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Colonialism in Chronology - chapter IV

4. Competition against the trade companies of Portugal, Spain and Holland in "India"

England, France, Denmark, Sweden, Scotland, Austria, and German princedoms 1550 - 1750

Ernte Tee in China ;
                  harvest of tea in China ; récolte du thé Chine  Kaffeebaum /
                    arbol de café / cafe / arbre de café / cofee tree Chinaporzellan:
                    Teller  Schiff der Ostindischen
                  Kompanie Schwedens: Ostindiska Kompaniet
Tea, coffee and porcelain: All this is giving profit, and all "want to have" a part of it...

by Michael Palomino (2005 / 2009)

Translation in 2014



Since 1492 respectively 1494 the criminal Nazi Pope of Rome has defined a world war. And now this world war is going on and since the reformation movement since 1520 almost all European states are taking part . The protestants are fighting the "trade companies" against the catholic states etc.

Many local populations in Africa and Asia have no chance against the white shooting gun and against the canons of this "white man", and they have no chance against the European structures of the market. And until today there is no compensation for these crimes committed during centuries...

Michael Palomino
May 1999 / October 2003 / April 2005

    nach oben

1. The attractive principle of monopoly East India Companies - French trials for sea trade - Mogul Empire - wars for Spanish Netherlands - "Muscovy Company" since 1576 - English trade with Ternate since 1580 - English territorial expedition to India in 1583 - first English "settlement" in "America" in 1584 - second destruction of Antwerp in 1585 - defeat of the Armada in 1588

2. European world trade with India after the Huguenots Wars in France since 1589 - new Danish company - first "foundations" in North "America"

3. English Dutch fights about Indian and far Indian military bases and Spice Islands since 1620 - Danish and Swedish companies

4. Bengalen as a new "attractive" trading base for European business since 1637 - French, German and French trials for company businesses

5. Protestant revolution and massacre against Catholics in England, Ireland and Scotland since 1649 - English "Navigation Acts" against Dutch middlemen in 1651 - English Dutch war 1652-1654 - Cromwell dictatorship in England since 1653

6. War of England against Catholic Spain 1654-1659 - English and French conquests in "West India" - racist regime in the Mogul Empire of Aurangzeb since 1658 - Restoration in England after the death of Cromwell since 1658

7. Tea and coffee are new products of the Indian trade since 1660 - French trials with the "Orient Company" ("Compagnie de l'Orient") since 1661 - persecution of puritans in England since 1662 - English Dutch war about "American" colonies since 1664

8. Wars and intrigues of Louis XIV against Holland since 1667/1668 - new French and Dutch military bases in India and in East India - civil war against Aurangzeb in the Mogul Empire since 1669 - successful new foundation of a company in Denmark in 1670

9. English private trade under foreign flags since the 1670s - more intrigues and wars by Louis XIV against Holland in 1672 - Holland opening some floodgates, defeat of France - new French trading posts - more civil war in the Mogul Empire - peace of Nimwegen with Louis XIV in 1678

10. Formation of political parties "Whigs" and "Tories" in England in 1679 - textiles from Bengalen are a new product in the Indian trade - invention of the weaving machine in Europe - coffee houses establishing in Europe - invasion of the Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb to southern India since 1681 - Catholic Restoration trial of James II in 1685 in England - opening of the markets in China since 1685 - porcelain as a new trade good

10a. Intermediate chapter: Chinese porcelain

11. English trial of occupation of Bengal against Aurangzeb in 1686 - "Glory Revolution" against the Catholics in England in 1688 - invasion of Louis XIV in South Germany and counter alliance in 1688 - "Declaration of Rights" in 1689 - English Dutch personal union under Wilhelm of Orange since 1689 - peace between Aurangzeb and the Company in 1690 - English wars against Ireland

12. New "English Company" under William III of Orange - defeat of Louis XIV in 1697 - Spain without successor to the throne and pressure by Louis VIV - Bengal with "rising significance" for England: silk trade - coffee and tea are establishing in the whole world

13. "Act of Settlement" in England in 1701 - Spanish war of succession in Europe since 1701 - the "Big Alliance" against Louis XIV - union of England and Scotland since 1707 - death of Aurangzeb and Indian secessionist movement since 1707 - new "United Company" since 1708 - "Peace of Utrecht" for Europe in 1713

14. "Pragmatic sanctions" in Austria as a prevention of wars of succession - Spanish occupation of Sardinia and Sicilia and counter alliance of 1717 - English privilege in Bengalen since 1717 - new French trials for founding a company - coffee plantations in Surinam since 1718

15. First Austrian trade with East India since 1721 - French plantations - Austrian "Ostende Company" since 1723 - Austrian Swedish company since 1731 because of "pragmatic sanctions"

16. Dictatorial Dutch measures on Java Island in 1733 - Polish war of succession 1733-1735 - Persian invasion up to Delhi in 1739 - takeover of the throne by Maria Theresia in Vienna and Prussian French alliance against Austria since 1740 - "Opium War" in China 1740-1742 - Hong Kong becomes English, European invasion in China since 1742 - Dutch rulership on Java since 1742

17. Tea smuggling to England - "pragmatic alliance" against France - Austria loosing Silesia to Prussia in 1745 - French war against England in India since 1746 - French defeat and "peace of Aachen" in 1748

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Chronology of this world war of "Christianity" since 1524

The attractive principle of monopoly East India Companies - French trials for sea trade - Mogul Empire - wars for Spanish Netherlands - "Muscovy Company" since 1576 - English trade with Ternate since 1580 - English territorial expedition to India in 1583 - first English "settlement" in "America" in 1584 - second destruction of Antwerp in 1585 - defeat of the Armada in 1588

Now everybody wants to have a "Company"
More and more the idea of a monopoly East India Company is copied in the Protestant Netherlands. This monopoly is considered as a safety for profits and for further investments and is attracting more capital into the country. In this way also companies from little countries can theoretically found companies which make profits: The monopoly is connected with the national flag, and the monopoly with the national flag and the free capital are protecting themselves mutually. To the contrary East India journeys on a private base are rare (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

So there are French and Danish and Scottish and German companies now - but never lasting for a long time. But they have a harshening effect to the competition and they are provoking a rising pressure against the natives in Asia and "America" - and at the end will stay the criminal "U.S.A." in 1776. See the details:

F-Diu: In 1524 first French ships are reaching the town of Diu in western India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.146).

F-Sumatra: In 1529 two French ships of the ship owner Mr. Jean Ango are reaching Sumatra Island. After the return the French crown is prohibiting the invasion into the Portuguese sphere (Reinhard, vol.I, p.146).

Jean Ango
Jean Ango [1]
Jean Ango Unterschrift
Jean Ango, signature[2]

Ango is one of the first sailors coming from another state than Spain and Portugal enriching himself by spice trade with Africa and India [web01].

Ango, this French star of a sailor, comes from the town of Dieppe. Together with the French King Francis I he is forming an inseparable duo. Ango is financing also corsairs and pirates. Jean Fleury is one of them performing over 300 raids on ships [web02].

Mogul Empire of in northern India: In 1530 the successor of the Mongol conquerer Timur is founding his rulership in Delhi. His territory is reaching from Afghanistan to Bengal (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134).

Karte des Mogulreichs in
                              Nordindien um 1530

vergrössern Map of the Mogul Empire of northern India in 1530 [3]

English fabric production: Since the Middle Ages the trade system of the English industry is mostly consisting in exportations of woolen fabrics to Antwerp for further processing (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

Wars about Spanish Netherlands are limiting now this trade with woolen fabric in Antwerp considerably (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

F: From 1562 to 1598 [during more than 30 years! So crazy are the "Christians"!] there are Huguenot Wars (French Wars of Religion) in France (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.241). During this epoch France is concentrated completely to domestic policy and any strong expansion with a French India Company is not possible (Reinhard, vol.I, p.146).

England has to look for new sales markets or has to develop new sales markets. In 1567 the delivery of fabric is changing to Hamburg (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131). .

In 1570 England is beginning trade relationships with Italy (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

England-Russia: In 1576 the "Muscovy Company" is founded. This is a coalition of English traders in Russia and in Persia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

[A short time later Russia is completing the occupation of half of the Asian continent down to Korea...]

And now there is a first Protestant symbol against the Catholic dominance of the world. But this is also a "Christ", so this does not use much for the natives...:

Drake: The victories of England against Spain let rise the expectations for reputation and profits in the English population. English merchants are participating at an English expedition of Mr. Francis Drake. His aim is to occupy the Moluccas Islands. The total investment is 5,000 Pounds (Reinhard, vol.I, p.130).

[The basic fault
The basic fault with this political tactic is the following: England should intervene at the Pope for an internationalization of the world trade. But the English merchants are going on now with a confrontation. And as it seems also the Pope does not develop the idea to internationalize the shipping routes? This should be read in the documents of the Vatican which are not searched until today yet].
Francis Drake,
Mr. Francis Drake, portrait [4]

And what is not working with the Pope, this is working with Muslim Turkey! See here:

GB-Turkey: In 1578 England can purchase trade privileges with the Turkish sultan Murad III (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).
Murad III.,
Sultan Murad III [5]

England-India: In 1579 the first British Jesuit missioner Mr. Thomas Stephens is arriving on the Indian subcontinent. His reports about the country are published in London provoking big acknowledgment (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

In 1580 Francis Drake's expedition is returning to England:
-- with a trade treaty with the sultan of Ternate
-- with robbed noble metals of a value of 600,000 Pounds which was robbed in the not fortified Pacific coastal territories from Spanish "America" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.130).

[All this gold belongs to the natives principally. It seems that Drake has loaded his ships in the territories of South "American" culture with gold for free and he is even proud of it...]

England: The English Mr. Richard Hakluyt is propagating in England the erection of colonies on the "American" continent:
-- in this way the motherland could be "discharged"
-- in this way the "population pressure" and "poverty" could be reduced (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

[Natives do not exist for him, they will only remain without rights and in poverty...]

England-Middle East: "Levant Company": In 1581 the English merchants in Asia are founding the "Levant Company" ("Levante" is the Italian word for countries in the Middle East where sun is rising for them, Italian: levarse=to get up).

This "Levant Company" is above all interested in spice trade because the East Indian spices are wanted everywhere. The merchants are getting silk, indigo, and spices in Aleppo (today's Haleb in Syria). A direct trade contact to India is not essentially important for the merchants (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

Karte mit
                    der Position von Aleppo / Halab / Haleb im heutigen
Map of today's Syria with the position of Aleppo / Halab / Haleb [6]

England: In 1582 the English translation of Castanheda's history of the Portuguese "beginnings" in India is edited (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

Coffee: In 1582 the German traveler from Augsburg Mr. Leonhard Rauwolf is describing "joy of coffee" the first time in German literature (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

England-India: In 1583 the first English expedition is reaching India on the by land. Within this group are John Newbery, Ralph Fitch, William Leeds, and James Story (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

Native's Continent: In 1584 Walter Raleigh is "founding" "Virginia" with the first English settlement of "Jamestown" [and with this he is the first Englishman occupying native territory] (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.277).

Antwerp 1585: Antwerp is destroyed a second time. Within 25 years the merchant's families are changing all to Amsterdam (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131). .

GB-Sp: In 1588 Protestant England is celebrating a victory against Spanish Catholic Armada (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

[It seems that the Pope having given the concession of world wide trade for Spain and Portugal is not ready to arrange the world trade in a new way. The position of the Vatican concerning this enormously important topic is in the dark until today. When he had wanted to arrange this topic then he had been forced to acknowledge the Protestant states...]

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European world trade with India after the Huguenots Wars in France since 1589 - new Danish company - first "foundations" in North "America"

England: In 1589 Mr. Richard Hakluyt is editing a work about the sea routes to Asia and to the Indian continent: "The principal navigations, voyages and discoveries of the English nation". Later Mr. Richard Hakluyt is realizing his settlement projects on the Indian continent (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

Hakluyt : Principall navigations /
                        Grundlagende der Navigation
Hakluyt: Principal navigations [7]

These are the indications of Penn Library:

<A scholar and geographer, Richard Hakluyt undertook to compile extant narratives in The Principall Navigations and make them available for an English-speaking audience. In his effort to create a tradition of British colonialism in America to uphold, he purported that one "Madoc the sonne of Owen Gwyneth Prince of North-wales" had "discovered" America in 1170. This massive compilation of voyage narratives was both a dense homage to English genius and a gallery of examples, both English and foreign, that would move the English to redouble their quest for empire.> [web03]

France since 1589: After the Huguenot Wars (French Wars of Religion) France is recovering in general (until 1610). This little boom is falling together with the expansion times of Holland and England. Under Henry IV over 36 shipping companies ("Compagnies") are found for over sea's traveling in France (Reinhard, vol.I, p.146).

Heinrich IV. / Henry / Hernando
Henry IV [8]

In 1591 an English expedition to eastern India has only a little success (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

In 1598 an English translation of the history of the Dutch in India is published by Mr. Linschoten. And of course this translation is a suggestion for copying the maneuvers of the Dutch (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

Holländischer Geschichtsschreiber Jan Huygen Van
                  Linschoten, Portrait
Jan Huygen Van Linschoten [9]

[This work of Mr. Linschoten is brilliant with many maps. This work is like a commented atlas].

The Dutchman Mr. Linschoten was working during 5 years for the Portuguese first and he was smuggling information to the Netherlands so. His work is published in Holland first in 1595, then in England in 1598, and it is becoming the base for Dutch and English spice trade [web04].

NL-India: In 1599 a first Dutch Indian fleet is arriving in Amsterdam with loads of spices. Now the prices of spices are falling. And this means that the Aleppo business for the English merchants and for the "Levant Camponay" is in danger.

Parts of the "Levant Company" - which is politically important because this company is giving loans also to the English crown - are preparing an own "East India Company" now for journeys to India. But this trip is not authorized by queen Elizabeth I (Reinhard, vol.I, p.131).

Königin Elisabeth I. von England, Portrait

Queen Elizabeth I of England [10]

In 1600 this "East India Company" in England is making own and intensive propaganda for an own trip to India. Elizabeth I is ready now for introducing a financing of "official discovery journeys" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134).

[And what did think Elizabeth I about natives and about the blacks?]

The regulations of the English "East India Company"
On December 31, 1600, queen Elizabeth I is giving the regulations to the new English "East India Company", the "Charter of Incorporation" with the title

"The Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies".

The statues should count for 15 years first. The "East India Company" should

-- get a monopoly for English trade with East India
-- get freedom of custom duties for the first four years
-- be allowed to export noble metals of a value of 30,000 Pounds every year (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134).

Wappen der East India Company /
                            Ostindische Kompanie

The emblem of the English "East India Company" [11]

The structures of this English "East Indian Company"
This company is structure with a governor at it's top and 24 directorate members (directors). Every year there are elections by the sharers. The trips are financed trip by trip (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134).

-- get the pepper markets and the Moluccas Islands
-- London has to be privileged
-- prohibition of private trade for the staff members.

The main goal of this "East India Company" are the conclusion of trade agreements with the pepper markets of Achim on Sumatra Island and with Bantam / Banten on Java Island, and the commerce with the Moluccas Islands (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134).

[It seems that the location of Achim has got another name today. In the search machines this location could not be found].

Until 1618 the English traders remain a fairly closed group of impartation merchants of the London City (Reinhard, voI.I, p.139). This is also expressed by the name of "outports" ["ports out of"] for all ports out of London (Reinhard, vol.I, p.138). The staff members of the "Company" are forbidden to trade privately the colonial goods. But this prohibition is hardly enforceable (Reinhard, vol.I, p.180).

From 1600 to 1613 there are 12 journeys to India by this "East India Company" being financed one by one with subscribed commercial papers. The initial capital of this English "East India Company" can dispose only over 1/8 of the Dutch company "V.O.C." founded in 1602 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134).

In 1602 the first English trading post is opened in Bantam / Banten (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134) [south of today's Jakarta].

Karte mit
                    der Position von Bantam / Banten
Map with the position of Bantam / Banten [12]

1602: Foundation of the Dutch "East India Company" (VOC, V.O.C.)

The English model for a foundation of an "East India Company" is "copied" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.130).

The historically rich web site "Potato History" (www.kaartoffel-geschichte.de) is reporting:

(original in German:
<Zu Beginn des 17. Jahrhunderts hatten sich holländische und seeländische Handelskonzerne zur VOC zusammengeschlossen; sie sollte Handel treiben östlich des Kaps der Guten Hoffnung. Hauptumschlagsplatz war Batavia (Jakarta); ein zweiter Handelsplatz war die künstliche Insel Decima vor Nagasaki, ein halbes Jahr Seereise lag zwischen Amsterdam und diesen Handelsplätzen. Die Stadt Amsterdam war Hauptaktionärin der Vereinigten Ostindischen Compagnie (VOC).> [web13])

<At the beginning of the 17th century Dutch and other trusts of sea trade were merging forming the new VOC; the goal was the trade with the regions eastern of the Cape of Good Hope. Main trade center was Batavia (Jacarta); a second man trade center was the artificial island of Decima in front of Nagasaki. From Amsterdam to these trade centers the trip was 6 months. The town of Amsterdam was the principle shareholder of this United East India Company" (original Dutch name: "Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie", VOC).> [web13]

But the trading posts had to be conquered first against the natives and against the other white racists and against pirates:

(original in German:
<Amsterdam gewährte ihren Gesellschaften besondere Privilegien: Das Recht, Handelsverträge zu schließen, eine eigene Rechtsprechung, das Recht Kolonien zu gründen und damit auch das Recht »een kriegsmacht to onder­houden«. Die »oorlogslasten« (Kriegslasten [14]) waren enorm, denn bevor man eine Kolonie ausbeuten konnte, mußte Krieg geführt werden, gegen die Eingeborenen, gegen die Spanier, gegen die Portugiesen, gegen Piraten. Erst danach begann das Scheffeln.> [13])

<Amsterdam was granting to the companies special privileges: There was the right to conclude trade treaties, there was a own justice, there was the right for the foundation of colonies, and with this there was also the right maintaining "armed forces" ("een kriegsmacht to onderhouden"). The "oorlogslasten" (costs for the war [web14]) were enormous because before exploiting a colony war had to be made against the natives, against the Spaniards, against the Portuguese, and against pirates. And only then the "accumulating process" could begin.> [web13]

[The natives with their old religions with many gods and extraterrestrials had no rights but were enslaved for the profit of the Europeans...]

And in this Dutch East India Company (VOC) the conditions were brute and harsh:

When harvested were too big then a part of the harvest was destroyed respectively burnt for keeping the prices high respectively for "stabilizing" the prices [web12].

Dutch being expelled from V.O.C. of feeling not being accepted are ready to work for other countries and for other trade companies then. These are braking the monopolies then (interlopers) founding other trade companies, above all in England and in German Brandenburg (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

The branch companies, Dutch West India Company [for the exploitation of the Caribbean] is founded in 1621 then, see also 1621.

And now there is French action in North "America":

"Newfoundland" - "New Scotia" - "New France"
Since 1603 (until 1615) the Frenchman Mr. Samuel de Champlain is conquering "Newfoundland", "New Scotia" and "New France" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277) [occupying territories on the native's continent as a first Frenchman].

Karte mit Champlains Reisen zur
                        Landbesetzung 1603-1615 im heutigen Kanada
Map with Champlain's trips occupying territories in today's Canada [13]
Samuel de Champlain ;
                        Kolonialismus Frankreich / colonialismo Francia
                        / colonialism France / colonialisme
Samuel de Champlain [14]

[Mr. Champlain was naming one of the lakes with his own name (Lake Champlain). It seems that European conquerers were hardly putting down and noticing the native names for the locations, but they are just distributing own names for the locations, for the rivers, for the lakes and for the islands just according to their ideas. Many original names are also lost in Asia and in Africa, the names are exterminated...].

England: In 1604 the "outports" (all English ports with the exception of the one of London) are presenting a law for a general free trade. But in the House of Lords the English King is blocking this law (Reinhard, vol.I, p.138).

F: In 1604 French Crown is granting the French East India Company a Royal privilege the first time. This company has it's home port in the French town of Brest. In the background this company is financed by Dutch merchants (former V.O.C. staff members), and this is not at all according to the ideas of the Royal Court in Paris (Reinhard, vol.I, p.146).

F-NL: Many of the French "companies" are destroyed by Dutch ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

[Well, France was very Catholic yet in this epoch and was automatically a war enemy of the young Holland yet which only had got it's independence since a short time being liberated from the Catholic yoke of Spain...]

In 1605 England is installing a trading post on the native's continent on "Barbados" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.277).

Karte mit der Position der Insel Barbados vor
                    der "Karibik"
Map with the position of Barbados Islands in the "Caribbean" [15]

[How did the natives call this archipelago?]

