Governor General Gilbert Elliot Lord Minto a "reserved" policy is made in the Company above all with the goal "saving" the northern frontier of India with coalition negotiations with Persia against France (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

Lord Minto,
                              governor of the English East India
                              Company, portrait
Lord Minto, governor of the English East India Company, portrait [90]

GB-F-Germany: Death of William Pitt junior - Napoleon's offer giving Hannover to England - Prussian counter project
William Pitt junior, archenemy of Napoleon, is dying in 1805. In an unauthorized action Napoleon is offering the new English government the rulership in Hannover which he had ordered to be Prussian some weeks before. Prussia wants to react now against Napoleon with a "Fourth Coalition War" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

since 1805
GB-India: college for an "Indian Civil Service" in England
Since 1805 a special "Indian Civil Service" is introduced in England in Haileybury which should prepare for the "service" in India. And these formation posts are wanted massively. The directors can (until 1857) favor certain circles for Haileybury so real dynasties and dependencies are created within the structures of the "Indian Civil Service" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).

Germany-GB-F: Napoleonic Wars, world war: German "Continental System" against England - Prussian disaster against French troops
Prussia is remaining alone against the English rulership in Hannover. Then Prussia is proclaiming a continental block ("Continental System") against England "because England would not accept the principles of the law of nations and would abuse the right of blockage" (England performing it's policy robbing ships and blocking French ports, see DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31). At the same time the German troops are loosing one battle after the other against the French cannon power (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

F-NL: Holland becomes a "Kingdom of Holland" remaining a satellite of France
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.228)

"Peace of Tilsit": Russian German French "continental block" against England
In the "Peace of Tilsit" Russia is hindering the dissolution of Prussia with it's "objection" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.29). But Napoleon can tear Russia definitively on his side and can part Europe into a French and a Russian "hemisphere". Russia is joining the "continental block" against England (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25).

[England is in danger loosing all European markets].

Napoleonic Wars, world war: England bombing Copenhague and robbing the fleet against the "continental block" - danger for the Danish "Kompagni" - French occupation of Portugal because of the rupture of the "continental block"

Since 1807 Denmark is in war with England. The "Kompagni" is in danger and the businesses are running bad (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151). Under admiral Nelson England's war fleet is bombing Copenhague and the English fleet is robbing the Danish fleet. This should be an action against the "continental blockage". This "continental blockage" against England is even sharpened by the "Edict of Milan" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25,27,31). The partners who are not following this edict permitting trade with England are occupied - thus Portugal in the same year (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.27).

since 1807
GB-Malaya: Thomas Stamford Raffles in Malaya
Since 1807 the later English vice governor for Java, Thomas Stamford Raffles, is working in Malaya for the Dutch side (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

Napoleonic Wars: also a second coalition of Napoleon with Russia against India is failing
Now Napoleon is forming a coalition with tsar Alexander I for a second "Indian Plan" for an occupation of the Indian subcontinent. But tsar Alexander is "hesitating" too long and the project against England is failing (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31).

[And now the criminal "Christians" are even starting mission movements terrorizing the survivors. How much terrorism may it be by these criminal "Christs"?]

since the 19th century
GB: English "mission movements" against Hindus - beginning of the destructive "Europeanism" in the 19th century - critic of Minto against European religious intolerance

Since the "French Revolution" a "revivalism" coming up in England, the "Clapham Sect" around William Wilberforce. Also Charles Grant and the former Governor General John Shore "Lord Teignmouth" (being a governor from 1793 to 1798) are members of this sect. Wilberforce is not only fighting against slave trade, but he is also shouting against Hindus rating them as "monsters of degeneracy and cruelty" and their religion should be "a single incredible horror".

Charles Grant himself is striving to "connect" trade and religion and wants to "teach" the Hindus a "better" form of society and economy. This is the begin of the general condemnation of the Indians and this is the beginning "Europeanism": the drive to change everywhere the society and the economy also of the natives - destroying all well established structures by force (Reinhard, vol.I, p.233).

In 1807 Governor General Minto is absolutely criticizing the aggressive intolerance of the missioners who are operating above all from Danish bases in India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.233).


Napoleonic Wars, world war: installation of a "second front" against Napoleon in Portugal
(DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.31).

Sp: bankrupt of the Spanish "Philippines Company"
In 1808 the Spanish "Philippines Company" has to quit it's activities despite of support by the English "East India Company" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

NL-Java: reform program on Java with fortifications under governor Daendels
Since 1808 the Dutch governor Marshall Herman Willem Daendels (until 1811) lets execute a reform and fortification program which seems to be headed against England:

Dutch general
                              Herman Willem Daendels, portrait
Dutch general Herman Willem Daendels, portrait [91]

-- more efficient administration of the V.O.C. according to a French pattern
-- every prefecture receives an own juridical court
-- any personal activity of the princes in the sultanates of Cheribon and Bantam is eliminated
-- roads and fortifications are installed for a state of defense (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

[And now the criminality of the criminal "Christian" upper class with it's companies is even rising with drugs: opium...]

British China trade during the 1st half of the 19th century: cotton and opium from India
During the first half of the 19th century the British China trade is consisting of a medium rate of 80% of British ware from India, first cotton, then opium (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

Opium milk
Opium milk juice [92] - the criminal "Christians" from Europe are beginning now to contaminate the whole world with drugs like opium and heroine, above all England - a normal tactic of the lodges and secret societies...

F-I: French occupation of Etruria/Rome
Because of the rupture of the "continental blockage" Napoleon lets occupy Etruria / Rome (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.27).


GB-India: treaties of the English Company with Sikhs and with Sindh in northern India
In 1809 the English Company can conclude a safety treaty with Sindh (lower Indus Valley) and with the Sikhs in Punjab (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

[What are doing the criminal "Christians" again? War, killing, blood, bones, injuries, cut legs, cut arms, cut heads, shot eyes, hunger, separation of families, destroyed villages and burnt towns - this is the fucken "Christian" blood rite and "Christianity" was never forbidden?]

Napoleonic Wars, world war: Austrian victory near Aspern - Russian push to Krakow - Austrian defeat near Wagram - Austria a state without port

During a national "upheaval" Austria is hoping for a "Fifth Coalition War" against the dictation of Napoleon (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.25). After the Spanish upheaval archduke Charles (Karl) is publishing a manifesto to all "German populations". But Prussia is hindered of acting by the French occupation and by tsar Alexander I. Napoleon's troops are pushing back the Austrian troops to Bohemia. But in May Napoleon is loosing his first battle against archduke Charles (Karl) near Aspern. Austrian guerrilla is fighting successfully at the Isel Mountain against Bavaria and against French, but the Austrian army is loosing in July near Wagram. Now in October Napoleon is degrading Austria in the "Peace of Schönbrunn" ("Peace of Beautiful Fountain") creating an Austria without port (a landlocked country):

-- Salzburg, Innviertel and North Tirol go to Bavaria
-- South Tirol is falling to Italy
-- Illyric provinces go to France
-- West Galicia with Cracow goes to Poland
-- Tarnapol is falling to Russia.
-- and the Austrian army is limited to 150,000 men (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.29).

Map of Europe of
                            1809 with the blockage of the continent by
                            Napoleon against England
Map of Europe of 1809 with the blockage of the continent by Napoleon against England [93]


Napoleonic Wars, world war:
-- Holland is annexed by France,
-- Northern Germany is annexed by France
-- England is annexing the French occupied islands Bourbon / Réunion and Mauritius (Ile de France)

(Reinhard, vol.I, p.229)

"National feelings" provoked by the Napoleonic Wars
The occupations and the distribution of liberal ideas overcoming feudalism and introducing modern justice systems and central bureaucracies as also the territorial unifications of territories are supporting national feelings which was not at all projected by Napoleon. And these upcoming national feelings are partly headed against Napoleon now (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.27).