Karte mit Surat im Sultanat Gujarat, heute
                        ein Teilstaat Indiens
Map with Surat in the sultanate of Gujarat, today a Federal State of India [16]
England-India, western coast: In 1607 the first English ships are traveling to the Indian subcontinent. The aim is to open an English trading post for textile trading (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134). There is another project for opening an English trading post in Surat (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).
Karte mit "Quebec" an der Mündung
                        des Flusses, der heute auf allen Karten
                        "St. Lorenz-Strom" heisst
Map with "Quebec" at the mouth of Saint Lawrence River [17]. But how did the natives call this river?
F-"America": In 1608 French conquerers are "founding" the location of "Quebec" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).
Karte mit der Stadt Agra neben Delhi,
Map with the town of Agra next to Delhi, India [18]
Surat (India): In 1609 the Portuguese are driving away the British from Surat. Negotiations in Agra remain fruitless (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).
Jakob I., König von England
James I, king of England [19]
England: In 1609 the English king James I is granting favorable regulations for the English "East India Company" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

And there is more desertion from V.O.C.:

In 1610 the two Dutchmen Pieter Floris and Lucas Antheunis are deliberately entering the services of the English "East India Company". In 1611 they are traveling serving them (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

English woolen fabric is not wanted in Asia as a trading product, but silver is wanted much. So the English "East India Company" has to pay it's trade in Asia in Spanish silver which is provided by an own company first being called the "Committee for Rials" in London, in Amsterdam, in Middelburg and in northern France (Reinhard, vol.I, p.138).

[Spanish silver comes from Potosi by slavery where 8 million slaves - natives and blacks - are dying in the mines, so the indications of Mr. Jestrabek...]

England-Portugal: In 1611 and 1612 there is a sea battle between English and Portuguese ships. English are winning. Then the local Indian authorities [in Surat] are giving in (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

England-"America": Since 1612 there is one more English trading post in the Caribbean on the "Bermuda Islands" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.277).
Position der Bermuda-Inseln
Map with the position of the Bermuda Islands in front of the native's continent [20]

[And how did the natives call this archipelago?]

England-Surat: In 1613 the British are granted to install an own trading post in Surat (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

England-Indonesia: In the same year of 1613 yet the English "East India Company" can open three more trading posts on Sumatra Island, and one on western Borneo, one on eastern Java, and one in Makassar (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Makassar Karte
                  / mapa / map / carte / térkép , terkep , / kart
Map with the islands of Borneo, Java, and the town of Makassar (today Ujung Pandang) on Sulawesi Island / Celebes Island [21]

In 1613 about the two Dutchmen in the "East India Company", Floris and Antheunis, can open even more trading posts for England:
-- in Masulipatam at the Coromandel Coast (also called: Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam / Bandar)
-- in Siam / Thailand in the capital of Ayuthia / Ayutthaya
-- and in Patani / Petani at the east coast of Malayan Peninsula where above all Chinese goods are traded (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Karte mit der Position des
                        heutigen indischen Teilstaates Andhra Pradesh
Map with the position of the today's Federal State Andhra Pradesh [22]
Karte mit der Position von Masulipatam /
                        Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam / Bandar im Staat
                        Andhra Pradesh an der Mündung des Flusses
Map with the position of Masulipatam / Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam / Bandar in the state of Andhra Pradesh at the mouth of Krishna River [23]
Ayuthia Tempel / temple /
Ayuthia in Thailand [24]
Karte mit der Position von
                        Ayuthia / Ayutthaya / Phra Nakhon Si
Partial map of Thailand with the position of Ayuthia / Ayutthaya / Phra Nakhon Si [25]
                            Halbinsel Malaya auf einer Briefmarke
Malayan Peninsula on a stamp [26]
Karte mit der Position von
                        Patani auf heute Thailändischem Gebiet der
                        Halbinsel Malaya
Map with the position of Patani on today's Thailand's territory on the Malayan Peninsula [27]
Karte mit Hirado an der
                        Südspitze der grossen japanischen Insel Kyushu
Map with Hirado Island at the southern end of the big Japanese island of Kyushu [28]
In the same year in 1613 the English can install a Japanese trading post in Hirado (which is working until 1623; Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

England-India: In 1614 Sir Thomas Roe is sent to the Mogul Emperor Akbar to India. The trip is approved by the English king James I and is financed by the "East India Company". Mr. Roe is there during three years from 1615 to 1618. He cannot manipulate India for permitting new permissions for the English side, but he is improving the position of the Company in India in general (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Thomas Roe ; Kolonialismus / colonialisme /
                    colonialism / colonialismo
Thomas Roe, portrait [29]

In 1615 the two Dutchmen Floris and Antheunis come back to England serving the company. The result is a profit of 214% (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

[Precise details are missing to what this profit refers, to them personally or to the company].

In the same year of 1615 the British Indian Empire is parted into two separated groups for a better administration:
-- one group in India is defined with a capital of Surat
-- another group on Java is defined with a capital of Bantam (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

England-Persia: Since 1616 it's possible for the English "East India Company" trading over the Persian port of Gombroon without intermediary trade [with India] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Karte mit der Position des Hafens
                          Gombroon neben den Orten Minab, Kubistak und
                          den Inseln Carak und Kishal an der Strasse von
                          Hormuz am Persischen Golf
Map with the position of the port of Gombroon next to the locations Minab, Kubistak and Carak Island and Kishal at the Hormuz Strait of Persian Gulf [30]

And now comes another little state: Denmark:

DK+Nor: In 1616 in Copenhague a first East India Company is found by two Dutchmen living in Denmark. In the beginning the staff of experienced sailors comes mostly from the Netherlands. King Christian IV (he is king of Denmark and Norway at the same time [web15]) is approving this company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

Christian IV. , König von Dänemark / rey de
                    Danemarca / king of Danmark / roi du Danemarque
King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway [31]

Structure of the Danish company: capital and force
12.5% of the capital of this Danish company is given by the king. This king is developing pressure against the high nobles and to the Danish towns for bringing the rest of the capital. Thus the high nobles are paying 15.5%, Copenhague 35%, and the other towns 29.5%. Voluntarily is coming more money with a share of Dutch people by 5% and there is the town of Hamburg giving voluntarily 2.5% (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

Coffee: In Mocca (also: Mokka, Mocha) the "co-founder" of the Dutch trade empire in the western part of the Indian Ocean, Pieter van den Broecke, is getting to know "some little black beans with which they are making a black water drinking it warm." (Reinhard vol.I ?)

Mocca and coffee
Position von Mokka / Mocca /
                        Mocha / Mokha ; Karte / mapa / map / carte /
                        terkep térkép / kart ; Jemen / Yemen ; Aden , Al
                        Ghadir , Shaykh Uthman / Utman ; Zinjibar,
                        Shaqra / Shakra , Ahwar / Achwar , Ataq / Atak /
                        Lawdar , Qatabach / Qatabah / Katabach , Lahij /
                        Lachij , At Turbah / At Turbach Taizz, Ibb ,
                        Yarim / Jarim, Dhamar / Damar , Sanaa / Sana'a,
                        Bayda / Baida , Zabid , Bayt al Faqih / Bait al
                        Faqich / Fakich , As Salif / Asch Schalif , Golf
                        von Aden / Gulf of Aden ; Bab el Mandeb
Map with the position of the port town of Mocca at the entrance of the Red Sea at the other side of Eritrea [32].

Well, the colors are just wrong on this map, because where is green is desert and where is yellow is rain and agriculture which should be drawn green principally. The stereotype coloring of maps according to heights over sea level is just the other way round in reality here.

See about coffee in English here http://www.sweetmarias.co/coffee.arabia.yemen.html (April 2005)
Pieter van den Broecke,
Pieter van den Broecke [33]
Kaffeebaum / arbol de café /
                        cafe / arbre de café / cofee tree
Coffee tree with fresh coffee beans at a coffee tree [34]

In these times Coffee is spread in the Muslim world already since over 100 years already. There is the presumption that the coffee bean came from Abyssinia to southern Arabia in the 15th century (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

"America"-NL: In 1616 Dutch conquerers are founding "New Netherlands" on the native's continent (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

England: Since 1618 a certain circle of English country gentry and more people from other towns than London are reaching a right for vote in the English "East India Company". This group of country gentry is proposing a "harsher" management in the company against the world (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139) [and this means: more racism, slavery and exploitation].

Since 1618 the leaders of the two English partial colonial empires get the title of a "President" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

NL-England: In 1618 English are loosing a naval fight against the Dutch in the "Indonesian region" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

DK-Nor-India: In the same year of 1618 the first five Danish ships [in connection with Norway] are heading to India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

England-NL: In 1619 the English can conclude a treaty with the Dutch permitting the English side 1/3 of the spices (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

[The spices for England are not affecting the Dutch and continental European market which is steered by Amsterdam. Thus this treaty is not damaging the VOC strategy].

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English Dutch fights about Indian and far Indian military bases and Spice Islands since 1620 - Danish and Swedish companies

NL-GB: By an economical trade crisis between England and the Netherlands it's hard to get the Spanish "Reales" for the English since 1620. In general the risk of losses is rising with the trade. The English parliament and the public - partly speaking against the English "East India Company" - are blaming the company for the bad situation because the company had provoked a superfluous outflow of silver (Reinhard, vol.I, p.138).

DK-India: In 1620 the Danish "East India Company" is purchasing the town of Tranquebar at the southern Coromandel Coast (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

Map with
                            the Federal State of Tamil Nadu in Indiavergrössern
Map with the position of
                        Tranquebar at the Indian east coast in the
                        today's Federal State of Tamil Nadu - with
                        Porayar, Nagapattinam, Aneikkadu, Pattukkottai,
                        Thanjavur, Nannilam, Mayuram, Sirkali,
Map with the position of Tranquebar at the Indian east coast in the today's Federal State of Tamil Nadu [35]

Neighboring town of Tranquebar are: Porayar, Nagapattinam, Aneikkadu, Pattukkottai, Thanjavur, Nannilam, Mayuram, Sirkali, Chidambaram.

Business of the Danish [and Norwegian] company is running badly. At one side there is too less capital for the big venture, and at the other side the risks are too high (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

England-"America": In the course of religious persecutions [and because of the faked legend that "America" would be a "Garden of Eden"="Paradise"] a group of English Protestants is traveling with a ship called "Mayflower" to the later called "Massachusetts" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

[and more native territories are occupied and more natives are driven away respectively during the first winters the white settlements could only survive because of the help of the natives and then the criminal and racist whites were saying "thank you" driving the natives away!!!]

England: In 1621 one of the directors of the English "East India Company", Mr. Thomas Mun, has to defend the sense and purpose of the company with a scripture

"A Discourse of Trade from England to the East Indies" (Reinhard, vol.I., p.138).

Thomas Mun, Portrait
Thomas Mun [36]

There are different kinds of "ballast" loads: English ships have indigo and niter (saltpeter), Dutch ships have sugar above all from Java Island, since 1621 also Japanese copper. This Japanese copper is sold cheaper in Amsterdam than the Swedish one, with the same profit (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

Moluccas Islands: Holocaust on the Banda Islands / Moluccas Islands: In 1621 Mr. Jan Pieterszoon Coen from Dutch V.O.C. lets kill over 10,000 of the 15,000 natives on the Banda Islands [web05].

The aim is the extermination of the population of the Banda Islands [web06] [because they are living on the wrong islands...]

Jan Pieterszon Coen , Massenmörder /
                Massenmoerder / mass murderer
Jan Pieterszoon Coen, founder of Batavia and mass murderer and butcher of V.O.C. [37]

[Is there a memorial day and a compensation for this Dutch racist Holocaust on the Banda Islands?]

1621: Foundation of the Dutch West India Company (WIC, W.I.C.) for the slave trade with the Caribbean

The town of Amsterdam was main shareholder of this United West India Company (WIC), the parallel company of the Dutch East India Company. WIC is serving the "colonial trade" between Holland and the Dutch colonies in Africa and "America", and with it a triangle trade was installed which had never been before, slave trade inclusive. The rich historical web site of www.kartoffel-geschichte.de is reporting:

(original in German:
<Es gab eine Schwestergesellschaft [der holländischen Ostindien-Kompanie], die "Westindische Com­pagnie". Die WIC besaß im niederländischen Macht­bereich das Sklavenhandelsmonopol. Schiffe der WIC fuhren routinemäßig im Dreieck, als »driehoeksreis«: Amsterdam – Westafrika – Südamerika – Amsterdam> [web12].

<Von Amsterdam mit allen Waren, mit denen man Geld verdienen konnte, nach Westafrika> [web13].

<In West­afrika wurden die Sklaven an Bord genommen. Was noch lebte, wurde in Paramaribo auf dem Sklavenmarkt verkauft, dort Zucker gekauft (bzw. wenn Sklaven an Plantagenbesitzer verkauft wurden, dann wurde mit Zucker bezahlt [web13], also Sklaven gegen Zucker eingetauscht [web05]), und in Amsterdam wurde diese Ladung gelöscht und mit hohem Gewinn verkauft. Die WIC war verpflichtet, Sklaven in die niederländischen südamerikanischen Kolonien zu transportieren, 2500 Menschen sollten es mindestens im Jahr sein, insgesamt waren es dann mehr als 250.000 Sklaven. 550.000 Sklaven ver­hökerten die Niederländer insgesamt. 600 bis 700 Sklaven auf einem Schiff, auf einem Dreißig-Meter-Schiff.> [web12])

<There was a parallel company [to the Dutch East India company], this was the "West India Company". This WIC had the slave trade's monopoly in the Dutch territories. Ships of WIC were heading in a triangle trip regularly ("driehoeksreis"): Amsterdam - West Africa - South "America" - Amsterdam.> [web12]

<From Amsterdam all goods were shipped to West Africa for making money with it.> [web13]

<In West Africa slaves were taken on board. When they did not die during the trip they were sold on the slave market in Paramaribo where sugar was purchased (resp. when slaves were sold to plantation owners then this was payed with sugar [web13], thus slaves were exchanged with sugar [web05]), and in Amsterdam the load of sugar was taken and sold with high profits. WIC was obliged  to transport the slaves to the Dutch south "American" colonies, at least 2,500 persons per year, all in all there were over 250,000 slaves then. All in all 550,000 slaves were sold by the Dutch. There were 600 to 700 slaves on one ship, which was only 30 meters long.> [web12]

The coast lines of Brazil were for a certain time in Dutch hands [web13].

Persia: In 1622 English and Dutch ships are helping at the fall of Hormuz (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135,138). But the Shah is just founding another town just at the other side of the Strait, the town of Bändär Abbas / Bandar Abbas (with the port of Abbas; Reinhard, vol.I, p.124). With this maneuver the peace between England and Spain is "violated" and the "East India Company" is threatened by a punishment, but this punishment is never coming because the king is bribed and the "prime minister pupped" Buckingham is also leading the policy so there is no punishment (Reinhard, vol.I, p.138). By this "help" Dutchmen and British are saving  the Persian silk monopoly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

Bandar Abbas /
                  'Abbas ; Karte / mapa / map / carte / terkep , térkép
                  / kart ; Strasse von Hormuz / Strait of Hormuz ,
                  Chabahar / Chabachar ; Persien, Iran
Map with the today's Iran with the position of Bändär Abbas / Bandar Abbas,
the succeeding town of Hormuz, today a well established port [38]

England-Japan: In 1623 the English trading post on Hirado Island is closed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Moluccas Islands: Massacre of Amboina / Ambon in 1623
(Reinhard, vol.I, p.135); Coen, the radical Dutch leader of V.O.C., is answering rumors of conspiracy by a mass murder killing 10 English, 10 Japanese and 1 Portuguese of the local English trading post whereas the dissolution of this trading post had been decided already.

This "massacre of Amboina" is entering history literature as a slogan. The tensions between England and the Dutch are rising. English propaganda is taking this event again and again for making propaganda against Holland (Reinhard, vol.I, p.120), partly during the civil war yet (Reinhard, vol.I, p.122)

Position der
                  Insel Ambon / Amboina, Indonesien ; Karte / mapa / map
                  / carte / terkep, térkép / kart
Map with today's Indonesia with the position of Ambon / Amboina Island [39]

[Did anybody count the murdered native victims of the English colonialists in India and in the "Americas" later with their systems of concentration camps and 20 holocaust committed during their Victorian colonialism? All in all English colonialists were just worse!]

F 1624: Richelieu is urging for a union of all French "companies" giving the Crown more power over the "companies" (French. "compagnies").
-- settlement and mission should be privileged before the trade
-- settlement colonies should deliver tropical goods (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

Richelieu Portrait / portrait / retrato
Richelieu [40]

DK-D 1625: In 1625 the Danish [and Norwegian] king Christian IV is deciding - with material support of English, Dutch, and French side - to interfere in the religious war in Germany against Mr. Wallenstein (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150; DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.153). Thus there are less financial means for the Indian trade of the Danish company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

Christian IV. ;
                    König von Dänemark / Daenemark ; king of Danmark /
                    rei de Danemarca / roi de Danemarque
King Christian IV of Denmark [and Norway] [41]

"America"-F 1625: French "foundation" of San Christoph on the native's continent which is called "West India2 (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277)

[The Europeans are simply spreading new names in "America". How the natives had called Europe? How would be names for European mountains and lakes when the natives would distribute names in Europe? The criminal "Christian" are never aware what cultural holocaust they committed in the world with 500 years of "Christian" colonial world war colonialism].

D- England-DK: In 1626 Wallenstein is winning in the name of the Emperor against Ernst von Mansfeld from England at the bridge of Dessau and is pursuing him down to the Austrian Hungarian border line in the village of Neuhäusel. The Danish king Christian is going forward with his protestant army in Lower Saxonia. Tilly is winning against Christian's army near Lutter at Barenberge. Tilly and Wallenstein in common are pushing Christian IV back to Jütland (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.253).

Wallenstein und Tilly, Portraits
Wallenstein and Tilly [42]

After this Danish defeat there are even less financial means left for the Danish East India Company  and the businesses are running always more and more worse (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

Sweden: In 1626 in Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg) king Gustav Adolf from Sweden is founding a first Swedish East India Company under Dutch influence (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

England: In 1628 Mr. Thomas Mun has to defend the English East India Company again against defamations having caused too much outflow of silver. He is doing this with a

"Petition and Remonstrance of the Governor and Merchants of London Trading to the East Indies"  (Reinhard, vol.I, p.138).

[There are discussions about metals and goods, but about the bases of this colonial economic system, mass death of natives and blacks and expulsions of natives is never any profound discussion as it seems. There is a suppression in the name of profit, and the Pope is just watching who is winning... this has not changed until today...]

India: Since 1628 the successor in the Mogul Empire, Shah Jahan, is promoting the expansion of the Mogul Empire to the south against the Hindus (until 1658; Reinhard, vol.I, p.134).

Shah Jahan / Schah Jahan
Shah Jahan (1628-1658) [43]

1630: Native's continent (today "USA" and "Canada"): The positions of the white European conquerers

Indianischer Kontinent : Die Positionen der
                    weissen europäischen Besetzer
vergrössern This map of Hesel Gerritsz and Joannes de Laet of 1630 shows the occupations of the white Protestant racists in North "America" [44] (very big map here)

There is:
-- New France (blue coast lines)
-- New England (brown coast lines)
-- New Netherlands (yellow coast lines)
-- English occupied Virginia (brown coast line) ["virgin" land, so not touched land, natives don't count]
-- and right below there are the English occupied Bermuda Islands.

The natives have to leave all coast lines to the white man otherwise the white man is using his fire gun "making a short shrift". This is pure extortion. Is there a compensation?

"America" in 1632: "Foundation" of "Maryland"
Because of religious persecution of English Catholics there are emigrating English Catholic groups in 1632 to North "America" "founding" the colony of "Maryland" in "New England" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

[Also there the natives are driven away from the coast lines, they are driven away with the fire guns].

Native's continent: The English Crown is supporting the colonies by "charts" (protection letters). Next to the English also the Dutch and the French are trying to install themselves on the native's continent. There are big quarrels about the commercial laws (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

Sweden: Since 1632 the Swedish king Gustav Adolf is claiming that the allied powers and German imperial estates would become members in the Swedish overseas trading company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

In the same year Gustav Adolf is dying in a war... [web07].

England-India: In 1633 the English can found new towns in India using Masulipatam / Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam / Bandar as a base:
-- Hariharpur [16 km south east from Baripada]
-- and Balsore/ Balasore / Baleswar / Baleshwar in Orisa / Orissa (Reinhard, vol.I, p.137).