Map of Europe of
                              1812 with the French occupied Holland and
                              North Germany
Map of Europe of 1812 with the French occupied Holland and North Germany [94]

["Christian" bloody rite is going on with death, cut arms, cut legs, cut heads etc.]:


Napoleonic Wars, world war: threatening takeover of Java by France - English invasion prepared for Java - English invasion and new regulations - and the reality
In 1811 is threatening a French takeover of Java Island. Thomas Stamford Raffles is preparing an invasion of Java (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

The English Governor General Minto is occupying Java "just in a breath" and is installing Thomas Stamford Raffles as vice governor for Java (until 1816). After this invasion Raffles is deciding
-- the abrogation of all forced deliveries and obliged military services
-- the introduction of taxes (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

->> But the reality is another one: The deliveries and the compulsory military services are not abrogated. But the population on Java has to provide the old and the new performances. Additionally Raffles has got the idea that the Company could "keep" Indonesia in the future (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).


DK: Dissolution of the Danish Company
In 1813 the Danish "Ostindiska Kompaniet" is dissolved (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

GB: discussion about a prolongation of regulations for the Company - free Indian trade
In 1813 the meanings of the English government about a prolongation of the regulations for the Company are split. Some voices claim a takeover of India by the British Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.230), others are claiming a liberalization of the Indian trade, others are even discussing about a liberalization of the trade with India and China. The new regulations contain the following alterations:
-- the Company will only keep the monopoly for the China trade
-- the dividends may only be payed with profits from the China business (Reinhard, vol.I, p.231)
-- additionally it's the first time that a "Christian" mission is permitted with the Company. Primarily above all Hindus should be converted who are living in a caste system which is discriminating for them. But with this failing mission the English despite of India is rising (Reinhard, vol.I, p.233).

since 1813
GB-India: new British Governor General Moira
From 1813 on (until 1823) a new British Governor General is installed with Francis Rawdon Earl of Moira. Moira is not an expansionist, but he has got the order to defend India against intruders (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

Rawdon Hastings
                          (Moira), portrait
Rawdon Hastings (Moira), portrait [95]

[The truth is: the criminal "Christians" are the intruders...]

GB-Nepal: English victory against Nepal - appointment of Moira for a Marquis of Hastings
The troops of the English Governor General, Francis Rawdon Earl of Moira, are winning over the intruding Nepalese Gurkha soldiers from the Kathmandu Valley. Now Moira is appointed to be a "Marquis of Hastings" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

since 1815
GB-India-Russia: saving India against Russia
Since 1815 the "safety policy" of the Company at the northern frontier of India is also headed against Russian trials of invasions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.228).

Europe: "New Order"  of the world after Napoleon's defeats

-- the Netherlands get back Malakka and the "possessions" in Indonesia
-- the Cape land [South Africa] and Ceylon "remain" British
-- the island "Ile de Bourbon" is given back to France as "Réunion Island"
-- the island "Ile de France" remains under English rule with the Dutch name "Mauritius" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

And since 1816 Mr. Raffles, the vice governor of Java, is considering British possibilities against the Netherlands (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

Map of Europe
Map of Europe 1815 [96]

Map with Asia of 1815
Map with Asia of 1815 [97] - in some kind the English "possessions" are much bigger than the Dutch, but England also wants to destroy Holland...

India: financial disaster and debts of India: 30 million Pounds
In 1815 the yearly deficit of India is 1.2 million Pounds. The total debt of India is 30 million Pounds (Reinhard, vol.I, p.231).

NL, colonies: Dutch possessions are in the hand of the Dutch state
Holland is changing the system. The possessions of the V.O.C. are part of the Dutch state now and this is not changing until 1940 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.129).

zum Inhalt    nach oben

10. Nepal with ghurka soldiers - English Singapore against Holland - India - Opium Wars against China who never attacked anybody - liquidations of companies - sold towns in India - rising British racism in India - "Philippines" occupied by criminal racist "U.S.A."

since 1816

GB-Nepal: Nepalese freelancers for the British army
Since 1816 Nepalese Gurkha soldiers are "good" freelancers for the English side (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

Gurkha (Gorkha)
                            soldiers from Nepal, 1815 appr.
Gurkha (Gorkha) soldiers from Nepal, 1815 appr. [98]

["Christian" warmongers are copied!
The addiction for war of the racist Europeans is more and more influencing the native populations, and with this they are destroying a big part of their own cultures. The populations are loosing their identity, become dependent from European racist military leaders and are partly loosing even their drive for self preservation].