Foundations of towns around Masulipatam
Karte mit der Position des
                        heutigen indischen Teilstaates Andhra Pradesh,
Map with the position of today's Federal State of Andhra Pradesh, India [45]
Karte mit der
                        Position von Masulipatam / Masulipatnam /
                        Machilipatnam / Bandar im Staat Andhra Pradesh
                        an der Mündung des Flusses Krishna, Indien
Map with the position of Masulipatam / Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam / Bandarin the Federal State of Andhra Pradesh at the mouth of Krishna River, India [46]
Rhesusaffen in Bandar / Masulipatam /
                        Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam
Rhesus monkeys (bandar) in Bandar [47]
Karte mit der Position des
                        indischen Staates Orissa
Map with the position of the Indian Federal State of Orissa [48]
Karte mit den Positionen der
                        Städte von Baleshwar / Baleswar / Balsore/
                        Balasore und Baripada im Norden des Teilstaates
                        Orissa Map with the positions of the towns Baleshwar / Baleswar / Balsore / Balasore and Baripada in the north of the Federal State of Orissa [49]

[The whites are founding towns in India where white law is used. Where will lead this to?]

Sweden: In 1634 the Swedish king Gustav Adolf is claiming that Brandenburg should be a member of the Swedish overseas company. But this idea of an international overseas company is not pleasing to anybody. Then the Swedish overseas company is closed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

India, west coast: In 1635 the "President" of the "East India Company" of Surat, William Methwold, can conclude a lasting armistice with the Portuguese viceroy. In this way the British get an access to the Malabar Coast which is already granted to the Dutch (Reinhard, vol.I, p.137).

England: In 1635 the king Charles I is giving a group of the "East India Company" under William Courteen a special salutation. Since then this group with Courteen gets also the "right to conquer territories" also in the territories in Africa and in Asia which were "neglected" until those times. As a consequence this group with Courteen is not organizing occupations in Africa and in "neglected regions" but on the Indian subcontinent and this is not at all "arranged like this" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

König Karl I. / Carlos / Charles / Karoy ;
                England / Inglaterra / Angleterre
King Charles I of England [50]

The holocaust on the Banda Islands (Moluccas Islands) is practically completed
In 1635 there is balanced the following: Before the arrival of Coen the Banda Islands had 15,000 inhabitants, and now there are only 1,000 left [web08].

F-"America" in 1635: French colonialists are "founding" in the "Caribbean" / "West India" the colony of San Domingo [later renamed "Haiti"], further on Guadeloupe and Martinique (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277). [These little islands in the Caribbean had been without any dwellers during about 100 years...]

Karibik / Caribie / Caribee /
                        Caribe ; Inseln / islas / islands / isles /
Map with Saint-Domingue [later parted into Dominican Republic and Haiti] and the little islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique [51]

[The legend of a "lonely island"
These islands are practically without dwellers because since 100 years the Spaniards have hunted and enslaved all local natives there for works with stones and towns on Hispañola and on Cuba driving them to death. Had the French treated the natives better? We don't know.

And there is another new view about the events: When we hear in a fairy tale the legend about a lonely island then we have to ask ourselves if there had been somebody before and if people has bee exterminated there.

With the Spaniards it was like this, and with the "Christian" Church and with many racists it is yet like this, that people without clothes are partly not rated to be human beings... But who is committing the mass murder? Yes: The criminal racist arrogant "Christian"!

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Bengalen as a new "attractive" trading base for European business since 1637 - French, German and French trials for company businesses

NL-Persia: In 1637 the Dutch British silk monopoly is in big troubles because of conflicts in Persia. At the same time the European sea powers are discovering that Bengal raw silk is cheaper than Persian and Chinese silk. Thus Bengalen is becoming an attractive business location for Europeans (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

In these times Bengalen is a not parted country comprising the complete Ganges delta.

Map of India and Bengalen
Beispiel einer Karte
                          von Indien und Bengalen von 1785
vergrössern Example of a map of India and Bengalen of 1785 [52]
States in the territory of today's India:
-- Rajpootana (blue)
-- Ouda (blue)
-- Bengal (red)
-- Mahratta States (yellow)
-- Nizams Dominions (blue)
-- Misore (blue)
-- Carnatic (blue)
-- Circars (red)

Colonial towns:
-- Bombay [today Mumbai] (orange)
-- Goa (orange)
-- Madras (red)
-- Pondichéry (violet).

DK-India: In 1639 the last ship of the Danish [and Norwegian] East India Company is leaving for India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

F-"America" in 1639: France is founding the "Company to the American Islands" for the "administration" of the colonial possession in "West India" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

India-East Coast: In 1640 the English can open their first English trade post in the south of Coromandel Coast (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

In 1641 at the Coromandel Coast the first military fortress "Fort Saint George" is installed. Around this fort the town of Madras / Purasawalkam / Kilpauk / Tambaram is growing (Reinhard, vol.I, p.137).

Madras / Chennai / Purasawalkam
                        / Kilpauk / Tambaram
Map with the position of Madras [53], also called Chennai [web09], Purasawalkam / Kilpauk or Tambaram [web10]
Fort St. Georges als Anfang der
                        Stadt Madras / Purasawalkam / Kilpauk /
Fort Saint Georges, the beginning of the town of Madras; map of the cartographer Mr. Bellin [54]

F 1642: Foundation of the French "Orient Company" ("Compagnie de l'Orient")
Focus of this French "Orient Company" is the "development" of Madagascar. The southern tip of the Island is "taken" just in the same year yet and a "Fort Dauphin" is erected with all in all 500 "settlers" there. But this fort is collapsing because of internal tensions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

Karte von Madagaskar mit der Position des
                          Fort Dauphin
vergrössern Map of Madagascar with the position of the Fort Dauphin [55]
                        / Madagascar: Affenbrotbäume
Madagascar: baobab trees [56]

[There are foundations and foundations, but not for forming a net around the world because for a net around the world one has not to build towns. But new forts and new towns are "founded" by "Christians" for surrendering the whole world to "Christianity" at the end].

Impressions from Madagascar (2005) [57]
                        Madagaskar / Madagascar
Madagascar, monkey
                        / Madagascar: Palmenstrand
Madagascar, beach with palm trees
                        / Madagascar : Strassenmarkt und Velofahrer
Madagascar, street market and a biker
                        / Madagascar Mädchen / Maedchen Portrait ; girl
                        / jeune fille / nina niña retrato
Madagascar, girl's portrait
                        / Madagascar Schulkinder / enfants
Madagascar, school children
Madagaskar / Madagascar : Schulkind
Madagascar, school child
Madagaskar / Madagascar :
                        Hausbau aus Holz und Stroh
Madagascar, building a house of wood and straw
Madagaskar / Madagascar ; Strasse in
Madagascar, street in Antananarivo
Madagaskar / Madagascar : Sylviane
Madagascar, Sylviane Rochecouste
F-"America" 1643: French "foundation" of "Montreal" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277)

[and again natives are driven away from a river board...]

Position von
Map with the position of Montreal at Saint Lawrence River [58]

England: In 1644 the director of the East India Company, Mr. Thomas Mun, is making propaganda for the "East India Company" again with the basic book

"England's Treasure by Forraign Trade. Or, The Ballance of our Forraign Trade is the Rule of our Treasure".

This is one of the principle works of mercantilism with the statement:

"to sell more to strangers yearly than we consume of theirs in value [...] must necessarily be brought home in treasure" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.138).

[and somebody has to become poor with all this, so many are going bankrupt. This economic system cannot work].

England-Madagascar: In 1645/46 a trial of colonization of the group with Courteen ("East India Company") in Madagascar is failing (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

England-"America" since 1646: The English can found an English trading post on the "Bahamas Islands" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277)

[When there are natives yet then they are driven away].
Karte mit der Position der Bahamas-Inseln
Map with the position of the Bahamas Islands [59]

[The natives were exterminated by the Spaniards by work in the quarries and by work with heavy stones or in mines. The English now are inheriting empty islands. How were these islands called by native names? And how the English had treated the natives? We don't know it].

India, east coast: In 1647 the sultanate of Golkonda is conquering the town of Madras. The sultanate is granting a permission of staying to the English trading post (Reinhard, vol.I, p.137).

Genoa: In 1647 the merchants in Genoa are founding an Italian East India Company with Dutch help and according to the Dutch model. This Italian East India Company is headed against the V.O.C. But this new fleet is already destroyed scuttled during the first journey by the Dutch ships of V.O.C. (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

[There may be the question why the Vatican is not intervening into this fight. There must be many data in the archives].

Brand.g: Since 1647 the elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg is occupies with a project for the foundation of an own "Brandenburg East India Company". He has got the assistance of a former admiral having jumped from the V.O.C. (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg
Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg [60]

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Protestant revolution and massacre against Catholics in England, Ireland and Scotland since 1649 - English "Navigation Acts" against Dutch middlemen in 1651 - English Dutch war 1652-1654 - Cromwell dictatorship in England since 1653

England: Cromwell and his revolutionary reduced parliament are abrogating the monarchy in 1649 under his leadership. Charles I is executed. Then in the same year puritanical cleansing actions are performed in Catholic Ireland where Cromwell is performing a complete deprivation of territory. This is the begin of hatred between English and Irish (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

[This religious   psychosis and it's causes are not so known until today in the world, and when then it's known only in groups of religious scientists who have not a high budget for publication activities].

Cromwell Portrait / retrato
Oliver Cromwell, a Protestant revolutionary, but also a propagandist and a killing extremist [61]

In 1649 William Courteen from the "East India Company" is replaced by Mr. Lord Fairfax. But the group of businessmen remains aggressive all in all with their aggressive projects (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

In 1650 the country gentry from out of London which got the participation in 1618 at the "East India Company" is accepted as a "New Group" in the "East India Company" (Reinhard vol.I, p.139).

DK: The Danish [and Norwegian] East India Company is dissolved in 1650 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150).

England: In 1650/1651 puritanic purges are also performed in Scotland with the complete deprivation of territories under Cromwell (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

The English colonial focus on the Indian subcontinent - the Dutch V.O.C. maintaining it's monopoly of spices for the moment

By the English defeats against the Dutch war fleet there is a shift of focus for England with heavy consequences to the Indian subcontinent. The reasons for the weak balance are above all by structural reasons:

-- the English company has much less capital and is not so competitive

-- the company has a weaker position within the English political system and therefore there are always political obstacles when there are decisions

-- the capital has to be payed for every journey one by one and is partly only delivered in installments, partly the money cannot be collected

-- there are no accumulations of profits but the profits are just payed after every journey

-- two times there is a complete loss [the fleet is destroyed in a storm or by a fight]

-- emergency situations are bridged over by loans with high interest rates (8 to 10%)

-- also concerning the trade with Persia and with India every journey is calculated and balanced one by one until 1649 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.137).

Chronology (continuation)

England: In 1651 Cromwell is introducing the "Navigation Acts":
-- importation and exportation from and to England are only allowed with English ships, this measure is headed against Dutch intermediary trade (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267)

-- with this also the trade between India, Europe and the "American" New England States should be "protected" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

NL-England: From 1651 on (to 1659) the Dutch side is enforcing an embargo against English Bantam / Banten and against the English trading post (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Bantam / Banten ; Karte / mapa / map / carte
Map with the position of Bantam / Banten at the western tip of Java Island [62]

England-Bengalen: In 1651 English can open a trading post in Hugli / Hooghly at the western arm of Ganges delta. The intermediation is made by the English personal physician of Subahdar of Bengalen (Reinhard, vol.I, p.137).

Position von Hugli / Hooghly /
                              Hooghli, Karte

Map with Bengalen with Hugli (English: Hooghly, Hooghli) [63]

DK-Brandenburg: In 1651 the town of Tranquebar which was former kept by the Danish East India Company is sold to Brandenburg. The elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg is obliging himself to a payment of 120,000 thalers within three years (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

Karte mit der Position von
                        Tranquebar an der indischen Ostküste im heutigen
                        Teilstaat Tamil Nadu
Map with Tranquebarin on the Indian east coast in the today's Federal State of Tamil Nadu [64]
Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm von
Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg [65]

Since the second half of the 17th century the copper prices are rising. Therefore the Dutch deliveries of Japanese copper to Amsterdam are rising also (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

Coffee: In 1652 the first English coffee house is opening in London (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

England-NL: The "New Group" of country gentry in the "East India Company" is beginning forcing it's "harsh line" thus there is breaking out a war between England and Holland in 1652 because of the "Navigation Acts" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

After dissolving the little remaining parliament in 1653 Cromwell is naming himself for being a "lord protector" and he is installing a puritanic military dictatorship. He is speculating with victories in foreign policy affairs against Holland and against Spain (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

[In Holland there must be many data yet about this monopoly business of its company. They are going on with despite of a harsh military competition of England].

DK-Brandenburg: In 1653 Brandenburg is giving the town of Tranquebar back to the Danish king because Brandenburg cannot collect the agreed price of purchase (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

The elector of Brandenburg, Friedrich Wilhelm, is trying a foundation of a common overseas company with the German Emperor and with the Spanish crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151). But his proposal is without success. Thus Brandenburg's "interest" for Africa and West India is limited (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

[The European governments have "interests". The natives are not allowed to have any...]

zum Inhalt    nach oben
War of England against Catholic Spain 1654-1659 - English and French conquests in "West India" - racist regime in the Mogul Empire of Aurangzeb since 1658 - Restoration in England after the death of Cromwell since 1658

NL-England: In 1654 there is a peace agreement between Holland and England (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267). The Indian trade of England is practically given free (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

In the same year (until 1659) a war between England and Catholic Spain is breaking out (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

In about 1655 England is shaked by inner crises and wars with it's neighbors (Reinhard, vol.I, p.137). There is the introduction of "Anglican Church", and there is the quarrel about liturgy. The fight about these things leads to conditions similar to a civil war between Catholics and Anglicans (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.238). Cromwell's dictatorship is watching and controlling the "Evangelic" kind of living up to the Sunday's prayer (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

[This is a kind of English inquisition which is installed by the state...]

And with what the word of "Cromwell" is connected today in England?

Cromwell "culture" in England [66]
                        "Cromwell" ; tank
Tanks called "Cromwell"
                        "Cromwell IV Cruiser" / Querfeldein
Tank "Cromwell IV Cruiser"
                        "Cromwell" defekt
Defect "Cromwell" tank with lethal victims...

Zinnsoldaten für "Cromwell"
Plays with tin soldiers forming armies under "Cromwell" always letting win these armies...
Kriegsschiff "Cromwell"
War ships called "Cromwell"
                        / helmet "Cromwell"
Helmet "Cromwell" for riders [also for fox huntings?]

                        Karikatur-Portrait / retrato
Cromwell: cartoon of a dictatorship
                        Knauf "Cromwell"
Traditional "Cromwell" sword
Plüschtier "Cromwell" Maus /
                          raton / mouse / souris
Plush toy called "Cromwell"

                        "Cromwell" für kapitalistische
"Cromwell" shoes for capitalist honest men or banksters...
Sportschuh "Cromwell"
"Cromwell" shoes for sportive people
Billardtisch "Cromwell"
Snooker table called "Cromwell"

Münze mit "Cromwell" mit
                        Lorbeer wie ein Caesar
Cromwell on old coins with laurel like a Caesar...

[England is celebrating Cromwell with some victories against Holland and Spain. Victories are selling well, thus also the name of "Cromwell" is selling well. The eternal victory celebration is suppressing all the victims of course... The Second World War was connected with the loss of the Empire. And concerning the 20 holocausts in the English Victorian Empire was not given any compensation...]

Chronology (succession)

, which was occupied by the Spaniards until those days is conquered by the British in 1655 (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

F-Hispañola: In 1655 Hispañola Island is partly occupied by the French and they are founding their colony of Haiti there. By Haiti over 25% of the French colonial goods are brought to France (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

Hispanola / Hispañola /
Map of Hispañola Island [67]
Die durch den späteren
                        französischen Kolonialismus geteilte Insel mit
                        dem französischen Haïti (links) und spanischen
                        Santo Domingo / Heiliger Sonntag (rechts)
French colonialism was parting the island with a French speaking Haiti [left] and a Spanish speaking Dominica Republic with Santo Domingo / Holy Sunday (right) [68]

Caribbean Sea: The natives have gone - black slaves come
The colonialists need workers now. For that the blacks are brought to the Caribbean on slave trade ships with death rates up to 50%. Holland and England are leading forces for "slave transports". After the almost complete extermination of the natives in the Caribbean the population there is almost completely replaced by successors of the black slaves now.

The original Caribbean natives which were exterminated by the Spaniards can only speak to us by the Spanish colonial buildings. The stones had to be broken out in the quarries and the the stones had to be brought to the building locations. Or the exterminated natives also speak to us by gold bars with gold from Spanish mines or from rivers, taken out by the natives...

And now the profit is calling again:

Restructuring of the English "East India Company": new monopolies

England: The de facto liberation of the Indian trade is driving the English "West India Company" to the ruin. The managers think to dissolve the "East India Company" selling all trading posts, but the shareholders are resisting to this idea (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

In 1657 a limited restructuring is performed in the Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.137). On October 19, 1657, the shareholders with Cromwell at their top are prevailing with a new monopoly regulation at the state's council which is similar to the regulation of the Dutch V.O.C. (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139):

-- there is a long term investment capital ("New General Stock")
-- the company gets the right for war, the right to conclude treaties and agreements in the name of the Crown and the right to maintain fortresses (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

The developments are the following then:

-- 740,000 Pounds are signed, but only 370,000 Pounds are really payed
-- thus the "East India Company" has only half as much money as the Dutch V.O.C.
-- the difference can above all be seen by the number of ships (Reinhard vol,I, p.137)
-- between the different ports in England there is a competition [above all between London and the "outports"]
-- also within the sharing social classes there is a competition with mutual extortions for gifts: leading class - nobles - gentry - Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.138).

Chronology (succession)

In Genoa in 1657 Genoese merchants have again a project for founding an Italian East India Company, this time with the help of an Englishman who has jumped from the English "East India Company" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

Genoa [69]
Genoa: Church is calling...

India: Since 1658 (until 1707) Aurangzeb is governing the Mogul Empire on the Indian subcontinent. His empire has surrendered all Hindu territories there with the exception of a tip near Ceylon. In this kind he is performing a "forced unification" of India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.134).

Aurangzeb [70]

Aurangzeb is changing the state's structure and this is fostering the hatred within the ethnic groups:
-- against tolerance
-- for the reintroduction of the tax for non-Muslims, and this is a measure against all Hindus.

Some historians consider this change of policy as the beginning of the end of the Mogul Empire (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Bengalen: In 1658 the English can install a trading post in Kazimbazar / Cossema Besaar. This is the silk trade center north of Hooghly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.?)

In 1658 English troops under Cromwell are conquering the Spanish Catholic Dunkirk (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.267).

From 1658 to 1663 the "New Group" with it's "harsher policy" is defining the line of the "East India Company" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

In 1658 Cromwell is dying. His "inept" son Richard Cromwell is resigning. General Monk is reinstalling the monarchy in England which had been abrogated by Cromwell before (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

General Monk
General Monk [71]

In 1659 the war between England and the Catholic Spain is ending (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

In the same year in 1659 the Dutch embargo against English Bantam is lifted (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

In 1660 Charles II becomes the king of England (until 1685). He is a boy who was educated at the court of Louis XIV. Charles II is copying French absolutism (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

Karl II. König von England ; Charles / Carlos
                  / Carlo
King Charles II of England [72]

Genoa: In 1660 the project for a new Genoese East India Company is proved but finally rejected. There is no will for being fought and eliminated a second time by the overwhelming competition (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

F-England-India: Since 1660 the European Indian textile trade is always becoming more important. England and France begin - as before the Dutch - to install trading posts at the east coast of India (Coromandel Coast). France is installing an own textile town with Pondichéry / Pondicherry for this purpose (Reinhard, vol.I, p.171).

Karte mit der
                  Position von Pondichéry / Pondicherry im heutigen
                  indischen Staat Tamil Nadu, Indien
Map with the position of Pondichéry / Pondicherry in today's Indian Federal State of Tamil Nadu, India [73]

Impressions of Pondichéry / Pondicherry [74]
Elephant in Pondichéry  Pondichéry / Pondicherry
                        Elefant Pondichéry /
                          Pondicherry Velos Bikes
River landscape with a boat
Pondichéry / Pondicherry Boot Pondichéry / Pondicherry Meditation ,
                          Tänzer Yoga meditation
Fishing boat at a beach
Pondichéry / Pondicherry Fischerboot am
                          Strand Pondichéry / Pondicherry Tor / arcus /
                          Bogen Archway
White church Pondichéry / Pondicherry Kirche
                        / church / iglesia / église Pondichéry / Pondicherry Kirche / church
                          / iglesia / église Red church
Biker Pondichéry / Pondicherry
                        Velofahrer Pondichéry / Pondicherry
                        Picknick am Meer Pick nick a the sea

zum Inhalt    nach oben

Tea and coffee are new products of the Indian trade since 1660 - French trials with the "Orient Company" ("Compagnie de l'Orient") since 1661 - persecution of puritans in England since 1662 - English Dutch war about "American" colonies since 1664

Tea: Since the 1660s there are first official tea deliveries appearing in London but they are coming indirectly [over Holland]. Tea comes from China in Chinese junks to Batavia and from there to Holland (Reinhard, vol.I, p.176).