GB-India: Governor General Moira projecting the surrender of the Marathas
Since 1816 Governor General Moira is projecting a definite "solution" of the Marathan problem: the surrender of the rebelling Marathas and of their former auxiliary forces, the Pindaris. In the meantime these Pindaris are performing raids with "flying riding groups" and with this they are copying the "Marathan method" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

GB-India: English victory against the Marathas - beginning of the English dominance of whole India

In 1817 and 1818 there is a coordinated maneuver of over 100,000 troops of the English Company against the Maratha territories of western Central India. the notorious disunity of the Marathas and the "incapacity" of their leaders is the best condition for an English victory. With this action the countryside behind Bombay and a big part of the Peshwa ruled territory are annexed by the English. The Bombay "President" is becoming the ruler of a territorial power now the first time. IN the future the land connection between Bombay and Bengal is under English control (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

With the surrender of the Marathas in 1818 the English Company has made a big step for a British rule over whole India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

GB-Singapore: English military base of Singapore against the Dutch side
In 1819 the former vice governor for Java, Mr. Raffles, is operating starting in Bencoolen (Bengkulu on Sumatra Island [web34]) creating the English base of Singapore (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).


India: always more mixed race people in Calcutta: racism against mixed race people
In 1822 about 2,500 Europeans are living in Calcutta, but already 10,000 mixed race people. These mixed are socially subordinated and are kept in minor positions, they have no change to get higher positions only by their skin color (Reinhard, vol.I, p.233).


NL-Singapore: Dutch side forced to acknowledge Singapore
In 1824 V.O.C. has to acknowledge Singapore with a treaty (Reinhard, vol.I, p.229).

GB-India: no trade of the Company in India any more
In 1824 the Company is quitting the trade with India. Private people are taking all (Reinhard, vol.I, p.231).

NL-India: all Dutch bases in India are given to England
In 1825 the Netherlands are leaving their last posts and bases on the Indian subcontinent to Great Britain (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

Civil war on Java Island
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.217)

NL-Java: reduction of the sultanates favoring Dutch V.O.C.
In 1830 the sultanates of Jogjakarta and Surakarta - the core territory of Mataram on Java - are "reduced" considerably favoring the Dutch V.O.C. They are remaining like this until 1945 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

GB-India-China: total liberalization of the trade between England with India and China
In 1833 the English government is not granting the Company a monopoly any more. The Company is loosing now also the China monopoly. The complete naval trade is liberalized (Reinhard, vol.I, p.231).

Sp, "Philippines": liquidation of the Spanish "Philippines Company"
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.153)


DK: liquidation of the Danish "Kompagni"
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.151)

[And what are doing the criminal "Christians" now? They defend their drug and opium trade!]

GB-China: "First Opium War" of China against England's opium trade
In 1840 China begins to defend oneself against the English opium dealers. But the English weapons are superior to the Chinese weapons (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).


GB-China: British victory with the "First Opium War" against China: "Peace of Nanking"

In 1842 the superior British weapons are defeating the Chinese troops. China has to make concessions to the European aggressors in the "Peace of Nanking":

-- Hongkong is transferred to Britain
-- China is permitting trade concessions to England for five "treaty ports"
-- China is granting to these "treaty ports" an own sovereignty in administration, justice, police and custom duties.

->> As a consequence the European powers are "hunting" for privileges in China now. The military weakness of China is provoking the European powers to "aggressive" maneuvers against China (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

[The best would be when there would be no "Christians" any more in the world because then 90% of the wars would not be!]

F, colonies: official renaming of Bourbon Island to Réunion Island
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

DK: selling of Danish towns in India to Britain
In 1845 the Danish kept towns in India are sold to England: Serampore and Tranquebar (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

[The populations were not asked probably! - And the more industrialization in Europe is developing the less the criminal European "Christians" are valuing other cultures in the world]:

since 1850
GB-India: racism is rising now: rising English despite for all of India
British despite against all of India is rising and is even institutionalized in the structures of the Company. The ethnocentric despite of all other is not only based on the technical "superiority", but is becoming a social structured normal behavior of the English now (Reinhard, vol.I, p.233).

GB-China: "Second Opium War"/ Junk War: Chinese police capturing the western junk "Arrow"
In 1856 Chinese police is capturing the British junk "Arrow" provoking a new war with France and England (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91; DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.113).

[Why this junk is captured is concealed. There can be many reasons like smuggling of illegal ware, of humans, of agents etc. But as long as there is history about "Christian" colonialists the "Christian" history books are not very precise. Fact is: China did never attack anybody but only a little junk was confiscated, this is not at all a big ship. But it seems that the content was so "interesting" that China had to intervene and that England was just making war because of this!]

In 1857 the college for "Indian Civil Service" of Haileybury is liberalizing it's regulations opening the college to all applicants abrogating intern racism of the directors and "Indian Families" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.227).


GB-China: "Peace of Tsientsin" between England, France, and China
The "first step" of this "Arrow War" is ending with the "Peace of Tsientsin" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91; DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.113).

China-Russia: Russian Chinese treaty of Aigun
In this treaty the frontier line between Russia and China is fixed (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

since 1858
GB-F-China: more war between England, France, and China - destruction of the Chinese summer palace - occupation of Beijing
After the "Peace of Tsientsin" the fights between England, France, and China are continuing. The European troops are destroying the Chinese summer palace (DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.113) and they are occupying Beijing (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

[And now see what the criminal "Christians" are doing with China - whereas China has NEVER ATTACKED ANYBODY!!!!!]


"Peace of Beijing" between England, France, and China
The "second step" of the "Arrow War" is ending with the "Peace of Beijing". China has to make more concessions:

-- high war compensation
-- opening of ports (DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.113)
-- installation of European embassies
-- liberalization of trade
-- permission of "Christian" mission work (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

China-Russia: China is assigning Aigun to Russia
In 1860 China is assigning the coastal province of Aigun to Russia (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).


F-China: murder of the French consul in China
In 1870 the French consul in Tsientsin is murdered. And the European powers are answering with a "mission of atonement" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

F: liquidation of the French Company "Compagnie des Indes"
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.149)

China-Vietnam: Chinese acknowledgment of French Tonking
In 1885 the Chinese government is acknowledging the French protectorate over Tonking (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

"U.S." Spanish war: "Philippines" are occupied by the "U.S.A."
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.79)

Indonesia: Java becomes a nucleus for the drive for independence against the Dutch
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.217)



What happens after 1945: The colonies get a political independence,

but there is a complete economical dependency

-- because colonialism destroyed the identity of the occupied peoples and the peoples are mentally instable, they are occupied to find themselves

-- because the governments are corrupt and they consider it good when a population remains in poverty when "aid organizations" of the "First World" are giving everything for free

-- because the "U.S.A." and the white racist CIA are again and again manipulating countries of the "second world" and "third world" thus there is no stabilization but these countries will never be "First World".

In the "U.S.A." there is elected a government from time to time, but the CIA is always racist in the same way.

Is there a compensation, stupid "U.S.A." how you are terrorizing the world since 1945?

There are many books to buy about the criminal CIA terrorizing the whole world.

<<        >>

[web01] Krishna River http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kistna
[web02] Prussian Company under Frederick the Great: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emder_Ostasiatische_Handelskompanie
[web03] German Bengal Company: http://www.panorama-maritim.de/Kompanie.html
[web04] Earthquake of Lisbon of 1755: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erdbeben_von_Lissabon_1755
Earthquake of Lisbon of 1755: http://www.essortment.com/famous-earthquakes-history-21137.html
[web06] Gross-Jägersdorf near Königsberg: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gro%C3%9F_J%C3%A4gersdorf
[web07] Peshwa (Marathas): http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peshwa
[web08] Electorate of Hannover: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Preussen-1806.jpg
[web09] Plassey (Palashi) in upper Bengal: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plassey
[web10] Oudh=Awadh: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oudh