Harvest and transportation of tea in China [75]

Ernte Tee in China ; harvest of tea in
                            China ; récolte du thé Chine
Tea h
arvest 01
Ernte Tee in China ; harvest of tea in
                            China ; récolte du thé Chine
Tea harvest 02


Tee-Ernte in China,
                            Transport ohne Rad
Transportation without wheel

Dschunke / junk / jonque in China /
Chinese junk 01
Dschunke / junk / jonque in China /
Chinese junk 02

England: In April 1661 king Charles II of England is giving new regulations to the "East India Company" following the monopolistic line of Cromwell. Madras / Chennai is defined as a new seat of the eastern "President" of the Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

Madras /
                  Chennai / Purasawalkam / Kilpauk / Tambaram
Map [76] with Madras / Chennai [web09] also called Purasawalkam / Kilpauk / Tambaram [web10]

Bombay / Mumbai Insel / island
                            / isle / isla / sziget / ada
Bombay / Mumbai Island, satellite photo [77]

England-Port.: In the same year of 1661 the Portuguese wife of Charles II, Katharina of Braganza, is bringing Bombay (today Mumbai) as a dowry to the marriage. This is the best port of the western coast of India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

Bombay / Mumbai Island with the town of Bombay / Mumbai [78]

Bombay / Mumbai Yogi chef
A yoga chief...
Bombay / Mumbai : Strassenkünstler mit
                            Affe, Gaukler
A street artist with a monkey...
Bombay / Mumbai : Bahnstation Bahnhof
                            für den Sieg / Victoria / railway station /
                            gare terminus / estacion / estación
... and building "Victoria" train station the thoughts were only with victories...
Bombay / Mumbai Tor / arc / arco /
A triumphal arch for the "victory"

Bombay / Mumbai : Auto
                            Rikscha bzw. Dreiradvespa; riksha
A car rickshaw...
Bombay / Mumbai :
                            Londoner Bus / London Bus Doppeldecker /
Old two stored buses from England are stinking here a long time yet... (or are there filters?)
Bombay / Mumbai Kuh auf der
                            Strasse / vacca en la calle / cow in the
                            street / vache dans la rue
A cow in the street...
Bombay / Mumbai Kuh -
                            Velo - Fahrrad - Auto / cow - bicycle - car
                            / vache - bicyclette - auto / vacca -
                            bicicletta - carro
Cows, bikes, cars, all together

Bombay /
                            Mumbai : Auto Musik am Ufer / car music on
                            the board / musique d'auto le long de la
Promenade with car music...
Bombay / Mumbai :
                            Tanker , Frachtschiff , Hafen
International port...

Bombay / Mumbai : Boot / boat / narive
                            / barco / hajó hajo / sandal
and little boats...
Bombay / Mumbai :
                            Überschwemmungen durch Monsun
and monsoon is flooding the lower districts regularly e.g. near the port.

[The English are trading in India over 200 years making profits for their own pockets. The caste system is not changed...]

Chronology (succession)

England: Since 1661 the English "East India Company" can grow constantly despite of wars with the Netherlands from 1665 to 1667 and from 1672 to 1674:
-- share prices and turnover are rising constantly
-- from 1657 to 1687 the dividend is rising by 641.5%
-- at the same time there was one an increase of capital stock by 100%.

English cotton textiles are wanted more and more in India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

F: In 1661 the French minister Jean Baptiste Colbert (until 1683) cannot accept it any more that other nations are delivering France with "colonial goods" making profits with French money. Colbert wants - in the name of national honor - to drive back the Dutch. His commercial policy is becoming a war then. The French population should be prepared by French propaganda for a big national privileged trade company. As a new writer for the propaganda booklet the academic Mr. François Charpentier is elected (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).
Jean Baptiste
Jean Baptiste Colbert [79]

The Dutchman François Caron is becoming a leader for French Indian businesses (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147). Caron has expansion projects with a foundation of a French Royal fleet against the Netherlands (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

In Surat there is already a French Capuchin convent (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147). And there is a new French viceroy for Asia appointed: Jacob Blanquet de la Haye (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

F-Asia: Since 1661 French missioners are trying to establish contacts with the kingdoms of Tonking and Siam [later called Thailand]. The project of the French fleet is to neutralize the Dutch and the English with the help of the friend of the king of Siam, the Greek adventurer Phaulcon. But this project fails (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

Additionally the new French "Company" (French: "Compagnie") is using very rare means. Since 1661 there are deficits (shortfalls) every year in the balance, but fictive dividends are payed and the money is taken from he Royal cashier's office. So these dividends are gifts from the Royal Court of Paris, but despite of all manipulation the general interest for the "Compagnie" is not growing but remains low in France. In the average about 2 or 3 ships are leaving France to India every year (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).  .

In the 1660s Colbert is founding just for the new "Company" the new port of Lorient (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149).

Karte von Frankreich mit der Position von
Map of France with the position of Lorient [80]

Coffee: In 1661/1662 the first official coffee loads are arriving in Amsterdam being brought there by V.O.C. Until 1690 there are only little quantities (for keeping the prices up and the profits high). In parallel, the English "East India Company" is engaging more and more directly in coffee business (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

England: In 1662 king Charles II from England is issuing the "Act of Uniformity" and lets pursue the puritans. With this operation new tensions between the Crown and the Parliament are coming up (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

König Karl II von
Charles II, Catholic king of England, an extremist against reformed believers [81]

England-India, west coast: In the second half of the 17th century the English can install three new trading posts at the Malabar Coast. But the focus of all trade is shifting to the eastern coast line to Madras / Chennai (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

F: In 1663 the French company ("Compangnie de l'Orient") is bankrupt. The company is taken by the Crown now and is "converted" into a new India Society (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

In 1664 the propaganda booklet by François Charpentier is edited making propaganda for a national French India Company with the title

"Discours d'un fidèle sujet des roi touchant l'établissement d'une compagnie française pour la commerce des Indes orientales. Adressé à tous les français".

["Explication of a Royal favorite project concerning the installation of a French trade society for East India. All Frenchmen are called"].

In this booklet is indicated
-- that an own company would bring much profit for the national trade balance
-- the national honor is stressed to the contrary to Holland
-- Charpentier is pointing at Madagascar which would be a much better stopover than Batavia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

F: The foundation of a new French India Company
On September 1, 1664, there es a second foundation of a French trade company according to the model of the Dutch V.O.C. But to the contrary to the Dutch company the French king has a big voice in the French company. The consequence is that some balances are forged. And there are the following conditions for the company:

-- monopoly privilege for 50 years
-- total capital of 15 million Livres which is available in three annual rates
-- the leadership is performed by a directorate called "Chambre générale" with 21 directors, 12 from Paris and 9 from the "countryside"
-- every director has to pay at least 20,000 Livres and has to be elected by the "Assamblé générale" of the shareholders
-- every shareholder has to pay at least 6,000 Livres
-- the king is promising the company a military protection
-- the king is giving loans of 3 million Livres during 10 years without interests
-- the king is giving an exportation premium of 50 Livres for every ton of goods
-- the king is giving an importation premium of 75 Livres for every ton of goods (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

The subscription of the share capital is only performed by 50%. There should be subscribed 15 million Livres, but only 8.179,885 Livres are subscribed.

-- 3 million come from the king
-- 2 million are subscribed by the court's nobles and by the financiers of the crown
-- 1.2 million are subscribed by the members of the high courts
-- and there are the following towns: Lyon with 1 million, Paris with 650,000, Rouen with 550,000, Bordeaux with 400,000, Nantes with 200,000, Tours with 150,000, Saint Maló with 100,000 Livres (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

Colbert is the chairman of the directorate. Until 1715 this post is always filled by a minister of the French government. The steerers and merchants are 22 Dutchmen with good experience. For the management with India the Dutchman François Caron is authorized (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

The first aim is to "develop" Madagascar (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

Remarks about French currency [82]

1 louis = 11 livres  [Fehler?]

1 livre = 20 sous-tournois

1 sol-tournois = 12 deniers

1 sol-parisis = 15 deniers

Coins: http://mapage.noos.fr/mlopez/monnaies.htm (April 2005)

Münze: Tournois Henry IV /
                            Heinrich IV

Here is a Tournois coin with Henry IV of 1608

Tournois Louis XIII / Ludwig
                            XIII 1633

Here is a doubled Tournois with Louis XIII from 1633

Münze: Louis d'or mit Louis
                            XIV 1690

The coins of golden Louis (Louis d'or) with Louis XIII and a medal of Louis XIV from 1690

In 1795 the "Livre" is eliminated and the Franc and the decimal system are also introduced with the currency system [11].

Chronology (succession)

And what happens? The "Christians" are making war on native soil of North "America":

First war in North "America": In 1664 English forces are attacking the coast of "New Netherlands": The affected territories are New Amsterdam (later called New York), New Jersey and Delaware (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

[War by Europeans on native soil...]

In 1665 the second English Dutch sea war is breaking out. Under the Dutch admiral De Ruyter the Dutch fleet is winning several times (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

Michiel Adriaanszoon de Ruyter
Michiel Adriaanszoon de Ruyter [83]

F: IN 1665 a first French expedition in Madagascar is starting which is ending "unhappily". In the following year in 1666 a second expedition is suffering the same fate (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147,148).

[There are no reasons indicated].

Exchange in "America": New Amsterdam for Surinam [84]

Karte mit der
                              Position von Breda
Map with the position of Breda [84]

In 1667 the second English Dutch sea war is ending with the peace of Breda: New Amsterdam (later called New York) is exchanged with Surinam (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267, 277).

[The criminal "Christians" are making business with the robbed land yet... Is there a compensation for the natives somewhere? Somebody who was almost exterminated will not claim for much compensation...]

Neu-Amsterdam /
                              New Amsterdam / Nouvelle Amsterdam
New Amsterdam is exchanged... [84]
Position von Surinam
... for Surinam [84]


zum Inhalt    nach oben
Wars and intrigues of Louis XIV against Holland since 1667/1668 - new French and Dutch military bases in India and in East India - civil war against Aurangzeb in the Mogul Empire since 1669 - successful new foundation of a company in Denmark in 1670

F: Louis XIV.

F: Louis XIV is claiming the princedom of Brabant (today above all in southern Belgium). England, Holland and Sweden are making a coalition against Louis XIV (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

Louis / Ludwig XIV, König von
Louis XIV, king of France [85]

[Louis XIV is mentally ill with megalomania:

-- his India Company is not running
-- at the same time he wants to win wars in Europe.

It's very interesting that the Dutch are not making territorial wars in Europe whereas their India Company is running well...]

Jean Baptiste Colbert
Jean Baptiste Colbert [86]

In 1667 English woolen fabrics are forbidden in France by the Colbert government for keeping the prices up (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

                            holländischer Teil, Holland, Niederlande
Map indicating Brabant: today one part is in Holland [87]

In 1668 Louis XIV is forced to the peace of Aachen and he can occupy only one part of Brabant by his French army (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

                            belgischer Teil, Belgien
and there is Wallonian Brabant as a part of Belgium [88]

                        von Dacca
Map of West Bengalen, today's Bangladesh with the position of Dacca [89]
Bengalen 1668: The English colonial forces can install an English trading post in Dacca (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140).

F-India, west coast: In 1668 the Dutchman François Caron being authorized for French Indian trade business is installing a French trading post in Surat with a French Royal authorization (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147/148).

F: In 1668 many French shareholders let leave their shares of the French Company and they don't pay any more for more sharings. Instead of the projected 15 million Livres are only gathered 5 million for the capital stock (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

Maintaining the activity of the French Company is only possible by loans and grants of the Crown. But the fact is that it is bankrupt now already because of the low capital stock. As a consequence the French Company is just presenting "forged" balances: The assets and values are presented with a much too high value (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

Sweden: From 1668 to 1674 a little, second Swedish East India Company is making it's business (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

F: Since 1669 Louis XIV is preparing a revenge against Holland together with the English king Charles II, of course Louis XIV has also economic hopes with this (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

"Dutch India": In 1669 the Dutch are destructing the business location of Makassar / Ujang Pandang. With this operation the "backdoor" to spices from the Moluccas Islands / Banda Islands is closed definitely for the English (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Karte mit der
                    Position von Makassar / Ujang Pandang, heute
Map with the position of Makassar / Ujang Padang, today in Indonesia [90]

F-Madagascar: In 1669 "Fort Dauphin" is rated as a failed French colony on Madagascar and is taken by the French Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

F-India, east coast: From 1996 to 1674 there is a French trading post in Masulipatam (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

Position von Masulipatam / Masulipatnam /
                    Machilipatnam / Bandar
Map with Masulipatam / Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam / Bandar in the today's Federal State of Andhra Pradesh at the mouth of Krishna River [91]

GB-India, west coast: Since 1699 the West "President" of the English "East India Company" in Surat, Mr. Gerald Aungier (until 1677) is systematically supporting the rise of Bombay / Mumbai as a commercial town. At the same time he permits a self administration of the ethnic groups and religions and is supporting tolerance (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140).

India with upheaval movements: At the same time around 1669 in the countryside behind Bombay / Mumbai there is an upheaval movement of the Marathis against the Mogul Empire going on, a religious "revival movement". Families of former Hindu officials of former Muslim sultanates are intervening militarily and politically against the Mogul's government of Aurangzeb. They are taking the initiative defending against discriminations (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140).

[whereas the Hindu caste system is just one of the most discriminating systems of the whole world but this system is not abrogated...]

So, when the Dutch are destroying the business place of Makassar, the English and the French have to act:

F-NL 1670: The French war fleet against Holland is "ready" and is consisting of 6 ships, of 3 fluyt ships, of 238 cannons and of 2,100 men (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

GB-F: In 1670 the English king Charles II is concluding a secret treaty with the French king Louis XIV supported by Cabal's department. The aim is the destruction of the Netherlands (DTV vol.I, p.267).

[The most extreme extremist is insisting in destroying somebody. What is written in the Bible: "Love your neighbor"... and the Vatican did not arrange anything?]

GB-Bengalen: Since 1670 the Bengal silk is a steady part of importation goods for England (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

England-"America": In 1670 the English "Hudson Bay Company" is conquering more native territories: South Carolina and "Rupert's Land" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.277).

Karte mit Rupert's Land als weisses Kaufobjekt
Map with Rupert's Land [92]: may it be a little bit more? This is Eskimo's territory...

DK: In 1670 the Danish Crown is founding a new East India Company according to the French model, again with "experienced" Dutchmen as staff members. The capital is partly given by the Crown again and is kept under the control of the Crown. Denmark is keeping a neutral line for the next time. In this way this East India Company of Denmark can win some profits when the neighbors are just making wars (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

F-Java: Since 1671 there is a provisional French trading post on Java Island (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

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English private trade under foreign flags since the 1670s - more intrigues and wars by Louis XIV against Holland in 1672 - Holland opening some floodgates, defeat of France - new French trading posts - more civil war in the Mogul Empire - peace of Nimwegen with Louis XIV in 1678

England: In the 1670s the prohibition for own trade of territories for staff members of the English "East India Company" is abrogated. The staff members can also act on their own with territories making profits in foreign countries now.

First the effect of this new permission is negative, but at the end positive because the private initiatives in connection with the English "East India Company" are always becoming stronger and are competing the Dutch V.O.C. additionally (Reinhard, vol.I, p.180).

In this way it is also permitted to parts of the company to penetrate more markets under foreign flags as for example coming from Madras arriving in Manila. There is an exchange of clothes for spices and "American" silver (Reinhard, vol.I, p.181).

Coffee: In 1671/1672 the first coffee houses are opening in Marseille and in Paris (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

F-S-Rhineland: In 1672 the French king Louis XIV is animating also Sweden and the German bishops of the German Empire (Cologne, Münster etc.) for more action against the trade power of Holland (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

[It seems that Holland is not willing to share it's power. But who is governing there? Who is the boss in the Royal Court there? Mercantilists? Principalists? Who wanted this escalation?].

England-NL: In 1672 Charles II from England is beginning the third naval war against the Netherlands (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267). The Dutch government of Jan de Witt is overthrown (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259). Witt is dying just in the same year of 1672 yet [web16].

William III of Orange is becoming the new Dutch governor general for life (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259). At the same time the English king Charles II is permitting a remission of punishment concerning the Catholics and the dissidents ("declaration of indulgence"). This resolution is provoking harsh quarrels in the English Parliament (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

Jan de Witt
Jan de Witt [93]

Wilhelm III. von Oranien
William III of Orange [94]

F-NL: France means that making war against the Netherlands would be good for them but is suffering a complete disaster and defeat against the Netherlands because of bad leadership and discord within the French leaders (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148). At the end of the war the Netherlands are opening the watergates and the dams thus no war is possible in the flooded territories respectively the soldiers of the French armies are drowning (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

F-India, east coast: In 1672 a "little" French duke is purchasing the town of Pondichéry south of Madras. Pondichéry is expanding under the leadership of François Martin until 1706 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

England: In 1673 there is a new resolution with a "Test Act": All non-Anglicans are excluded from English official working posts (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

[One can see that in England not only Jews are discriminated but also "Jesus" believers. Well, in the Bible there is just written "Love your neighbor"...]

F: In 1674 France has to give up the military base of "Fort Dauphin" in Madagascar. The base is shifted to the little island of Bourbon / Réunion [about 800 km away from Madagascar] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.147).

Position der Insel Bourbon / Réunion

Map with the position of Bourbon Island / Reunion Island next to Madagascar [95]

In the same year the French Company is purchasing the military base of Chandarnagore / Chandernagore / Chandannagar in Bengal below Hooghly (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

Position /
                          posicion Chandarnagore / Chandernagore /

Map with the position of Chandarnagore / Chandernagore / Chandannagar in the region of Calcutta which was called Sutanati in those times [96]

In 1674 the Marathi leader Sivaji is crowned to be the king of the Marathi population. He is called a "renovator" but he is just protecting the old Hindu tradition against the Muslims and against the rulership of Aurangzeb (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140).

As a  consequence of the Indian trade the demand for fabrics is changing in England:
-- the demand for Indian cotton fabrics is rising
-- the sellings of British woolen fabrics are sharply going down
-- the importation of silk from India is rising
-- the English silk weaving mill of Spitalfields and Canterbury are hit badly.

For the normal observer in England it's clear: The English "East India Company" is provoking unemployment in England because the consumers are mostly changing to foreign products. The English Parliament decides to accept this unemployment (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

Sweden: In 1674 the second Swedish East India Company is liquidated (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

In the same year of 1674 the French base in Masulipatam is given up (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

In these times the different powers are trying to occupy more and more territories [hunting for profits is producing more wars - on foreign territories violating the natives...]

In 1672 Louis XIV was forming a coalition against Holland, but now in 1674 this alliance is turning against France under the leadership of Austria and Spain (Lisola). Louis XIV is playing with his influence in states far away for encircling the coalition. In this way he is supporting French candidates for elections in Poland, Johan Sobieski, and he is supporting upheavals of nobles in Hungary. Sweden is developing a drive for hegemony against Brandenburg in Germany (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

In 1678 there is a European peace agreement in the Dutch town of Nimwegen. Austria and Spain is giving Burgundy to Louis XIV (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

England is acting in the same year of 1678 with a prohibition of importation of French goods: linen, wines, and brandy (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

Bengal: Since 1678 a quarrel is developing in Bengal about taxes between the Mogul ruler Aurangzeb and the governors (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

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Formation of political parties "Whigs" and "Tories" in England in 1679 - textiles from Bengalen are a new product in the Indian trade - invention of the weaving machine in Europe - coffee houses establishing in Europe - invasion of the Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb to southern India since 1681 - Catholic Restoration trial of James II in 1685 in England - opening of the markets in China since 1685 - porcelain as a new trade good

England: party system:
In 1679 the English Parliament is accepting the "Habeas Corpus" act with a protection from arbitrary detention and the saving of personal freedom. With this resolution the "neutral" expression of oppinion is saved and in the English Parliament the political parties are forming: the "Whigs" (nickname for Scottish farmers, conservative, enemies of the Catholic Stuarts monarchy) and the "Tories" (Irish "raiders", conservative, Anglican and loyal to the king; DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

[But this "Habeas Corpus" act is not counting for natives and for primary nations nor for blacks. Because according to the racist meaning such "corpus" is not worth for being protected. Is there any compensation?]

After all these revolutionary events in England the enemies of monopolies want to abrogate any monopoly. But Sir Josiah Child is insisting in the monopoly structure whereas just he made his career by the revolution as a member of the Whigs in the anti clerical circles (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

Josiah Child,
Sir Josiah Child [97]

England-India: The wars within India in Gujerat / Gujarat and at the southern coast line since 1680 and the rising demand for fine fabrics are provoking that the textile production of India is shifted to Bengal. The cotton production of Surat for the English "East India Company" is going down to almost nil. Bengal becomes the most important territory of the European textile trade in Asia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.171).

In England just by the way there are technicians occupied with the invention of weaving machines. They want to compensate the advanced development of India concerning textiles. This is an essential impulse for the industrialization (Reinhard, vol.I, p.174).

Coffee: In 1680 in London already 3,000 coffee houses are reported. Coffee becomes a kind of popular beverage in those times (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

India: Since 1680 the Mogul ruler Aurangzeb is prevailing a rise of tax for the coastal town of Surat from 2 to 3.5%. Aurangzeb is also threatening with a rise of tax for Bengal (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

England: From 1681 to 1688 Sir Josiah Child is taking 10,000 Pounds of the Company's fortune per year giving it to the king as a "gift" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141). .

India: In 1681 the Mogul ruler Aurangzeb in India is beginning an invasion against the south of the Indian subcontinent surrendering the remaining Muslim sultanates of the Deccan Peninsula (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140) and also the Marathis are surrendered (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

Since 1681 the Marathi rebellion against the rulership of Aurangzeb is not ending despite of wars and invasions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

England: In 1682 king Charles II is rejecting the project of a competitive company and he is confirming the regulations again. With this the stocks of the Company are making a big jump upwards (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

Java Island: In 1682 the Dutch are "eliminating" the English trading post in Bantam (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

In the same year of 1682 the English group of trading posts in Bengal is becoming independent from Madras (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140). [In this way the English "East India Company" is consisting in three groups now with it's centers in Surat, Madras / Chennai, and Bengal].

England: After the death of king Charles II there is a new king in England with James II. He is a Catholic and is trying a Catholic Restoration provoking sharp resistance of the Anglican Church and of the Whigs (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.267).

Karl II. König von England ; Charles / Carlos /
Charles II of England [98]

1683: Foundation of the German African Company for slave trade

Here are data from the historically rich web site of "Potato history" (www.kartoffel-geschichte.de):

(original in German:
<Auch Preußen, der Große Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm I., beteiligte sich am Sklavenhandel. Die Brandenburgisch-Afrikanische Kompanie wurde am 1. Januar 1683 gegründet. Im heutigen Ghana wurde die Festung Großfriedrichsburg gegründet. 1685 mieteten die Brandenburger von Däne­mark einen Handelsstützpunkt in der Karibik, die Antilleninsel St. Thomas. Auf der kurfürstlichen Werft in Havelberg wurden Schiffe für den einträglichen Sklaventransport gebaut, doch als man immer stärker in das heimische Heer ausbaute, fehlte bald das Geld, weitere Schiffe zu bauen; ohne Sklavenhandel lohnte sich jedoch die Kolonie nicht. Ein Afrikaner, der in Ghana 45 Gulden kostete, konnte in Amerika für 210 Gulden verkauft werden. 

Bis zum Jahr 1696 machte die Kompanie einen Gewinn von jährlich rund 150 Prozent. »Ein jeder weiß, daß der Sklaven­handel die Sonne des Reichtums ist«, schrieb ein kurfürstlicher Berater.> [web12]

<Also Prussia with it's Great Elector Frederik William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I.) was making profits in the slave trade. On Jan 1, 1683 the Brandenburg African Company was found. In today's Ghana the German fortress "Great Fredericksburg" ("Grossfriedrichsburg") was installed. In 1685 the Brandenburg managers were leasing the Danish trading post on Saint Thomas Island in the Antilles in the Caribbean. In the shipyard in Havelberg ships for the profitable slave transport were built, but when the local army needed more and more money the money for more ships was missing; without slave trade the colony was not profitable. An African purchased in Ghana for 45 Gulden could be sold in "America" for 210 Gulden.

Until 1696 the company made a profit of 150% per year. "Everybody knows that the slave trade is the sun of our fortune", this was writing an assist of the elector.> [web12]

[The adventure of German slavery with blacks was only lasting 23 years so. This is not much compared with the crimes committed by England's and by Dutch racists against the blacks].

In 1685 the monopoly of the company in England is confirmed also by justice (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141). But the Whigs regime is making troubles without end against the company because of it's monopoly. And Sir Josiah Child with his connections in the Parliament and in the Court can extend the liberalization for years (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

In 1685 the English are trying the foundation of a trading post in Bencoolen in South West Sumatra [today: Padang?] for getting a direct access to the Sumatra pepper (Reinhard, vol.I, p.135).

Since 1685 after the Chinese government had opened all Chinese ports for foreign companies the English "East India Company" is trying to install itself in the China trade. The Europeans are opening their main trading posts in the save Canton / Guangzhou which is rated as one of the safest ports. In Canton is also the financial representative of the Chinese emperor ("hoppo") administrating the taxes. Thus 13 national trading posts are installed first and they become always less because of bankruptcies of some companies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.176).

Position von Guangzhou / Kanton / Canton
Map with the protected position of Guangzhou / Canton next to Hong Kong and Macao / Macau [99]

In general the tea trade of the British and of the Danish "Company" is in a big boom now. The Dutch are focused on Batavia yet as their trade center and the are trying to instigate China to deliver tea to Batavia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.176) so the tea would not be payed directly by Amsterdam to China.

In this way the Dutch are only acting slowly in Canton / Guangzhou, and England is becoming the leader concerning tea trade in Europe (Reinhard, vol.I, p.178). Tea in China is purchased by 90% with silver (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

At the same time also the porcelain trade is beginning to work which is coming with the "tea drinking mode". Among others China is adapting the tea and porcelain production to the European wishes and is producing porcelain in blue and white (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

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10a. Intermediate chapter: Chinese porcelain [100]

Porzellan / porcelain China / Chine:
Chinese porcelain vase

Porzellan / porcelain China / Chine:
Chinese porcelain, jug

Porzellan / porcelain China / Chine:
                            Drache auf Vase
Chinese porcelain, a drake (extraterrestrial) on a vase

Chinaporzellan, ein Service
Chinese porcelain, a set of plates (service)

Chinaporzellan: Suppentasse und
Chinese porcelain, soup plate and soup spoon

Porzellan / porcelain China / Chine
Chinese porcelain, sugar bowl


And there are copies and new developments in Delft and Etruria with Wedgwood (Reinhard, vol.I, p.179).

Karte mit der Position der europäischen
                            Porzellanstadt Delft, Holland
Map with the position of the European porcelain town of Delft in Holland [101]

Right: map with the European porcelain region of Etruria in Italy [102]

Karte mit der europäischen
                            Porzellanregion Etruria in Italien

Porzellan / porcelain China / Chine;
                            Josiah Wedgwood
The English Josiah Wedgwood [103] is developing new porcelain techniques in England being adored that much in the English Royal house that he can sell his articles as "Queen's ware".


Wedgwood porcelain [104]

Wedgwood-Porzellan: Vase
Wedgwood porcelain: vase

Wedgwood-Porzellan: Amphoren
Wedgwood porcelain: amphorae

Wedgwood-Porzellan: Amphore
Wedgwood porcelain: amphora

Wedgwood-Porzellan: Teller
Wedgwood porcelain: a plate

Wedgwood-Porzellan: Bowle, Schale
Wedgwood porcelain: a bowl

Wedgwood-Porzellan: Tasse mit
Wedgwood porcelain: cup and saucer

The white racists are making wars despite of the beautiful porcelain

Now Europe had got so beautiful products from China (also when about 10% of the porcelain was broken during the naval journey), and on this base there were many new possibilities for new inventions, but the war games of the white racists were not over for a long time yet. At the end should be the Second World War and much of this beautiful porcelain should remain only trash and rubble then. How stupid these fools are in the governments! And one government of a big state which is also on native's territory yet is thinking now (2005) yet that war for oil would provoke big profits...

To read history is one thing, to learn from history is the second thing.

Keeping peace is the art not making wars.

But the war game is going on unfortunately...

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Chronology (succession)

English trial of occupation of Bengal against Aurangzeb in 1686 - "Glory Revolution" against the Catholics in England in 1688 - invasion of Louis XIV in South Germany and counter alliance in 1688 - "Declaration of Rights" in 1689 - English Dutch personal union under Wilhelm of Orange since 1689 - peace between Aurangzeb and the Company in 1690 - English wars against Ireland

England-India: In 1686 English governors in the Mogul Empire are intervening using violence against Aurangzeb. John Child, the "President" of the Company in Surat having it's office in Bombay / Mumbai is appointed the supreme commander and administrator of Asia (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140).

[An English commander is allowed for making war on a foreign territory?]

English propaganda is propagating a big English Dominion for eternal times. Above all own taxes are wanted and the work for the own profit making money without limits. For reaching this in a profitable manner a certain minimum size of territory is necessary (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

[Indian people in India should remain poor, or at least should be poorer than before...]

GB-Bengal: John Child is trying now the conquest of Chittagong in Bengal but he is failing. The "East India Company" can only keep the location of Sutanati (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140) [later this is the town of Calcutta; Reinhard, vol.I, p.141); in those times this is a village yet]. Now India can give a response to this attack: The English leader of the English trading post in Surat is detained and Bombay / Mumbai is sieged since 1686 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

Position / posicion Bombay / Mumbai
Map of India with Bombay / Mumbai [105]

Position / posicion Chittagong,
                            Chandpur, Dhaka, Dakkar, Daccar
Map of Bengalen with the position of Chittagong, today Bangladesh [106]

In 1687 there is a proposal of the West "President" of the English Company, Mr. Gerald Aungier to shift his presidential office from Surat to Bombay. At the same time Aungier makes the proposal of installing a first English "army" within the "East India Company" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.140).

[A trade company should have an army ... when a trade partner is exterminated then only one is left for the trade...]

F: In 1687 the French fleet is suffering a miserably defeat before Tonking (today North Vietnam) and before Siam (today Thailand) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

England-NL: In 1688 a successor is born: James III. Now the fear from a long lasting Catholic dynasty is growing in England. The Whigs and the Tories are calling commonly William III of Orange who is standing for a Protestant religion and for a free Parliament. James II is fleeing to France and England is celebrating it's "Glory Revolution". William III of Orange is making a military campaign against the Catholic "Jacobites" in Ireland (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

[The Catholics in England did not celebrate this "revolution" but they were awaiting torture].

India-GB: In 1688 Madras / Chennai is getting an own English local constitution (Reinhard, vol.I, p.139).

Karte mit der Position von Madras /
                      Purasawalkam / Kilpauk / Tambaram, Indien
Map of India with the position of Madras / Purasawalkam / Kilpauk / Tambaram [107]

F-BW: Louis XIV is raiding South Germany (Baden and Wurttemberg). In 1689 a "big alliance" is formed for keeping the European balance. This alliance is lead by William III of Orange against the troops of Louis XIV. German town are devastated now, of Palatinate it is Worms, the Emperor's graves in Speyer, and the castle in Heidelberg (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259). During the following years the French government cannot promote any colonial expansion (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

England: In 1689 John Locke is editing the "Declaration of Rights". The most important points are the permission of taxes, freedom of speech, and no standing army, and there is the theoretic beginning of separation of power within the state with a legislative and an executive for saving the personal freedom and property of the civilians. With this law Europe gets the first constitutional monarchy so (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

John Locke: Herausgeber der "Declaration
                      of Rights" 1689
John Locke [108]

In the English Parliament the discussion about unemployment is coming up again for which the Company is blamed - this claim the Company enemies. And now there is a change performed against the importations of the Company (Reinhard vol.I, p.142).

Since 1689 (-1702) William III of Orange is forming a personal union of England and Holland and this is a huge world wide power (Reinhard, vol.I, p.269).

Wilhelm von Oranien
Wilhelm of Orange, ruler over a world wide empire 1689-1702 [109]

[There was no map in the Internet for this big Empire. It was consisting just 12 to 13 years long. This is remembering also to another Reich. And all in all it was just the same as bad, and the whole colonialism was even much worse than this Reich we are thinking about first...]

England-India: In 1690 the British Crown is applying at Emperor Aurangzeb for a peaceful solution. Following his own regulations and laws Aurangzeb could destroy the English now completely, but he lets them survive. The English "East India Company" can be lucky at the end getting new trade privileges with the new peace treaty. The British are obliged to the following:
-- pay a fine of 150,000 rupees
-- pay for all damage
-- ensure a good behavior and they have to promise to expel the "President" Sir John Child (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

Aurangzeb [110]

Ireland: The battles against the Catholics
In 1690 the army of William III of Orange is winning the battle at Boyne River against the Irish "Jacobites". But the Catholic "Jacobites" are not giving up yet (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Boyne River in the province of Meath in Ireland [111]
Position der
                              Provinz Meath, Irland
Map of Ireland with the position of Meath Province

Provinz Meath, Irland
Map with Meath Province and the surrounding provinces in Ireland

Provinz Meath
                              mit Fluss Boyne River
Map with Boyne River in Meath Province in Ireland

Chandarnagore / Chandernagore /

Map with Chandannagar [112]

F-Bengalen: From 1690 to 1694 the son-in-law of François Martin, Deslandes, is installing a fortified French trade town in the Bengal military base of Chandarnagore / Chandernagore / Chandannagar (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

F: In 1692 Louis XIV is loosing a decisive naval battle. The new French fleet is remaining only for the fishes. The alliance against Louis XIV is beginning to dissolve itself always more (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

Ireland: In 1692 the Irish Catholic "Jacobites" are capitulating against the merciless army of William III of Orange in Limerick (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Irland : Position von

Map with the position of Limerick in Ireland [113]

[As it seems also William of Orange does not know other tactics than making war on foreign territories...

Now the hatred between Catholics and Protestants within Great Britain and Ireland becomes a big tradition and is also existing in the army of the Second World War within British troops yet, and is existing within Irish communities until today. Stupid mad "Christians"... Human Rights are easier!].

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New "English Company" under William III of Orange - defeat of Louis XIV in 1697 - Spain without successor to the throne and pressure by Louis VIV - Bengal with "rising significance" for England: silk trade - coffee and tea are establishing in the whole world

In 1693 the English "East India Company" is obliged to double it's capital opening the company for further circles of the population. Then the monopoly for India is auctioned: The "East India Company" is offering that the capital can be doubles again and from this 700,000 Pounds could be loaned to the Crown for 4%. Alternative offers are offering the Crown 2 million Pounds for 8%.

King William of Orange is taking the two millions for 8% and is forming a new company with it: "English Company Trading to the East Indies". The monopoly of the old company should end in 1701. The old company is subscribing 315,000 Pound at the new company as a safety (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

Scotland: In 1695 Scottish merchants are founding a Scottish East India Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

Sutanati, Fort William als Vorläufer
                              von Kalkutta
Map with Fort William in Sutanati which is called Calcutta later, at Hooghly River [114]

India-GB: In 1696 "Fort William" can be built in Sutanati which is called Calcutta later (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141)

[Who is building here? Who is performing the transport of the stones? How were the wages? How was the death rate?]

And now new capitalist times are beginning when plants are shifted from continent to continent:

Coffee: In 1696 the Dutch are trying the first time to plant coffee plants [from "America"] on Java [in today's Indonesia] (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

F: In 1697 Louis XIV has to accept the peace of Rijswijk and the first time he has to accept losses. Parts of the Spanish Netherlands and Lorraine are falling back to Spain. But France keeps Alsace (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.259).

Sp-Austria: Charles II from Spain is a degenerated, noble cripple. He will go to heaven without children. The Spanish Empire would fall to Austria then and an Austrian Spanish or a French Spanish world power would be created (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

In 1698 William III of Orange - who is always interested in a European "balance" - is making the proposal of installing the electoral prince of Bavaria as a pretender to the Crown (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

England: In 1699 the English chairman of the "East India Company" and monopolist Mr. Child is going to heaven (or hell) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

In 1699 also the electoral prince of Bavaria is dying who was appointed to be a successor of Charles II by William III of Orange (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

In 1700 William III of Orange is making further projects for keeping the European "balance" after the death of Charles II. But his proposal to install archduke Charles as a pretender of Habsburg line for the second dynastic successor line for Spain and it's colonies cannot prevail. Instead of this, king of France Louis XIV together with the Spanish state council and with Spanish Crown are prevailing that Philipp V of Spain (Philipp Duke of Anjou) as a total heir. The other powers now see the "balance" in Europe in danger (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Philipp von Anjou
Philipp V of Spain / Philipp Duke of Anjou [115]

India: In 1700 the military fort Sutanati / "Fort William" becomes the English seat for the Company "President" in Bengal. Step by step around this fort the new town of Calcutta is built (Reinhard, vol.I, p.141).

In 1700 the old "East India Company" gets one more license for another term. At the same time the "English Company Trading to the East Indies" can hardly establish itself (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

Sweden: In 1700 about the Swedish king Charles XII is presenting his idea to take the notorious "Pirates of Madagascar" into the service of the Swedish Crown using their "experience" building an overseas company with them. This trading company is even realized but is ending soon with it's liquidation and with a complete loss (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

England: In 1700 the English Parliament is releasing a prohibition of importation against Indian and Chinese silk fabrics and colored cotton fabrics. The India Companies are evading to luxury fabrics like muslin fabric and they are importing raw cotton fabrics and cotton yarns. By this adaption the British cotton processing is rising again (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

Coffee: Since 1700 the first "elegant" coffee houses are installed in Paris (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

Since 1700 whole Europe is flooded with coffee houses. Coffee trade is partly processes by land from Persia passing Turkey because Turkey is blocking European shipping companies competing their trade activities. Partly the Turkish sultan is purchasing 7/8 of the traded quantity but he cannot suppress the European trade companies because Yemen is maintaining it's independence. England, France, and Holland are purchasing coffee in Mocca, during some periods they even have their own trading posts there.

By the time the coffee trade is becoming that important that - as before with silk or tea already - direct European bookkeeping is introduced and the payments are coming from Europe directly without exchange with ware from India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

The demand is rising on and on, the prices are exploding. The profit range of coffee purchased in Yemen is sinking. Thus there are trials to install coffee plantations in other regions:
-- V.O.C. is trying to install coffee plantations on Java Island and in Ceylon Island
-- the English "East India Company" is trying to install coffee plantations in India
-- and France is trying it on Bourbon Island / Réunion Island (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

Tea: Since 1700 Holland and England are permitting spirit (snaps) as a legal stimulant. But the consumption is limited by taxes. The taxes are rising on and on, and the raw material is always more and more scarce. Instead of this the tea consumption is establishing as a new legal stimulant which is always cheaper despite of high demand and taxes. Tea is also serving as an exchange product for West Indian sugar (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

[Now Europe is getting so many legal stimulants from Asia already and the European nobles are going on with their monopolies and wars. The people leading Europe simply never have got enough. It seems that there are many records to read yet concerning the Dutch policy of these times. Why the Dutch government could never part the profits in peace? It seems that nobody learnt to share there...

There is something written in the Bible: Shared joy is doubled joy...

As long as there is no punishment for warmongers these pitiless egoist capitalists will go on with their wars...]

zum Inhalt    nach oben
"Act of Settlement" in England in 1701 - Spanish war of succession in Europe since 1701 - the "Big Alliance" against Louis XIV - union of England and Scotland since 1707 - death of Aurangzeb and Indian secessionist movement since 1707 - new "United Company" since 1708 - "Peace of Utrecht" for Europe in 1713

Look how the brute Nazi "Christians" of the noble upper class are behaving in Europe:

England: In 1701 an "Act of Settlement" is arranging the succession of throne in England

Sp-Europe: Charles II of Spain is dying in 1701 without children. Now the successor should be Philipp V (Duke of Anjou) but the anti French forces consider that the "balance" in Europe would not be guaranteed by this. And now a dreadful war in whole Europe is developing, called "War of the Spanish Succession" with a "Big Alliance" as the "Allies" against France and Spain: England, Holland, Austria, Prussia, Hannover, Portugal. Spain itself is in a civil war (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

The majority of the forces of the Netherlands and of England being part against France are bound to the European war events and there is no force for experiments with new overseas companies (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

England: In 1702 a collaboration agreement is made between the old and the new company. But the general troubles are not eliminated (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

Sp: In 1703 the archduke Charles (III) is "appointed" to be the king of Spain (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Hungary: Since 1703 (until 1711) there are rebellions under Rakoszy against the Austrian rulership. But the rebellions can "kept down" (DTV history atlas, p.269); Putzger, p.84).

Sp-Europe: In 1704 English troops are conquering Gibraltar against Spain. The "Big Alliance" is winning a first battle in Höchstädt against French troops (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Position / posicion

Map with the position of Gibraltar [116]

D-F: In 1704 the German Emperor lets occupy Bavaria. Bavaria is a territory of the House of Wittelsbach which is allied with Louis XIV. The German Emperor is keeping this occupation until 1713 (Putzger, p.84).

England: Since about 1704 a law for the merger of the two Companies is released. The union should be performed in 1708 and at the same time new bonds of a value of 1.2 million Pound should be permitted (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142).

Europe-F: In 1706 the "Big Alliance" is winning more battles against French troops, now in Ramillies and in Turin (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Position von Ramillies
Map with the position of Ramillies between Liege and Waterloo [117]

F: In 1706 the French Company ("Compagnie") is bankrupt and has to quit stopping any journey (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

Germany: In 1706 also the Brandenburg African Company is going bankrupt. All in all the German merchants were hijacking about 30,000 Africans to the Caribbean [web12].

GB: In 1707 the Union "Great Britain" is proclaimed with England and Scotland (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

[It can be admitted that there are practical constraints but also religious characters driving for this "union". For big circles this "annexation" or "connection" was very welcomed because the "big world" was waiting for them, and just something more...]

India: In 1707 the Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb is dying.
-- he was governing the country with intolerance against the Hindus
-- he let emerge corruption and "extravagance at the Court"
-- and in this way he was playing with the forces one against the other (Reinhard, vol.I, p.218).

After his death the Empire is splitting automatically by a crisis in the upper leading class, because of inflation and because of scarce resources because of this inflation. Additionally there are some natural disasters (Reinhard, vol.I, p.218).

In Bengal a quarrel about the succession is breaking out which is watched by England precisely. When there is an opportunity the English want to purchase new rights (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

The king of the Marathi becomes a vassal of the Mogul Emperor. The other rulers being "installed" by Aurangzeb are beginning with the foundation of own dynasties now
-- so in Bengal under Murshid Kuli Khan
-- in populations of today's Iran installing new rulers
-- in Hindu populations installing new rulers
-- in Sunnite populations installing new rulers.

The Mogul Empire is falling into pieces completely (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219). 

At the same time the new or yet converting parts of the ancient Mogul Empire are in danger being invaded from north east. Additionally there are aggressions from the west by Persian and Afghanistan troops. These troops are conquering formerly Mogul parts of the Empire now (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

Europe: In 1708 the "Big Alliance" is winning one more battle against France, this time in Oudenaarde (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Position von
Map of today's Belgium - in former times Brabant - with Oudenaarde [118]

GB: There is only one "Company" now: Since 1708 both English companies and the Scottish company are unified forming one single company. The total loan is 3.2 million Pounds for 5%. Since 1709 the new company has also got a new name:

"The United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies".

The regulations and procedures in this new united company are the following ones:

-- the own capital of the loan - this say the settlements of the company - is 3,163.000 Pound
-- the expansion of this new company is on a broad base now in the whole country and is accountable to the parliament (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142)

-- the company's leaderships are 24 directors having a meeting one time per week
-- the accounting is performed by "Committees" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.143).

Scotland: Expulsion of the Catholics
Scottish followers of James II - the so called "Jacobites" (Catholics) - are driven away from Scotland. They can settle in the Catholic southern Netherlands being ruled by Austria (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

[It seems that big groups in Scotia were awaiting the "annexation" for just playing "Cromwell" against Catholics...

And where is the Vatican? He lets burn women and he lets torture children on and on... In Rome there is just missing a person bringing this Vatican forward and revising the Bible].

F: Since 1708 (until 1719) the French Company ("Compagnie") is leased to others and in this way journeys to India are performed (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

In 1709 the "Big Alliance" is winning another battle against France, this time in Malplaquet (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Position von Malplaquet
Map with the position of Malplaquet east of Valenciennes [119]

F: After 7 years of war France is exhausted. The taxes have risen being unacceptable and there are rebellions in the country coming up, for example the Camisards upheaval of the Huguenots in the Cevennes. Louis XIV is offering an agreement now resigning to Spain and giving Alsace free. The "Big Alliance" is rejecting this offer as insufficient. Thus the war against France is going on (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

DK-Sweden: From 1709 to 1720 Denmark is taking part in the Great Northern War against the Swedish expansion. The means for the East India Company are becoming more and more scarce now (Reinhard, vol.I, p.150); DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.271).

GB: From 1710 to 1760 these are the most quiet years for the English "East India Company" with long lasting and regular growth (Reinhard, vol.I, p.143) [with products like tea, coffee and luxury fabrics, and also porcelain].

Within the wars between France and England the Whig government is overthrown in 1711 and the Tories are coming to power under Bolingbroke (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Bolingbroke [120]

Austria: In 1711 the Austrian Emperor Joseph I is dying. His successor becomes Charles VI. He is installing the connection between Austria and Spain. And this is a new danger for a world wide Empire of Habsburg. Since then the naval powers of the "Big Alliance" are ready for an arrangement with France for hindering a dominating Habsburg (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Kaiser Karl VI.
Emperor Charles VI [121]

NL: In 1711 the Dutch trials for installing plantations of coffee on Java Island are successful (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

1713: "Peace of Utrecht" between France and the naval powers
There are the following resolutions:
-- the mainland and the colonies of Spain are going to Philipp V (Duke of Anjou)
-- the subsidiary land of Spain (Spanish Netherlands) is going to Austria
-- Sicily which was Austrian until today is going to Savoy
-- and the Netherlands are saving blocking fortresses in Brabant in the Barrier Treaty.

-- Great Britain is getting
oo Gibraltar and Menorca from Spain
oo Newfoundland and New Scotia from France
oo the Hudson Bay territories
oo and the monopoly for slave trade with Spanish "America" (Asiento Treaty) (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269; Putzger, p.74).

Position von
                            Utrecht, Holland
Map of Holland with Utrecht between Amsterdam and Rotterdam [122]

 Utrecht Kanal
Utrecht, channels 01 [123]

Utrecht, channels 02 [123]

And the map in North "America" looks like the following now:

Map of North
                          "America" of 1713 after the peace of
                          Utrecht with New England (red+violet), New
                          France (blue) and New Spain (brown)
Map of North "America" of 1713 after the peace of Utrecht with New England (red+violet), New France (blue) and New Spain (brown) [146]

The goal of France is to surround the English with their New England colonies "throwing them into the sea", and when the  English colonies want to survive they have to eliminate New France. In this way are the "Christians" just with their bloody rite - eternal wars...

Prussia: The German Emperor and the Empire cannot accept this "Peace of Utrecht" because they mean that they did not get enough (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

zum Inhalt    nach oben
"Pragmatic sanctions" in Austria as a prevention of wars of succession - Spanish occupation of Sardinia and Sicilia and counter alliance of 1717 - English privilege in Bengalen since 1717 - new French trials for founding a company - coffee plantations in Surinam since 1718

Austria: In 1713 the Austrian Emperor Charles VI of Austria is releasing the "pragmatic sanctions" for saving the succession for his family (Reinhard, vol.I, p. 152) and for not provoking any war of succession after his death how it was in Spain (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

GB: Since 1713 the private British trade initiative is expanding much. V.O.C. is coming into a clear weak period compared with the English state's capital and English private capital. Private Dutchmen are partly even participating in the private British business activities (Reinhard, vol.I, p.181).

Prussia: In 1714 the German Emperor and the German Empire are acknowledging the Peace of Utrecht in another treaty, the Treaty of Rastatt and Baden. English balance policy as a "referee of Europe" is establishing. At the same time England is becoming the strongest subsidiary power by the "most businesslike of all our wars" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Since this epoch there is a big need for "calm" in Europe during the next decades, and war is actively hindered. In this climate of "convenience" - arrangements of the cabinets - there are congresses, federations, partitions and exchange actions of territories. The will of the populations is not respected. And there is a specialty with the Spanish Minister and Cardinal Mr. Alberoni who wants to install a Spanish hegemony over Italy again (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

[Additionally the colonial powers are more and more satisfied with their expansion drives in Asia and "America", thus now Africa will become more and more victim of Europe "satisfying" the colonial expansion drive, with more profits than with wars in Europe itself. It's cheaper expelling or detaining blacks without arms than making action with cannons against cannons...]

Germany-NL-Africa: The German colony "Grossfriedrichburg" (in English something like "Great Fredericksburg") is sold to Holland for 7,200 ducat and "twelve black boys". This trade is reminding to the Russian selling action of Alaska to the "U.S.A." [web12].

Spain: In 1717 the Spanish Cardinal Alberoni lets conquer the Austrian Sardinia Island and the Savoy Sicily Island. Now a "Four Power Alliance" is formed against Spain (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

GB-India: In 1717 an English ambassador's group is reaching to get more privileges with the Mogul Emperor:
-- the English company is granted the liberation of all importation and exportation taxes
-- the company can purchase 83 villages in the surroundings of Calcutta
-- the company is allowed to use coins of the Mogul Emperor and is allowed to coin silver rupees with silver the company was bringing with their own ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

Now the Nawabs of Bengal are resisting against the English Mogul agreement. It is put into question which trade should be without taxes now, only the official one of the company or also the private businesses of the Company staff members. A chronic petulance between the company and the Nawabs is coming up (Reinhard, vol.I, p.222).

[This petulance can be understood because the English are calculating as if India would belong to England already: no tax...]

Europe: In 1718 the "Four Power Alliance" is winning against the Spanish fleet and is urging Spain militarily thus Cardinal Alberoni is dismissed (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

F: In 1718 / 1719 the Scotsman John Law is installing a new financial concept for the French government. This new system has got it's base on "3 columns":
-- there is a central bank
-- there is a general lease of the Indian tax
-- there is a "French India Company" ("Compagnie des Indes") by the merger of all overseas trade companies existing until now (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

For making this new "Company" attractive for the population and because the government bonds have fallen, John Law is permitting the exchange of government bonds with it's nominal value into stock papers of the "Compagnie des Indes". Now a fever is produced and the value is rising by 3,600% (Reinhard, vol.I, p.148).

John Law, Kamikaze-Financier der

John Law, a suicide financier of a "company"... [124]

Coffee: Since 1718 there are also coffee plantations in Surinam (South "America", Dutch territory) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

[The different coffee classes are not so different according to the climate, but probably more according to the soil. This is also the case with herbs when they are growing on different soils having different shares of agents].

Austria: In 1719 Austrian merchants are beginning with a new project for an own East India Company. Prince Eugen is warning from a foundation, but he has no influence to this (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

Austria-Savoy: In 1720 Savoy and Austria are exchanging the two islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Sicily is Austrian now, Sardinia is Savoy now (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

F: In 1720 follows the payout of the dividend of the French East India Company ("Compagnie des Indes"). There are given only 2%. Because of this deception a collapse of the Company's stock value is following. Surat is given up by the Company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149).

The French system of Mr. Law is ending in 1720 with a never ending inflation with paper money and with a national bankruptcy (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

In Northern Europe the war against the Swedish expansion is ending. Denmark's East India Company [suffering a shortage of funds] - is going down ste by step to it's doom (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

GB: In 1720 there is one more textile crisis in England. The English Parliament is establishing a complete prohibition of cotton importation. As a reaction English initiatives like the "United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies" are founding own spinning factories and weaving mills. Additionally cotton fabrics are imported for being reexported then what is not forbidden (Reinhard, vol.I, p.142), above all to Africa and to the native's continent ("America") to the territories being occupied by Europeans where are markets without restrictions. The share prices are rising with this development (Reinhard, vol.I, p.143).

Since 1720 European books are permitted in China (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

F-India, west coast: In 1721 the French Company is purchasing the military base of Mahe (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149) [at the west coast of India].

Position von
                  Calicut / Koshikode
Map with the position of the town of Mahe above Calicut / Kozhikode [125]
zum Inhalt    nach oben

First Austrian trade with East India since 1721 - French plantations - Austrian "Ostende Company" since 1723 - Austrian Swedish company since 1731 because of "pragmatic sanctions"

Austria: In 1721 it's the first time that two fleets of 3 Austrian ships each are leaving Europe for India and China (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

GB: With the Whig government under Robert Walpole - he is the "dominator of the nation" - there is a long peace period, but also corruption with posts, corruption during elections and censorship of the press. With mercantile colonial policy England is growing for being a welfare state (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.269).

Sir Robert Walpole
Sir Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of England 1721-1742 [126]

DK: In 1721 the Danish East India Company has to give free the trade. The state's monopolies are not profitable any more (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

Prussia: In the 1720s and 1730s Frederick William I of Prussia (Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Preussen) gets ideas for an East India Company. The port should be Hamburg. But Hamburg is not a part of the Empire. Therefore Frederic William I cannot realize any East India Company until his death of 1740 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Preussen
Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia [127]

"America"-Sp-India: Europe is robbing on and on big quantities of silver from Spanish "America" [not only Potosí, also from other mines]. The metal is coming cheap on the European market and is partly coined to Spanish coins as "real de a ocho" [ryall / piece of eight] and is used in India as a currency. Dutch name is "reaal" / "stuk van achten"; the Austrian name is "Acht-Schilling-Stück") (Reinhard, vol.I, p.169).

[The Spanish Ryall in those times is an international anchor currency yet, and the price for this are millions of dead people in the mines not only of Potosi...]

GB-India: Since the 18th century the English "East India Company" is beginning to coin Indian silver rupees in Europe directly. Thus in fact the Company is becoming a co-administrator of the Indian finance department (Reinhard, vol.I, p.169).

F: In 1722 François Dupleix, a French "politician", is reaching India, and first he is becoming a member of council in Chandarnagore (until 1731) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

Split of the French Company (Compagnie) - the leading structure of the "Compagnie perpétuelle des Indes"
F: In 1723 the French Company "Compagnie perpétuelle des Indes" is splitting from the "Compagnie des Indes". The "Compagnie perpétuelle des Indes" is not submitted to the finance system of John Law, but has "rights" in Africa and in "America" as the original company (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149).

This "Compagnie perpétuelle des Indes" is getting more controls by the state: The directors are not elected any more but are appointed by the Crown. These directors are controlled by a royal commissioner.

And there are more changes concerning chaotic France:

Changes of administration of the French trading bases

-- the administration is distributed to Paris, Nantes, and Lorient (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149)

-- the territories and bases are assigned to governors and general directors

-- the governor for Asia is residing in Pondichéry. Assigned to him are Surat and the trading posts at the Coromandel Coast: Karikal, Masulipatam, and Yanam

-- in Candarnagore is the seat of the French "Director" and "Provincial Assist" for Bengal ("Conseil provincial"). Assigned to him are the military bases of Balasore, Kasimbazar, Patna, and Dacca (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149)

Mahe is the seat of a French governor and "Provincial Assist" ("Conseil provincial") for Mahe and for the trading post in Calicut (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149)

-- additionally French business offices have their seats in Mocca, in Canton / Guangzhou, and on the Islands of the Indian Ocean (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149)

-- Madagascar is given up and instead of this big island the French Company is installing itself on the little Bourbon Island / Réunion Island and on the France Island / Mauritius / Ile de France. These are plantation colonies with own governors (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149).

[May be this shift to little islands was because of pirates - but the natives of the little islands will have been enslaved too].

Positionen von Madagaskar, La
                                Réunion, Mauritius
Map with the eastern coast of Africa with Madagascar, La Réunion Island and Mauritius Island [128]

-- the French Company is concentrating to East India getting the tobacco monopoly. With this the company is in the position to guarantee steady incomes to the shareholders. And now the trade volume is growing steadily and there are considerable profits with a fleet of over 30 ships. Despite of the high income the financial situation remains a little bit dangerous yet (Reinhard, vol.I, p.149).

Austria-India: In 1723 the Austrian merchants in the Austrian Netherlands are founding the "Oostende Company" for a privileged commerce with East India. The structures and the share capital of 6 million guilders are according to the "normal scheme". The subscription of the whole sum is made in Antwerp very fast. Among others the directorate is filled with English and Dutch names. Almost all ships and sailors come from England (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

Position von
                Oostende / Ostende, Belgien
Map with Oostende at the coast line of western Flanders, today in Belgium, and Antwerp [129]

GB-Coffee: In 1724 coffee importation for England has a share of 24%. V.O.C. is importing in 1724/25 coffee of a value of 3.8 million Pounds. Coffee of a value of 3 million Pounds is coming from own plantations from Java already. And there are more coffee producers like Portugal with Brazil coffee now on the market (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

[Well, "plantation" means that jungle is destroyed. How much jungle was destroyed for coffee plantations all in all?]

NL-Coffee: Coffee from Java ("Java Coffee") is appreciated very much.  This coffee alone is enough for the Dutch demand. V.O.C. can liberate totally from  Persian coffee importation. But there are some ships sent to Mocca yet for getting coffee loads for keeping the prices high because the oversupply is threatening the business (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

Germany-Coffee: Additionally the German princes are taking protection measures against the Dutch coffee flood (Reinhard, vol.I, p.175).

Austria: In 1724 at a congress in Cambrai there is a meeting about the Austrian "Oostende Company" and it's dissolution because of the "pragmatic sanctions" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.265).

1725: Austrian Spanish treaty for the "pragmatic sanctions"
In 1725 the Austrian Emperor Charles VI is concluding a treaty for saving the "pragmatic sanctions" for the succession of [future empress] Maria Theresia (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.265).

[The main problem for Austria is that the successor of the Emperor will be a woman which will not be accepted by the other royal courts. Therefore Austria is trying to prevail Maria Theresia as a queen with "pragmatic sanctions" - but the "Christians" will make a bitter war about Austria then - typical "Christian"].

Kaiser Karl VI. von Östereich
Emperor Charles VI of Austria [130]

Kaiserin Maria
                          Theresia von Östereich
Maria-Theresia, queen of Austria [131]

-- in Austria-India: In 1726 the Austrian "Oostende Company" can install a trading post in Bankibazar (above Calcutta). This trading post is a juridically secured post. the mediation was performed by the Englishman Alexander Hume - a former staff member of the English "East India Company" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

In 1727 the Austrian "Oostende Company" has a positive balance. In four years there was a clear profit of over seven million guilders. But the company is failing because of the Royal Courts around Austria. For prevailing his "pragmatic sanctions" in favor of Maria Theresia above all the naval powers (with England, DTV history atlas vol.I, p.265) are claiming from Emperor Charles VI the suspension of the Austrian monopoly and sea trade from 1732 on.

Charles VI has to accept this and now he es looking for a new partner and he is having negotiations with the Swedish Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

[Because of a woman a manager has to resign to a trading company. This is the behavior of the "Christian" nobles among themselves...]

Austria-Prussia: In 1725 the Austrian Emperor Charles VI is concluding a second contract, now with Prussia, for saving the "pragmatic sanctions" so Maria Theresia will be the empress succeeding him (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.265).

Austria: In 1728 there is again a congress about the Austrian "Oostende Company", now in Soissons near Paris. The congress is again about the dissolution because of the "pragmatic sanctions" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.265).

Soissons, Paris, Reins, Karte / carte / map /
Map with the triangle Paris, Soissons, and Reims [132]

DK: In 1729 the Danish East India Company is dissolved and the Indian town of Tranquebar is transfered to the Crown (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

Austria: In 1731 by pressure on the naval powers the "Oostende Company" of Austria is dissolved. Now England is recognizing the "pragmatic sanctions" officially (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.265).

Austria-Sweden: In 1731 in Göteborg there is a new foundation of an Austrian Swedish "East India Company" ("Ostindiska Kompaniet"). There is no fix share capital, but the journeys are calculated one by one. There are dominating renamed English ships and English staff. Shareholders of the "Kompaniet" are British, Dutch, Belgians and Frenchmen. The profits are enormous (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

F-India: In 1731 François Dupleix is becoming a director of Chandarnagore and is filling this post until 1741 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

DK-tea: In 1732 Danish crown if founding the third East India Company with the name "Asiatisk Kompagni". With this above all the China with tea trade is managed. From 1732 to 1745 this Danish "Asiatisk Kompagni" is performing 20 trips to India and seven to China (tea trade with China; Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

GB: In 1733 (until 1769) the "United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies" are getting new prolongations for privileges. The company is paying 200,000 Pound and is lowering the interest to 5% for the government (Reinhard, vol.I, p.143).

zum Inhalt    nach

Dictatorial Dutch measures on Java Island in 1733 - Polish war of succession 1733-1735 - Persian invasion up to Delhi in 1739 - takeover of the throne by Maria Theresia in Vienna and Prussian French alliance against Austria since 1740 - "Opium War" in China 1740-1742 - Hong Kong becomes English, European invasion in China since 1742 - Dutch rulership on Java since 1742

NL: In 1733 V.O.C. is forbidding the coffee cultivation in the sultanate of Mataram on Java for hindering an overproduction of coffee. Profitability is going on to be the first "order" of V.O.C. not important how the population is running (Reinhard, vol.I, p.215).

Position Mataram neben Java ; Karte / map /
                    mapa / carte
Map with the position of Mataram next to Java, today Indonesia [133]

PL 1733 (-1735): Now in Poland is a war of succession. And there is a Russian dictation. This is only one example of many examples how the nobles in Europe are destroying themselves:

As a successor for the Polish throne is foreseen the French candidate Stanislaus Leszczinski. Russian troops are forcing now that the Austrian Russian pretender August III of Saxonia is elected (-1763). In Italy is dominating a French dominance against Austria.

In 1735 a "preliminary peace" is made over the Polish succession and a peace agreement is made in Europe (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

Austria-F: In 1736 Francis Duke of Lorraine is marrying the appointed successor in Austria, Maria Theresia (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

1738: "Peace of Vienna" for Poland and France: There are decisions about Lorraine, Naples, Sicily, Parma and Piacenza.
As a compensation for the not elected successor
-- Lorraine is falling to Stanislaus Leszczinski
-- Toscana is falling to Francis Duke of Lorraine and thus to Austria
-- Naples and Sicily come to a Spanish Bourbon secundogeniture
-- Parma and Piacenza come to an Austrian secundogeniture (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

Austria-F: In 1738 the Austrian Emperor Charles VI is concluding one more contract, now with France, for saving the "pragmatic sanctions" for the succession of Maria Theresia (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.265).

Persia-India: In 1739 Nadir Shah, the ruler of Persia, lets plunder Delhi. Since 1398 this is the first time Delhi is plundered again (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

Nadir Shah
Nadir Shah [134]

Prussia: Since 1740 Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich II von Preussen) is occupied again with a project for an own East India Company. Frederick William I was dreaming of Hamburg as a port. Now Frederich II has Emden as a port (Reinhard, vol.I, p.153).

Friedrich II. von Preussen
Friedrich II of Prussia, picture of Antoine Pesne [135]

Die Position / posicion von Emden und
Map of northern Germany with the position of Emden (left) [136]

NL-India: In 1740 approximately on Java Island there is a bad event against some Chinese in Dutch Batavia provoking a Chinese rebellion (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

Austria: In 1740 Charles VI is dying. Despite of all endeavors of Charles VI and despite of all contracts for a legitimation of the "pragmatic sanctions" the Prussian Crown of Frederick II is beginning a war against Austria. At the same time Bavaria and Saxonia are claiming to be successor in Vienna (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

[Frederick II lets pass by the opportunity for an own Indian fleet in Emden - and instead of this he make war against Maria Theresia...]

China is making war from 1740 to 1742 against English opium dealers. The European weapons are showing their "supremacy" (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

[The European tactic was to make the Chinese addicted to opium making China week for an easy invasion. This maneuver was repeated some more times yet].

Europe: Armies under a Prussian French alliance are breaking into Austrian Silesia and are winning a battle near Mollwitz and Chotusitz. A Bavarian French march has got the aims of Linz and Prague (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

NL-F: V.O.C. and the French Company want to neutralize navigation in general so the company would be discharged in India and a peace could hold in India for further quiet profits (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

Austria-Hungary: In 1741 on a National Convent (Reichstag) in Pressburg / Bratislava Hungary is assuring help for Maria Theresia.

In 1742 Charles Albert of Bavaria is proclaimed as a successor of Charles VII as the new Emperor of Austria (-1745). In a separate peace of Breslau (Wroclaw) Austria is giving Silesia to Prussia and can tranquilize Prussia in this way. Austria is forming then a "pragmatic alliance" with Savoy, Saxonia and Great Britain against Bavaria and above all against France (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

GB-China: British forces are winning with superior weapons against China's troops. In 1742 in the "Peace of Nanking / Nanjing" China has to make concessions:
-- China has to give Hongkong away
-- China has to give trade licenses for five contract ports
-- China has to grant sovereignty of administration, justice, police and custom duties (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

Die Position / posicion von Nanking / Nanjing und
                  Hongkong / Hong Kong
Map with the positions of Nanking / Nanjing and Hong Kong [137]

Europe-China: Now there is beginning a general "hunt" of the naval powers for privileges in China. But the military weakness of China is provoking that some European powers also like "more aggressive procedures" against China (DTV history atlas, vol.II, p.91).

[War against China: "Christians"=Nazis
Well, China never endangered Europe, and the Europeans get so beautiful items from China like tea and porcelain. Why these criminal "Christians" from Europe make war against China then? This is the classical example that the "Christian" Church is a Nazi confederation].

And the war is going on lead by the Nazi confederation which is called "church"

NL-India: After the rebellion of the Chinese on Java in 1742/1746 the ruler of Java, Susuhunan, is completely dependent from the Dutch forces. With Dutch help Susuhunan is suppressing the population which has to pay all services of protection of the Dutch garrison. Almost the whole north and east of Java Island is indirectly terrorized by V.O.C.

Additionally this V.O.C.
-- gets the right for coining coins [!]
-- gets the preemptive right for all products of the sultanate of Mataram.

With this Mataram is converting into a Dutch province (Reinhard, vol.I, p.217).

F-India: In 1742 François Dupleix becomes the governor in Pondichéry and is governing with "statesmanlike foresight" and with "autocratic risk disposition". His wife is a local native from India. Additionally he is assisted by the Indian confidant Ananda Range Pillai. His reports in his diaries are an important source for this time (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

Joseph-François Dupleix,
                  Gouverneur in Pondichéry / Pondicherry
Joseph-François Dupleix [138]

Europa-India: Despite of the Austrian war of succession in Europe the local governments of France and England in India want a standstill agreement. But they are not achieving controlling the French and English war fleets. Therefore the war about Maria Theresia is expanding to Indian territories (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219).

[war on foreign territories. How the fishes will suffer because of the noise of the cannons on the ships?]

The governor of Mauritius Island, Bertrand François Mahé de la Bourdonnais, gets from the French Crown the permission for aggressive projects against Great Britain. This is taken as a pretext that British fleets are now beginning capturing French ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

                  de Labourdonnais, Gouverneur von Mauritius
Mahé de la Bourdonnais, governor of Mauritius [139]

zum Inhalt nach oben

Tea smuggling to England - "pragmatic alliance" against France - Austria loosing Silesia to Prussia in 1745 - French war against England in India since 1746 - French defeat and "peace of Aachen" in 1748

GB-tea: European continental fleets are purchasing tea in China and they sell it in England for Brazil and Portuguese gold (Reinhard, vol.I, p.178).

[Who was digging the gold out of the Brazil mines? Native slaves, until they died, and then black slaves who were living a little bit longer than the natives. The base of all this colonialist capitalism is a big holocaust in the mines being committed to the natives and the blacks. Until today there is not even a memorial day for the millions of killed natives and black slaves - in the "Christian" Nazi world of colonialism...]

Back to the tea:

Europe-tea: In England is just thriving tea smuggling to England by the coastal states of Europe (Norway, Denmark, Holland, and France). Estimations of 1740 say that only a little part of the tea in England is imported officially (Reinhard, vol.I, p.178).

Austria: In 1743 within the war against Maria Theresia there are alliances made now, and there are trials to "settle olds scores". The "Pragmatic Army" with Austria, Savoy, Saxonia, and Great Britain is winning near Dettingen against France. France is not satisfied and is projecting a second alliance with Prussia (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

[and Prussia is permitting getting involved and is not at all loved for this in Austria].

Karte mit der Position von Dettingen
Map with the position of Dettingen [140]

NL-India: V.O.C. permitting private trade - the "Company" has gone already
In 1743 also in the V.O.C. the prohibition for private trade of the staff members is lifted. But this permission is coming too late now because the private Englishmen have an advance of about 60 years. The Dutch shareholders at the British businesses has established already. Also smuggling around Java territories has established already.

As already "highest" people and dignitaries and also brides are taking part in smuggling and in businesses with the enemy, such partitions with "enemy" businesses and smuggling have no juridical consequences any more. In the case of doubt remains the flight "over the Channel" to England... (Reinhard, vol.I, p.181).

Additionally the rich private merchants of England are granting cheap loans to the English company again, and in this way the state and the whole population get their profit with it. The permission of a hidden economy was very profitable so and was in the national English "interest" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.181).

Austria-Prussia: In 1744 in the Austrian war of succession about Maria Theresia the Prussian Army is winning a second time against Austria in Silesia near Soor and Hohenfriedberg (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

GB-India: In 1744 there is one more loan given out of one million by the "United Company [...] to the East Indies". The privilege is prolonged until 1783 (Reinhard, vol.I, p.143).

Austria-Prussia: In 1745 Austria is definitely acknowledging the transfer of Silesia to Prussia. In the war of Füssen Charles Albert of Bavaria is acknowledging Emperor Francis I of Lorraine as the Austrian successor. At the same time the British Austrian war against France and Spain is going on: The "pragmatic alliance" is winning near Roccourt and Fontenoy (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281).

[How the mad "Christians" are making war for nothing only loosing money and lives of their populations. Additionally the statement that wars are needed for a regulation of the population is a big, big lie because there are enough plants, fruits, and vegetables making the humans infertile...]

Sweden: From 1746-1766 the "Ostindiska Kompaniet" is bringing in five times as much profit as the invested capital had been. At the same time the English are rejecting to this "Kompaniet" installing trade posts in India. The Swedish main business remains the China trade so (Reinhard, vol.I, p.152).

Schiff der
                            Ostindischen Kompanie Schwedens: Ostindiska
Ship of the Swedish East India Company [141]

Chinese porcelain for the Swedish market [142]

[Well, I had not the courage to eat from such a beautiful plate...]

DK: From 1746 to 1771 the Danish "Asiatisk Kompagni" is performing 28 trips to India and 49 trips to China. With tea business the turnover of this Danish "Kompagni" is rising constantly. Aside Indian trade is winning significance again. A largely distributed stock capital is saving the business.

More and more the middle class is also sharing this "Kompagni". The foreign part of private people from the Netherlands and from German towns is remaining under 10%. The control in the "Kompagni" is made by the leading merchants of Copenhague (Reinhard, vol.I, p.151).

F-India, GB-India: In 1746 the town of Mahe (French base in India) is composing a little French war fleet and together with the governor of Pondichéry, Dupleix, they are "making" little occupations: They are conquering the English town of Madras. Because of the "work" in Europe the "East India Company" cannot defend Madras first, but is calling the prince Nawab of Carnatic (in the countryside of Madras) for help. So this town of Madras is fast reconquered by the English side (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

[War on a foreign territory? What did say the native Indians in India about that? Christians are only fools...]

Position von
Map with the position of Mahe in India [143]

Die Position /
                            posicion von Madras / Chennai
Map with Madras / Chennai in India [144]

[Fast from one coast to the other one? This is no problem during a war, above all when there is no sense with it...]

Persia in 1747: Nadir Shah of Persia has died. Afghanistan is forming a new government now under Ahmad Khan Abdali (until 1773) (Reinhard, vol.I, p.219)

Ahmad Khan Abdali, König
                    von Afghanistan
Ahmad Khan Abdali, king of Afghanistan [145]

1748: "Peace of Aachen": End of the Austrian war of succession against Maria Theresia with a French defeat

In 1748 France has to reduce it's occupation projects against Austria and has to accept the "Peace of Aachen". Now France has to give territories away and in the next war the territories are changing the Royal Courts again. This is the sense of criminal Nazi "Christianity", with millions of deads - until today (2014) without notice!

-- France has to give back Austrian Netherlands
-- France has to give back British colonial territories [in "America"?]
-- Parma (Piacenza) falls to the Spanish Bourbon secundogeniture
-- Savoy gets parts of Milan (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.281)
-- Madras is becoming English again, but with a new contract according the law of nations [what does this mean?]
-- the English are liberated from tributes to the Nawabs in Madras
-- center of France in India remains Pondichéry / Pondicherry (Reinhard, vol.I, p.220).

Since this time wars in Europe are also wars about colonial "possessions". This complete dominance [white terrorism] against all other populations in the colonies is more or less the precondition for a guaranteed trade (Reinhard, vol.I, p.214/215).


In 1494 the Pope defined the partition of the world. But when there is a world wide trade war then he means that he is not authorized any more...

The European "powers" begin with their technique to terrorize the whole world wide population with war. Did anybody say anything about compensation?

Alone because of Maria Theresia there was a war of 8 years, all money was lost. But about the human victims of such "Christian" war rituals nobody is speaking...

In the Bible is written: "Love your neighbor..."

The "neighbor" can also be a woman? or a native?

Money does not love. A bag full of money does not love. But the strategists are loving their bag of money...

Strategists are not loved so.

<<         >>

[web01] http://www.netmarine.net/tradi/celebres/ango/ (April 2005; historically rich web site)
[web02] http://www.chez.com/histoirededieppe/ango02.htm (April 2005)
[web03] Penn Library: http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/kislak/promotion/hakluyt1.html (April 2005)
[web04] National Maritime Museum (NMM): http://www.nmm.ac.uk/searchbin/searchs.pl?exhibit=it0375b&axis=1106457993&flash=true&dev=
[web05] http://www.engelfriet.net/Alie/Hans/oih.htm (April 2005)
[web06] http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/bandaengels.htm (April 2005)
auf: ARCENGEL's HOMEPAGE: http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/index.html (April 2005; historisch wertvolle Website über Holland und den holländischen Kolonialismus
[web07] Tiscali Encyclopaedie: http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0001617.html (April 2005)
[web08] Rotterdam, de VOC en het Oost Indisch Huis aan de Boompjes: http://www.engelfriet.net/Alie/Hans/oih.htm (April 2005)
[web09] http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Madras.shtml (April 2005)
[web10] Evangelisch-lutherisches Missionswerk: http://www.elm-mission.net/deutsch/arbeitsgebiete/indien/nachrichten/tsunami_2004.html
[web11] http://numisnord.free.fr/francsomma.htm (April 2005)
[web12] http://www.kartoffel-geschichte.de/Erste_Furche/Gen_Europa/gen_europa.html#e61
[web13] http://www.kartoffel-geschichte.de/Erste_Furche/Bei_den_Flamen/bei_den_flamen.html
[web14] Dutch: oorlog; in English: war; http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oorlog; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krieg
[web15] Christian IV: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_IV._(Dänemark_und_Norwegen)
[web16] http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/people/welcome.htm (April 2005).

-- Reinhard, Wolfgang: History of European Expansion (original in German: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion). vol.I: The Old World until 1818 (original in German: Die Alte Welt bis 1818). edition Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Cologne/Mainz 1983

-- basic data: Kinder/Hilgemann: DTV history atlas (Atlas zur Weltgeschichte) vol.1: From the beginnings to the French Revolution (Von den Anfängen bis zur Französischen Revolution). 21st edition, Munich 1986.

-- for two other data: F.W. Putzger: Historical World Atlas (Historischer Atlas zur Welt- und schweizer Geschichte). 9th edition; edition Sauerländer, Aarau / Librairie Payot, Lausanne (no year)

and more sources are indicated in the foot notes.

Photo sources

[1] Jean Ango: Château-Musée de Dieppe: http://www.mairie-dieppe.fr/chateau-musee/ expos-temp/expos-temp.html
[2] Jean Ango, signature: http://www.netmarine.net/tradi/celebres/ango/ (April 2005)
[3] map of the Mogul Empire in North India around 1530: Louise-Schroeder grammar school in Munich with further history map materials:
http://www.lsg.musin.de/gesch/Material/karten/karte-index.htm; http://www.lsg.musin.de/gesch/Material/karten/1/mogulreich.jpg (April 2005)
[4] Francis Drake: History of famous pirates: http://www.freewebs.com/historyoffamouspirates/francisdrake.htm (April 2005)
[5] Murad III. http://www.menzil.net/otarih/OsmanliPad.htm (April 2005)
[6] Map with Aleppo Aleppo / Halab / Haleb in today's Syria: http://www.schaetze-der-welt.de/kontinent.php?suche=asien (April 2005)
[7] Hakluyt: basics of navigation (Principal navigations): http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/kislak/promotion/hakluyt1.html  (April 2005)
[8] Henry IV: Encarta: http://de.encarta.msn.com/media_461517094_761568934_-1_1/Heinrich_IV_von_Frankreich.html (April 2005)
[9] Jan Huygen Van Linschoten: Historic Prints: http://www.antique-atlas.co.uk/historicprints.html (April 2005)

[10] Queen Elizabeth I of England:
http://www.weltchronik.de/ws/bio/e/elizabeth1KVE/ek01603a-Elizabeth1KoeniginVonEngland-15330907b-16030324d.htm (April 2005)
[11] Emblem of English "East India Company": Paul Carrell: http://www.btinternet.com/~sa_sa/st_helena/st_helena_history.html (April 2005)
[12] Map with Bantam / Banten: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banten (April 2005)
[13] Map with Champlain's trips for occupation of land in today's Canada 1603-1615: http://schools.tdsb.on.ca/parkdaleps/Foster-211/explorers/samuel.htm (April 2005)
[14] Samuel de Champlain: http://www.meigsmagnet.org/~craigc2/Champlain.html (April 2005)
[15] Map with Barbados Island in front of the "Caribbean": http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_BB.aspx (April 2005)
[16] Map with Surat in the sultanate of Gujarat: http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9812/28/india.01/index.html (April 2005)
[17] Map with "Quebec" at Saint Lawrence River: http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/01/11/canada.quebec.03/ (April 2005)
[18] Map with Agra next to Delhi: http://www-cgi.cnn.com/TRAVEL/DESTINATIONS/9704/india/taj.mahal.html (April 2005)
[19] James I king of England: http://www.weltchronik.de/dch/dch_1167.htm (April 2005)

[20] Map with Bermuda Islands in front of the native's continent: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_BM.aspx  (April 2005)
[21] Map with Borneo Island, Java Island and the town of Makassar (today Ujung Pandang) on Sulawesi / Celebes [21]:
http://www.seyfcom.ch/journal/cartes.php (April 2005)
[22] Map of Andhra Pradesh: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradesh (April 2005)
[23] Map with Masulipatam / Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam / Bandar: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Machilipatnam.shtml (April 2005)
[24] Ayuthia: http://schueppert.net/travels/3rd_wrld/thailand.html (April 2005)
[25] Map with Ayuthia / Ayutthaya / Phra Nakhon Si: Area Overview: Thailand: General Thailand Map: http://www.outdoortravels.com/Travel_Thailand_Overview_Thai1.html (April 2005)
[26] Malayan Peninsula on a stamp: British Commonwealth: http://sio.midco.net/dansmapstamps/commonwealth12b.htm (April 2005)
[27] Map of Patani on Malayan Peninsula: http://www.cofepow.org.uk/pages/armedforces_m_campaign.html (April 2005)
[28] Map with Hirado Islad at the south tip of the big Japanese island of Kyushu: http://www.kimsoft.com/2004/mongol-koryo-japan.htm (April 2005)
[29] Thomas Roe: Europeans in India: http://www.webindia123.com/history/MEDIEVAL/europeans%20in%20india/europeans.htm (April 2005)
[30] Map with Gombroon at the Persian Gulf: Image Archive: Maps: Persian ports, including Gombroon and Jask:
http://cf.hum.uva.nl/galle/site/imagearchive.html (April 2005)
[31] King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway: http://www.weltchronik.de/dch/dch_1215.htm (April 2005)

[32] Map with Mocca: Tiscali Encyclopaedia: http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0018495.html  (April 2005)
[33] Pieter van den Broecke: http://www.artunframed.com/hals.htm (April 2005)
[34] Coffee tree: Yatego:
http://www.yatego.com/p,413de65399524,40ffa2b473b2c9_6,kaffeebaum-kunstpflanze-dekopflanze-kunstbaum (April 2005)

[35] Map with Tranquebar in Tamil Nadu [35]:
http://www.elm-mission.net/deutsch/arbeitsgebiete/indien/nachrichten/tsunami_2004.html (April 2005)
[36] Thomas Mun; http://www.topfinanza.it/home/index.html?http://www.topfinanza.it/home/academy.html (April 2005)
[37] Jan Pieterszoon Coen, founder of Batavia and mass murderer of V.O.C.: http://www.engelfriet.net/Alie/Hans/oih.htm  (April 2005)
[38] Map of Iran with Bändär Abbas / Bandar Abbas, successor town of the town of Hormuz [38]:
http://www.graphicmaps.com/webimage/countrys/asia/ciamaps/ir.htm (April 2005)
[39] Map with the position of Ambon Island / Amboina: http://archives.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/11/03/indonesia.ferry/ (April 2005)