[web11] Jesuits: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aufhebung_des_Jesuitenordens
[web12] Senegambia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senegambia
[web13] Wandiwash=Vandavasi: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiruvannamalai_(Distrikt)
[web14] jagir=land leasing treaty on the Indian subcontinent: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagir
[web15] tsar Peter III: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_III._(Russland)
[web16] tsar Peter III: http://www.petersburg-info.de/html/peter_iii.html
[web17] James Cook: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Cook
[web18] Matavai Bay at Cape Venus (Pointe Vénus): http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matavai_Bay
[web19] famine in Bengal 1770: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengal_famine_of_1770
[web20] Boston Tea Party: http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/29900/29900/bostn_tea_29900.htm
[web21] Boston Tea Party (Wikipedia): http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_Tea_Party
[web22] Sanskrit: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit
[web23] Urdu "Hello": google translate
[web24] Battle near Lexington (Massachussets). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battles_of_Lexington_and_Concord
[web25] Hyder Ali: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyder_Ali
[web26] Ethnological collection by Cook and Forster of the South Sea, Göttingen University: https://www.uni-goettingen.de/de/73270.html
[web27] Göttingen Collection: http://masterpieces.asemus.museum/masterpiece/detail.nhn?objectId=11457
[web28] Tupac Amarú in Cusco beheaded by "friendly Christians" in 1781: http://www.diarioinca.com/2008/11/biografia-de-tupac-amaru-ii.html
[web29] Yorktown at the coast line of Virginia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schlacht_von_Yorktown; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yorktown_%28Virginia%29
[web30] Gneisenau: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Neidhardt_von_Gneisenau

[web31] Convict colony of Australia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Str%C3%A4flingskolonie_Australien
[web32] Great Britain: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Great_Britain
[web33] Great Britain "unifying" Ireland in 1801: http://todayinsocialsciences.blogspot.com/2011/10/england-great-britain-and-united.html
[web34] Bengkulu (Bencoolen) on Sumatra. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengkulu_%28Stadt%29

Photo sources
[1] map of the Indian subcontinent of about 1750: http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~poyntz/India/maps.html;
[2] Dupleix, portrait: http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/foundation-of-british-rule-in-india/1499
[3] Bussy, portrait: http://ookaboo.com/o/pictures/source/2640494/AYE_R
[4] Prussian South India Company, ship "King from Prussia" ("König von Preussen"): http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emder_Ostasiatische_Handelskompanie
[5] Robert Clive from the English East India Company: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=20616
[6] map with India, Ceylon, Nicobar Islands and Sumatra: http://www.gfbv.de/inhaltsDok.php?id=462
[7] earthquake of Lisbon from Nov 1, 1755: http://derstandard.at/1353206539416/Die-schoepferische-Kraft-der-Zerstoerung
[8] tsunami map of the earthquake of Lisbon from Nov 1, 1755: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erdbeben_von_Lissabon_1755
[9] Lisbon in about 1540 and the losses by the earthquake on Nov 1, 1755:
[10] map of the region of Lisbon with Tejo River: http://www.embassyworld.com/maps/Maps_Of_Portugal/

[11] Lisbon at about 1660:
[12] Danish Company ship: http://vaeggen.copenhagen.dk/media/12047
[13] Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula: http://www.royalark.net/India4/murshid4.htm
[14] map of electorate of Hannover, today Lower Saxonia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preußische_Universitäten;
[15] tsarina Elisabeth I from Russia, portrait: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisabeth_%28Russland%29
[16] William Pitt, portrait: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Temple,_1st_Viscount_Cobham
[17] Robert Clive, portrait: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Clive
[18] map with Madras and Arcot: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_history_of_Mysore_and_Coorg_%281565%E2%80%931760%29; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mysore1617to1799b.jpg
[19] Afghan Empire of 1762: http://afghanistan.s5.com/custom.html
[20] map of Bengal of 1767 with Calcutta and Plassey: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Plassey;

[21] map of North "America" from before 1767: http://www.hist-chron.com/USA/trails/Coons_karte1750-dreiteilung-N-Amerika.html
[22] Warren Hastings, portrait: http://www.nndb.com/people/124/000101818/
[23] map of English occupied Bengal of 1767 with Murshidabad (Moorshedabad): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Plassey;
[24] map with Bengalen, Oudh, Sindh, Panjab etc.: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avadh; http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/de/8/8e/IndienHistorisch.jpg
[25] map of English occupied Bengal of 1767 with Balasore, Dacca, and Patna: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Plassey;
[26] Jesuit preacher Malagrida, portrait: http://faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/jp/jplme.htm
[27] map of Federal State of Tamil Nadu with Madras and Vandavasi (Wandiwash): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wandiwash
[28] Eyre Coote, portrait: http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyre_Coote_%28Companhia_Brit%C3%A2nica_das_%C3%8Dndias_Orientais%29
[29] Thomas Arthur Comte de Lally, portrait: http://fronac.unblog.fr/category/repere-historique/page/28/
[30] map of China with Canton / Guangzhou: http://www.china-reisen-info.de/reise-ziele/bilder/guangzhou-karte.png

[31] map of China without Tibet but with Korea of 1759 by Robert&Gibson:
[32] Laurence Sulivan from English East India Company, portrait: http://www.ibtauris.com/Books/Humanities/History/Regional%20%20national%20history/Asian%20history/Guardian%20of%20The%20East%20India%20Company%20The%20Life%20of%20Laurence%20Sulivan.aspx?menuitem={148A2928-4B6A-4671-B889-A62E1686BF67}
[33] map with Lahore, Delhi, and Panipat: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6374377.stm
[34] map of the Indian subcontinent of 1760: http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/india_1760.htm
[35] tsar Peter III of Russia: http://www.petersburg-info.de/html/peter_iii.html
[36] Frederick the Great, portrait: http://www.kunstkopie.de/a/friedrich-der-grosse-3.html&sfl=1&INCLUDE=COLLECT
[37] ma of North "America" of 1764: New France is destroyed, occupied territories by English, Spaniards and Russians, and some French islands:
[38] James Cook with a map: http://famousenglishexpeditions.yolasite.com/james-cook.php
[39] map of Tahiti: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/oceania/lgcolor/tahiti.htm
[40] Tahiti, panorama: http://www.tahiti-tourisme.com/islands/tahiti/tahiti-map.asp

[41] Tahiti, Diademe Mountain: http://www.willgoto.com/1/145368/liens.aspx
[42] Tahiti, canoe catamaran: http://polynesia.canalblog.com/archives/2005/11/10/981913.html
[43] Tahiti, flower crowns: http://www.willgoto.com/1/145372/liens.aspx
[44] Tahiti, diving in riffs, fishes with bright colors: http://www.islands.com/taxonomy/term/2717?page=2
[45] Tahiti, market in Papeete (marché municipal): http://www.przybysz.net/galerie/2/tahiti-papeete-market-2.jpg
[46] Tahiti, over water bungalow: http://www.islands.com/taxonomy/term/2717?page=2
[47] James Cook, map of the first expedition (Tahiti-Australia): http://georgianjunkie.wordpress.com/tag/james-cook/
[48] Warren Hastings, governor of Bengal: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Hastings
[49] James Cook, map of the second expedition (Africa-Australia-Tahiti 1772-1775): http://www.voyage-australie-nz.com/exp-cook-james.html
[50] map of the Afghan Empire: http://doodhpatti.blogspot.com/2012/05/afghan-connections.html

[51] Boston Tea Party: http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/29900/29900/bostn_tea_29900.htm
[52] Hyder Ali of Hyderabad in Mysore: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyder_Ali
[53] flag of criminal racist "U.S.A." from 1773 with 13 stars: http://www.flaggenplatz.de/betsy-ross-1776-1795-flagge-2082.html
[54] Thomas Jefferson, a white racist of the first moment of the "U.S.A.", portrait: http://consortiumnews.com/2014/02/13/tea-party-and-thomas-jefferson/
[55+56] wooden figurine of an extraterrestrial, Cook's collection at the ethnological institute of Göttingen University: 
[57+58] plaited mat from Tonga with geometric patterns: http://masterpieces.asemus.museum/masterpiece/detail.nhn?objectId=12027
[59] pendant made of animal teeth, fishing hooks and sea shells: http://masterpieces.asemus.museum/masterpiece/detail.nhn?objectId=10967
[60] flutes of Maori people from New Zealand: http://pixeltransfer.com/en/index.php/Main/TaongaPuoro