[40] Richelieu: http://www.culturalresources.com/BAR6.html (April 2005)
[41] King Christian IV of Denmark: http://www.newgenevacenter.org/movers/renaiss-reform2.htm (April 2005)
[42] Wallenstein and Tilly: In: Die Geschichte von Limmer und Godenau: http://www.limmer-godenau.info/Geschichte.htm (April 2005)
[43] Shah Jahan (1628-1658): http://web.presby.edu/~rrheiser/lectures/04earlymodern%20indiaandchina.htm (April 2005)
[44] Map of the east coast of "U.S.A." and "Canada" by Hessel Gerritsz and Joannes de Laet in 1630: Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine, Portland: The Cartographic Creation of New England: http://www.usm.maine.edu/~maps/exhibit2/sec4.html, April 2005)
[45] Map with Andhra Pradesh, India: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradesh (April 2005)
[46] Map with Masulipatam / Masulipatnam / Machilipatnam / Bandar, India: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Machilipatnam.shtml (April 2005)
[47] Bandar monkeys: http://www.haryana-online.com/Fauna/bandar.htm (April 2005)
[48] Map with Orissa: http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/9803/25/india.tornado/ (April 2005)
[49] Map with Baleshwar / Baleswar / Balsore/ Balasore and Baripada in the north of the Federal State of Orissa:
http://www.chooseindia.com/tourism/morissa.html (April 2005)

[50] King Charles I of England: Kurzbiographien Renaissance: Die Tudors und die Stuarts: http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/bilderkatalog/tudors_stuarts/abb200r.htm (April 2005)
[51] Map of the Dominican Republic with the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique: http://www.karibik.at/karte.php (April 2005)
[52] Map of India and Bengalen of 1785: Gazetteer and Maps: http://www.wmcarey.edu/carey/maps/maps.htm  (April 2005)
[53] Map with the position of Madras: http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/9801/28/india.gandhi/ (April 2005)
[54] Fort Saint Georges, the beginning of the town of Madras; map of the cartographer Mr. Bellin: Madras, India - 1761:
http://www.portsmouthbookshop.com/MapPage/MapPages591xx/59193madr.htm (April 2005)

[55] Map of Madagascar with the positino of Fort Dauphin: http://www.hbandtimo.com/fort_dauphin.htm  (April 2005)
[56] Madagascar: baobab trees: information service about Madagascar: http://www.madainfo.de/index.htm (April 2005)
the trees: http://www.madainfo.de/baobabs/pages/Adansonia%20za%20Fort%20Dauphin%201990.htm  (April 2005)
[57] impressions of Madagascar:
-- monkey: http://www.madagascar.it/tours13-e.htm   (April 2005)
-- beach with palm trees: http://www.3dmadagascar.com/salon800/
page2d.asp?CAT=-1&STAND=1188&PROC=3&PAGE=1494  (April 2005)
-- street market with a biker: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/regis.minetto2/  (April 2005)
-- girl, portrait: Homeopharma: http://www.madagascar-homeopharma.com/0_circuit.php?ID_CLI=071220031 070834881  (April 2005)
-- school children: Susan Wessin: Schule und Internet: http://www.on-luebeck.de/~swessin/afrique/raharima.htm  (April 2005)
-- school child: http://grouviere.free.fr/solidarite/tde/henri/  (April 2005)
-- houise building with wood and straw: Manaode: http://manaode.free.fr/  (April 2005)
-- street in Tananarivo: Tananarive photo galery: http://pages.intnet.mu/rochecouste/ sylviane/Tana/tananarive1.htm  (April 2005)
-- Sylviane Rochecouste, portrait: Tananarive Due: http://www.tananarivedue.com/  (April 2005)

[58] Map with the position of Montreal at Saint Lawrence River: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Montreal.shtml (April 2005)
[59] Map with Bahamas Islands: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_BS.aspx  (April 2005)
[60] Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg:
http://ds217-115-144-119.dedicated.hosteurope.de/de/geschichte/1640_elector_frederick_wilhelm.html (April 2005)
[61] Oliver Cromwell: http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0%2C12084%2C1079384%2C00.html (April 2005)
[62] Map of Bantam / Banten on Java Island: Wikipedia Enzyklopaedie: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantam (April 2005)
[63] The positino of Hooghly, Hooghli in Bengalen: http://www.cultureholidays.com/states/west-bengal.htm (April 2005)
[64] Map with Tranquebar: http://www.elm-mission.net/deutsch/arbeitsgebiete/indien/nachrichten/tsunami_2004.html  (April 2005)
[65] Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg: Foundation Prussian Castles and Gardens: http://www.spsg.de/index_208_en.html (April 2005)

[66] Cromwell "culture" in Elngland:
-- tank "Cromwell": Patrick C.Storto: 1/76 & 1/72 Scale Armored Fighting Vehicle Museum: http://www.msu.edu/user/storto/afv.htm (April 2005)
tanks especially for example in: http://www.msu.edu/user/storto/afvbrit2.htm (April 2005)
-- tank "Cromwell IV Cruiser": World War II. Tanks: http://www.warchronicle.com/men_and_weapons/tanks/pictorial.htm (April 2005)
-- defect "Cromwell" tank with lethal victims: The Desert Rats: 7th Armoured Division Thetford Forest Memorial: http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/desertrats/
Interesting_pictures_from_WWII.htm (April 2005)
-- Tinn soldiers with a Cromwell: http://www.theilkleylads.inuk.com/shows2002.htm (April 2005)
-- War ship Cromwell: http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/ programs/html/platforms/html/Cromwell.html (April 2005)
-- Rider's helmet Cromwell: http://www.hi-starclassics.co.uk/Helmets/Helmets.html (April 2005)
-- Cartoon of Cromwell: http://www.magixl.com/caric./globeb/cromwell.html (April 2005)
-- Cromwell sword: http://www.armourclass.co.uk/Data/Pages/17Century_6.htm (April 2005)
-- Plush mouse "Cromwell": http://www.tkstoystand.com/PAGES/TY%20PLUSH/ty_attics_main_01.html (April 2005)
-- Cromwell shoes for honest men and banksters: http://www.shoeworld.co.uk/designloake/cromwell.html (April 2005)
-- Cromwell shoes for sportive people: http://www.hovo.nl/veiligheid/dubbelsterken/dubbelsterken.html (April 2005)
-- Snooker table "Cromwell": http://www.biljard.bd.se/cromwell.htm (April 2005)
-- Cromwell on coins with laurel like a Cesar: The Very Highest Quality Coins & Diamonds: http://www.24carat.co.uk/index.html;
The coins especially: http://www.24carat.co.uk/1658crowncromwellframe.html (April 2005)

[67] Map with Hispañola Island: http://www2.unil.ch/BCU/informations/expositions/2004/haiti.htm (April 2005)
[68] Haïti and Dominican Republic with Santo Domingo / Heiliger Sonntag: http://www.cafe-rebo.com/FR/l%27evolution.htm (April 2005)
[69] Genoa
-- square: http://www.volker-pohl.de/volker_unterwegs/genua/index.php (April 2005)
-- terrorist church: http://www.urlaub-ligurien.de/Genua/Tag1.html (April 2005)

[70] Aurangzeb: (http://www.goindiago.com/history/medieval.htm (April 2005)
[71] General Monk: (http://www.sc.edu/library/spcoll/britlit/milton/miltonwar.html (April 2005)
[72] king Charles II of England: (BBC Homepage History: http://db.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/charles_ii_king.shtml (April 2005)
[73] Map with Pondichéry / Pondicherry: (http://www.pondichery.com/french/stages/bheeshma_stage_decouverte.htm (April 2005)
[74] Impressions of Pondichéry / Pondicherry:
-- Elephant: http://www.pondichery.com/french/stages/bheeshma_stage_decouverte.htm  (April 2005)
-- Bikes: http://www.pondichery.com/french/insolite/  (April 2005)
-- River landscape with a boat: http://www.pondichery.com/french/stages/bheeshma_stage_decouverte.htm  (April 2005)
-- Yoga meditation: http://www.agglo-melunvaldeseine.fr/web/3105.htm?annee=2005&mois=01  (April 2005)
-- Fishing boat at a beach: http://www.timelessindia.us/chapter44.htm  (April 2005)
-- Archway: http://www.indian-tour-package.com/kerala-tourism/kerala-holidays-package.html  (April 2005)
-- Terrorist church: http://www.kerala-tourism.co.uk/pondichrry-travel/pondicherry-churches.html  (April 2005)
-- Red terrorist church: http://www.pon.nic.in/open/regions/pondy/yoga.htm  (April 2005)
-- Biker http://www.tourisminpondicherry.com/tourism/climate.shtml  (April 2005)
-- Picknick at the beach: http://www.newint.org/issue373/black-woman.htm  (April 2005)

[75] Harvest and tea transportation in China:
-- Tea harvest 01: http://www.tvz.com/tea/china/01.html (April 2005)
-- Tea harvest 02: http://www.tvz.com/tea/china/02.html (April 2005)
-- Transportation of tea without wheel: http://www.tvz.com/tea/china/02.html (April 2005)
-- Chinese junk 01: http://www.weltsichten.de/dschunke/dschunke_alt.htm (April 2005)
-- Chinese junk 02: http://www.wolff-travel.com/deutsch/service/fotos/htmls/china_dschunke.htm (April 2005)

[76] Map with Madras: http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/9801/28/india.gandhi/ (April 2005)
[77] Bombay Island / Mumbai Island, satellite photo: http://www.thebestlinks.com/Mumbai.html (April 2005)
[78] Bombay / Mumbay:
-- Yogi: http://www.coneyisland.com/per.ravi.shtml (April 2005)
-- street artist with a monkey: http://www.tajreisen.de/html/bombay-reise-bausteine.html (April 2005)
-- train station "Victoria": http://www.harappa.com/post4/bombay05.html (April 2005)
-- arch: http://www.aboutmumbaihotels.com/ (April 2005)
-- car riksha: http://www-ccs.cs.umass.edu/cris/bombay1998/powai/powai.html (April 2005)
-- English old buses of two floors: http://skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=125101&page=4&pp=20 (April 2005)
-- cow in the street: http://www-ccs.cs.umass.edu/cris/bombay1998/powai/powai.html (April 2005)
-- cow next to a car and a bike: http://july.fixedreference.org/en/20040724/wikipedia/Mumbai (April 2005)
-- promenade with car's music: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~nbd/theme.html (April 2005)
-- international overseas port: http://skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=125101&page=2 (April 2005)
-- little boat: http://www.orientalarchitecture.com/mumbai/GATEWAYINDIA09.htm (April 2005)
-- monsoon and floods: The Tribune June 17, 2001: http://www.tribuneindia.com/2001/20010617/nation.htm (April 2005)

[79] Jean Baptiste Colbert: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Colbert (April 2005)
[80] Map of France with the position of Lorient: http://www.lorient-pole-naval.org/fr/lorient_situation.html (April 2005)
[81] Charles II, Catholic king of England: BBC Homepage History: http://db.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/charles_ii_king.shtml (April 2005)

[82] old French currency, coins:
--  Tournois with Henry IV of 1608: http://jeanmichel.guyon.free.fr/monsite/histoire/metiers/monnaies.htm (April 2005)
-- doubled Tournois with Louis XIII of 1633: http://jeanmichel.guyon.free.fr/monsite/histoire/metiers/monnaies.htm (derselbe Link, s.o., April 2005)
-- coins golden Louis (Louis d'or) with Louis XIII and medal of Louis XIV of 1690: Musée de la monnaie, Paris: http://www.numis-max.com/royales.htm (Dezember 2005)

[83] Michiel Adriaanszoon de Ruyter: http://www.futura-dtp.dk/SLAG/Personer/NavneR/Ruyter.htm (April 2005)
[84] Exchange of New Amsterdam with Surinam:
-- map with the position of Breda:
http://www.a-hostel.de/hostels/europa/niederlande/maps-netherlands-europe.html (April 2005)
-- map with New Amsterdam: http://www.imagesonline.bl.uk/britishlibrary/controller/subjectidsearch?id=1435&idx=1&start=0 (April 2005)
-- map with Surinam: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_SR.aspx (April 2005)

[85] Louis XIV: http://www.askthebrain.com/loui_xiv-.html (April 2005)
[86] Jean Baptiste Colbert: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Colbert (April 2005)
[87] Map with Dutch Brabant: http://www.grether-reisen.de/html-sommer/html-niederlande/allg-provinz-noord-brabant.htm (April 2005)
[88] Map with Wallonian Brabant: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallonisch-Brabant (April 2005)
[89] Map with Dacca: http://www.cybemail.com/cartes/bangladesh/ (April 2005)

[90] Map with the position of Makassar / Ujang Pandang, today Indonesia: http://blog.ohwada.jp/archives/2004/10/ (April 2005)
[91] Ma with Masulipatam and mounds of Krishna River: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Machilipatnam.shtml (April 2005)
[92] Map with Rupert's Land: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~echist/lecnotes/lec4.htm (April 2005)
[93] Jan de Witt: http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/people/welcome.htm (April 2005)
[94] William III of Orange: http://www.uni-duisburg.de/Institute/CollCart/es/sem/s4/links8c.htm (April 2005)
[95] Map with Bourbon Island / Réunion Island aside of Madagascar: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_RE.aspx (April 2005)
[96] Map with Chandarnagore / Chandernagore / Chandannagar, in those times called Sutanati: http://www.aurobindo.ru/places/main_e.htm (April 2005)
[97] Sir Josiah Child: http://www.ieev.uma.es/econlinks/Links/Retratos1.htm (April 2005)
[98] Charles II, king of England: http://db.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/charles_ii_king.shtml (April 2005)
[99] Map with Guangzhou / Canton and Hong Kong and Macao / Macau:
http://www.1uptravel.com/worldmaps/china5.html (April 2005; http://www.1uptravel.com/worldmaps/china.html (April 2005)

[100] Chinese porcelain:
-- vase: http://web-japan.org/atlas/crafts/cra13.html (April 2005)
-- jug: http://porcelain.oneofakindantiques.com/2635_vintage_japanese_porcelain_cream_and_sugar_dishes_3.htm (April 2005)
-- dragon on a jug: http://www.spongobongo.com/EKOM012.htm (April 2005)
-- set of plates: http://www.hohhaus.de/b_erdgesch.htm (April 2005)
-- soup bowl and soup spoon: http://gastro.de/de/shop/display/sparte.asp?LiefID=29&sparteID=2642 (April 2005)
-- sugar dose: http://www.crystals-gemstones-jewelry-store.com/store/PPF/Category_ID/89/products.asp (April 2005)

[101] map with the position of the European porcelain town of Delft in Holland:
http://www.1uptravel.com/worldmaps/netherlands1.html (April 2005)
; http://www.1uptravel.com/worldmaps/ (April 2005)
[102] map of Etruria in Italy: http://www.castellitoscani.com/etruria.htm (April 2005)
[103] Josiah Wedgwood: The Life of Josiah Wedgwood: http://www.ceramicstoday. com/articles/050300a.htm (April 2005)

[104] Wedgwood porcelain:
-- vase: http://www.ceramicstoday.com/articles/050300a.htm  (April 2005; Zusammenfassung über Wedgwood)
-- amphorae: http://www.antiqforum.com/wedgwood_otherjasper.html  (April 2005)
-- amphora: http://www.antiqforum.com/wedgwood_otherjasper.html  (April 2005)
-- porcelain plate: Florentiner Wedgwood-Porzellan: http://www.rafa.com/florentine.htm (April 2005)
-- porcelain bowl: http://www.naylorantiques.com/bowl1.htm (April 2005)
-- porcelain cup with saucer: http://www.minsantiques.com/WEDGWOOD.HTML (April 2005)

[105] map with the position of Bombay / Mumbai: http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ASIANOW/south/07/13/india.slide.02/ (April 2005)
[106] map with the position of Chittagong in Bengal, today Bangladesh:
http://www.comtotravel.com/modules.php?name=Countries&country=Bangladesh&map=1 (April 2005)
[107]  map with the position of Madras / Purasawalkam / Kilpauk / Tambaram, India:
http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9812/20/fringe/india.mustache/ (April 2005)
[108] John Locke: http://beckford.c18.net/wbgenevaletter.html (April 2005)
[109] William of Orange, ruler of a world wide empire 1689-1702:
http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/bilderkatalog/bedeutfrau/abb5ww.htm (April 2005)
[110] Aurangzeb: http://www.goindiago.com/history/medieval.htm (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)

[111] Boyne River and battles against Catholics in Ireland:
-- map with the position of Meath Province, Ireland: http://irishmythology.com/Irish_Mythology_Partholan.htm (April 2005)
-- map with Meath Province and surrounding provinces, Ireland: http://www.anglerteam.de/irland/ (April 2005)
-- map with Boyne River in Meath Province, Ireland: http://www.highfieldguesthouse.com/sites.html (April 2005)

[112] map with Chandannagar: http://www.aurobindo.ru/places/main_e.htm (April 2005)
[113] map with Limerick, Ireland: http://www.graduatestudies.ul.ie/prospectus/main/Postgraduate/pages/gen_ireland_limerick_map.shtml (April 2005)
[114] map with Fort William in Sutanati, later it is Calcutta at Hoogly River: http://www.wmcarey.edu/carey/maps/maps.htm (April 2005)
[115] Philipp / Philip Duke of Anjou: http://www.futura-dtp.dk/SLAG/Personer/NavneF/Filip5.htm (April 2005)
[116] map with the position of Gibraltar: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_GI.aspx (April 2005)
[117] map with the position of Ramillies between Liege and Waterloo: The University of Texas at Austin: Perry-Castañeda Library: Map Collection The Netherlands in 1700:
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/history_colbeck_1905.html (April 2005)
[118] Oudenaarde in today's Belgium, in former times Brabant: (http://www.kenmochi.com/beer/tour/liefmans.html (April 2005)
[119] position of Malplaquet in the east of Valenciennes: The University of Texas at Austin: Perry-Castañeda Library: Map Collection The Netherlands in 1700:
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/history_colbeck_1905.html (April 2005)

[120] Bolingbroke: Thoemmes Continuum: http://www.thoemmes.com/gallery/image78.htm (April 2005)
[121] emperor Charles VI: http://www.salzburgcoins.at/Kaiser/html/KarlVI_Biographie.htm (April 2005)
[122] map with Utrecht in Holland: http://sportsnavi.yahoo.co.jp/soccer/ eusoccer/other/trip_index.html (April 2005)
[123] Utrecht and it's channels: http://web.syr.edu/~vpaf103/trav_utrecht.html (April 2005)
[124] John Law, a kamikaze financier of a French "Company": The good gambling guide (GGG):
http://www.thegoodgamblingguide.co.uk/spotlight/players/johnlaw.htm (April 2005)
[125] map with the position of the town of Mahe above Calicut / Kozhikode: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Calicut.shtml (April 2005)
[126] Sir Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of England 1721-1742: http://history.htb.dtdns.net/docs/ohip000002.html (April 2005)
[127] Frederick William I of Prussia (Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Preussen): Stiftung preussische Schlösser und Gärten (SPSG):
http://www.spsg.de/index_208_en.html (April 2005)
[128] map with the positions of Madagascar, La Réunion Island and Mauritius Island: http://www.seyco.de/KURZINF.HTM (April 2005)
[129] map with Oostende: http://belgium-airport-brussels.webport.com/belgium-airports.htm (Dezember 2005)

[130] emperor Charles VI of Austria: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_VI%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor (April 2005)
[131] Maria-Theresia, empress of Austria: http://www.balsi.de/Sonstiges/Personen/M-/Maria-Theresia.htm (April 2005)
[132] map with the position of Soissons in the triangle with Paris and Reims: http://chesnois.auboncourt.free.fr/geographie/carte-2.php (April 2005)
[133] map with the position of Mataram next to Java, today Indonesia: http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/map24-nd.html (April 2005)
[134] Nadir Shah: http://www.the-south-asian.com/Jan2001/Delhi7_Jan_2001.htm (April 2005)
[135] Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich II. von Preussen), painting by Antoine Pesne: http://www.jahrhundertwerke-pintura.com/gemaelde2.htm (April 2005)
[136] map with the position of Emden (left): http://www.1uptravel.com/worldmaps/germany.html (April 2005)
[137] map with the positions of Nanking / Nanjing and Hong Kong: http://www.bergen.org/AAST/Projects/ChinaHistory/general.htm (April 2005)
[138] Joseph-François Dupleix: http://landrecies.free.fr/landreciens1uk.html (April 2005)
[139] Mahé de Labourdonnais, governor of Mauritius:
http://mauritius.voyaz.com/final_pages/mauritius1/gallery_mauritius_voyaz/port_louis_gallery_1.htm (April 2005)

[140] map with the position of Dettingen in Germany: http://www.teckblick.de/html/anfahrt_1.html (April 2005)
[141] ship of the Swedish East India Company: http://hem.passagen.se/vhhnsn/ (April 2005)
[142] Chinese porcelain for the Swedish market: (http://www.mfordcreech.com/crane.htm (April 2005)
[143] map with the positino of Mahe in India: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Calicut.shtml (April 2005)
[144] map with Madras / Chennai in India: http://www.weather-forecast.com/locations/Madras.shtml (April 2005)
[145] Ahmad Khan Abdali, king of Afghanistan: Watanonline Network: http://watanonline1.8m.com/durrani.html (April 2005)