[61] James Cook, map of the third expedition Africa-Australia-Tahiti-Hawaii-Alaska-Bering Strait (1776-1780):
[62] Hawaii, map: http://www.american-number-plate.com/hawaii-license-plate
[63] map of the Maori colonization in the South Sea: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/map/2510/pacific-migration-routes
[64] Hawaii, Hula woman dancers: http://www.janeresture.com/oceania_girls/
[65] Hawaii, Hula woman dancers with flowers: http://www.janeresture.com/oceania_girls/
[66] Hawaii, flowers with bright colors: http://sockaichan.deviantart.com/art/Hawaiian-Flowers-2-97411614
[67] Hawaii, leader of the natives: http://pbcentras.net/Hawaii/hawaii-language.html
[68] Hula woman dancer with coconut bikini (coconut bra): http://www.visualphotos.com/image/1x5053139/female_hawaiian_hula_dancer_wearing_coconut_bikini
[69] Hawaii, Mahaiula beach: http://www.powerfloe.com/Hawaii%20Beach%20Photos%204%20DVD.html
[70] Hawaii, big wave surfing: http://oceangirlproject.org/tag/big-wave-surfing/

[71] map with Hawaii and Bering Strait: google maps (with indications by Michael Palomino 2014)
[72] pack ice in Bering Strait: http://www.adventurersclub.org/calendar/feb2009.htm
[73] Unalaska, one of the Aleutian Islands: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unalaska,_Alaska
[74] map of Europe and "America" with "U.S.A." of 1779: http://www.alternatehistory.com/wiki/doku.php/resources/modern_maps
[75] Tupac Amarú in Cusco against 4 horses in 1781: http://www.diarioinca.com/2008/11/biografia-de-tupac-amaru-ii.html
[76] Tipu Sultan (English: Tippoo Sultan): http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tipu_Sultan
[77] map of North "America" after the "Peace of Versailles" of 1783: http://wwnorton.com/college/english/naal8/section/volA/maps.aspx
[78] William Pitt Junior, portrait: http://www.emersonkent.com/history_notes/william_pitt_the_younger.htm
[79] Charles Cornwallis, portrait: http://www.stedmundsburychronicle.co.uk/Chronicle/1700-1812.htm
[80] map of Indonesia and Malaysia with Penang: http://www.auswandern-info.com/indonesien/karte.html

[81] spinning machine of Hargrieves: http://www.grimshaworigin.org/ManchesterIndustrialCity.htm
[82] cotton fabric power loom, Manchester 1914: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton_mill
[83] maps with the Province of Quebec in 1773 and in 1782 (with indications by Michael Palomino 2014): http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=treaty_versailles
[84] map with the partition of the Province of Quebec in Upper and Lower Canada in 1791: http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=creation_upper_lower
[85] Napoleon spreading terrorism without end: http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_I
[86] Lord Mornington: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Assaye
[87] map of Great Britain with the "unified" Ireland 1801-1922: http://todayinsocialsciences.blogspot.com/2011/10/england-great-britain-and-united.html
[88] map with the big territory of "Louisiana" which was sold to the "U.S:A." in 1803 by Napoleon: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/1803
[89] map of the Indian subcontinent of 1804: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/1803; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:India_1804_map.jpg
[90] Lord Minto, portrait: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1700_1799/companyrule/govgenerals/govgenerals.html;

[91] general Daendels, portrait: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Daendels,_Herman_Willem.jpg
[92] opium milk juice for heroine: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opium
[93] map of Europe  of 1809 with the continental blockage of Napoleon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_Wars
[94] map of Europe of 1812 with French occupied Netherlands and North Germany: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_Wars
[95] Rawdon Hastings (Moira), portrait: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Rawdon-Hastings,_1st_Marquess_of_Hastings
[96] map of Europe of 1815: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_Wars; http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/World_map_1815_%28COV%29.jpg
[97] map of Asia of 1815: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_Wars; http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/World_map_1815_%28COV%29.jpg
[98] Gurkha soldiers of Nepal, 1815 appr.: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurkha