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Colonialism in Chronology - chapter III

"American" Holocaust in Central and South "America"

Massacres, "Christianizations" and exploitation fulfilling an order of the Pope and of the Crown 1492-1558

3.2. Columbus trips and beginning "American" holocaust on "Hispañola" Island / Santo Domingo and Haiti

Natives in the delta of Orinoco River
Natives in the delta of Orinoco River [59]: they survived the "American Holocaust" because they were not reachable for the white racist "Christian" killers...

by Michael Palomino (2005)

Translation 2014

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Content

Introduction: maps: languages of the native populations on the continent of the natives before the arrival of the white racists from Europe

1. Columbus expeditions to the Caribbean - foundation of the fortress "Navidad" / "Christmas"

2. Naming the "Antilles" according to "Antilia" - natives bringing syphilis to Europe - Taino natives destroying the fort "Navidad" - partition of the world by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493 - calumny against the natives described as cannibals - name "Carib" - Columbus detecting the destroyed fort "Navidad"

3. Columbus founding the town of "Isabella" - new partition of the world with the treaty of Tordesillas June 7, 1494 - flight of Tainos to Cuba

4. Gold findings on "Hispañola" - Columbus rated to be "lost" in Spain [!] - Columbus sending a slave ship to Spain - Columbus on Cuba and on Jamaica - robbery by the whites on Hispañola and counter attacks of the natives - punishing expedition under Columbus against the natives - first trip to India by Da Gama

5. Spain deciding for the territorial principle - English expedition under Cabot / Caboto - town of "Isabella" destroyed by natives - foundation of the town of "Santo Domingo" / Holy Sunday" - Columbus hiding in Spain in a convent - Spanish investigation commission for Hispañola

6. Caboto / Cabot detecting North "America" for England - Aztec expansion and Aztec sun stone with sacrifice of human blood

7. Second expedition of Cabot is not coming back - Portugal's slavery on Madeira - Da Gama reaching Calicut - Columbus on Trinidad and at the Orinoco River - detention of Columbus on "Hispañola" and the investigation commission - Hojeda robbing the map of Columbus - expeditions under Hojeda and Vespucci

8. Resolution of deprivation of all native populations - pearls and gold in southern Caribbean - return of the first Indian fleet of Da Gama with heavy losses - expedition of Portugal up to Greenland

9. New ruler's title of Manual I defined for the world war against Islam - second Indian fleet under Pedro Alvares Cabral touching the Brazilian coast line - death of Bartolomeo Diaz during a storm - reaching Calicut - massacre against Muslims - gold from Guinea for Portugal - theoretic prohibition of slavery of the Spanish Crown - Inka Empire - the Columbus brothers are in chains

10. Expedition of Coelho and Vespucci to South "America" - holocaust on "Hispañola" under Ovando introducing the "Ecomienda" system ("protectorate") - order of Spanish Crown for forced labor for natives - destruction of the culture of the natives - Portuguese English fishing before Newfoundland

11. Fourth Columbus expedition - beginning of the construction of military forts in Santo Domingo - Ovando's robbing fleet is destroyed by a storm - no direct way to China and India - Aztec expansion and Aztec prophecy for the return of a priest king Quetzalquatl

12. Welser family - all colonial profit is lost with European wars and banks - foundation of the West India Office in Sevilla - Da Gama's fleet is making high profits - Vespucci in Patagonia - calumny of Vespucci that all natives would be cannibals and all native women would be addicted to sex - Spain's system of concentration camps: orders for forced relocations of natives in "villages" and "forced civilization" - system of "repartimientos" ["partitions"] and "encomienda" ["protectorate"] in "West India" - hunger and illnesses

13. Columbus coming back to Spain seriously ill - denial of all titles - gold mine on Hispañola


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Introduction: maps: languages of the native populations on the continent of the natives before the arrival of the white racists from Europe

One has to watch the following maps very precisely - and just these maps are missing in the history books until today (2014). And then one should think about what capitalism of the "white race" has damaged in "America".

Map: Groups of native languages in "America" in 1492 (then almost complete destruction by the white racists)
Map:
                        Groups of native languages in
                        "America" in 1492 (then almost
                        complete destruction by the white racists)
from: Wolfgang Reinhard: History of European Expansion (original German: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion, vol.II, 1985, p.10) [1]

Indications about Eskimos are from another book by W. Lindig: Peoples of the Fourth World (original German: Völker der Vierten Welt); graphic 76; Fink/Schöningh edition 1981

Indications about language families are from DTV lexicon (20 volumes) of 1990.

-- Algonkin are a wide spread language family in North "America"
-- Arawak (Aruak) are first in the Caribbean (almost exterminated), today almost only in South "America"
-- Athabaskan (Athapask): language family of natives a) in Canada and in Alaska; b) southern Athabaskan in the SW of "U.S.A.", among others Navajo and Apaches
-- Caddo: native language family and tribal community of Prairie natives of North "America"
-- Chibcha: language family of natives in Central and NW South "America"
-- Chichimoca
-- Iroquois: group of native tribes with affinity of languages in North "America": Erie, Tobacco, Hurons, Neutrals, Susquehanna, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora
-- Caribbean, Caribes: native language family first on the Lesser Antilles of Virgin Island down to Trinidad (there completely exterminated), until today in South "America" above all in Suriname and Guyana
-- Mosquito: group of Central "American" natives in the today's Honduras and Nicaragua ("Mosquito Coast")
-- Muscogee: native language family  in South East of "U.S.A.", tribes of Calusa, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and others

-- Nahua: biggest native population group in the highlands of Mexico with dialects of Nahuatl, is part of the Uto Aztec language group, was the language of the Aztecs and Toltecs
-- Salish, Selish: language group, culturally with high plain natives: on the continent in the south: Flathead, Shuswap and others; also at the North West coast
-- Shoshone, Shoshoni: North "American" natives with Uto Aztec language in the northern Big Basin
-- Sonora: Sonora desert: dry region of today's South East California and South West Arizona up to Colorado desert and Gila desert, down to North Mexico, Sonoric tribes
-- Yuma: natives of Hoka Sioux language group in the South West of the "U.S.A."
-- surfaces without names: other isolated tribes


Map of the language groups of the Primary Nations in South "America" until 1492
Map of the
                      language groups of the Primary Nations in South
                      "America" until 1492
from: Wolfgang Reinhard: History of European Expansion (original German: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion, vol.II, 1985, p.10) [2]

Some indications come from the book by W. Lindig: Peoples of the Fourth World (original German: Völker der Vierten Welt); Fink/Schöningh edition 1981, p.143

Indications about language families are from DTV lexicon (20 volumes) of 1990.

-- Aimara natives are in South "America" today mostly in the region of Lake Titicaca
-- Araucanians: language and cultural native groups in the southern Andes, today in Chile: Mapuche (language "Mapudungun"], Hultiche, in Argentina: Pehuenche; until 1850 never conquered
-- Aruacs: are one of the most spread native and language families in South "America"
-- Chibcha: are a native language family in North West South "America", or another name is also Muisca
-- Gê: language family of natives in eastern Brazil
-- Guaicurú
-- Guaraní: group of native populations, today especially in Paraguay, is normal language in Paraguay and in the Argentina province of "Misiones"; Guaraní is also a name for the Tupí in the Spanish part
-- Caribs: native language family especially in today's Surinam, Guayana and Lesser Antilles
-- Quechua: native language in the Inca Empire, later spread by missioners; many dialects, agglutinating and using many suffixes, in 1990 about 5 million Quechua natives yet, there is only the community of languages with cultural common customs
-- Pano: native language family in South "America", above all in eastern Peru and in North East of Bolivia
-- Puelche: group of Pampa natives, today almost exterminated

-- Tehuelche, Araucan "South East men", Chonqui: group of Pampa natives in Patagonia: at the end of the 19th century almost exterminated, today about 350 Tehuelche
-- Tucano: language group in the northern fronter area between the today's Brazil and Columbia
-- Tupí: native language family of the eastern, tropical South "America", above all the Tupinamba, first between Sao Paulo, Rio and Bahia province, later also in the Amazon; today [1990] almost exterminated
-- Yanonámi, Yanoama, Waika, Shiriana: natives in the jungle frontier area of today's Venezuela and Brazil, the have their first contacts with the whites only in the 1960s.


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Chronology

1. Columbus expeditions to the Caribbean - foundation of the fortress "Navidad" / "Christmas"


1492
Thesis: colonization of "America" is the continuation of the reconquest of Spain and Portugal
The occupation in "America" is only the continuation of the Spanish reconquest against the Muslims. The "crusade" is simply continued against another enemy. Cortés is calling the temples in Mexico often as mosques (Reinhard, vol.II,p.49).

But the reconquest against the Muslims was not a crusade but was just a frontier war and a war of gangs of the lower nobles in Castile who wanted to survive by new occupations of territory, above all for the undersupplied younger sons who could get land only by their own weapons (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49).

[Supplement:
Spanish Crown tried first to install a system of military bases with Columbus like Portugal had done in India. But as there were no spices and first also no gold was found in the Caribbean, the strategy was changed and the Spanish Crown was thinking about profitability and competition permitting the territorial principle. With this new principle the "detectors" became also the governors of the "new territories". But it was not considered that the "sailors" were no politicians at all. And consequently the natives were all deprived and enslaved, but this was not important for the Spanish Crown any more in the competitive situation with Portugal].

[Supplement:
Muslim governments were behaving in those times much more tolerant than the "Christian" governments].

Spanish racist "mission" under King Ferdinand

King
                    Ferdinand
King Ferdinand [3] "is spreading" the Spanish kingdom (victory in Granada), whereas the Muslim world was much more developed and tolerant than the "Christianity" in those days with it's inquisition.




April 1492
Spain: "Treaty" ("capitulación") of Isabella and Ferdinand for an expedition "for the way westwards"
(Reinhard, vol.II, p.40)

On April 17, 1492, the Spanish racist royal couple Isabella and Ferdinand are concluding a treaty with Columbus in Santafé about an expedition to East Asia. For this expedition Columbus receives three ships ("Santa Maria", "Pinta" and Niña").
(Internet: H.Mückler: Kolumbus, Christoph)

Columbus gets the order to "detect and to purchase islands and territories" on the other side of the Ocean, and

oo he is getting the title of a noble man now
oo he becomes a hereditary admiral and viceroy of the new territories he will conquer (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41)
oo he should get about 10% of the profits he will make in the new Spanish territories (Reinhard, vol.II,p.40; Huby, p.53)
oo he should be permitted to share by 1/8 of the equipment of all ships (Reinhard, vol.II,p.40)

oo the three ships for the expedition are from a private owner, these ships are two little well steerable caravels and a heavy nao ship

oo the starting port will be Palos (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

Christopher Columbus (Spanish: Christoforo
                    Colombo)
Christopher Columbus (Spanish: Christoforo Colombo) [4]
Racist "Christian" Queen Isabella
Racist "Christian" Queen Isabella I [4]

August 3, 1492

The Spanish fleet under Columbus on it's "west way" expedition

Columbus is commanding the flagship "Santa Maria". His style of command is with compromises:
-- he is never taking hard measures
-- he tries to limit and appease quarrels with good words ans with [faked] promises (Huby, p.53).

Stopover are the Canary Islands where food is taken (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

But not only this: Only three days after starting the ship "Pinta" is loosing it's rudder, and on the ship "Nina" is turning out that the lateen sail does not match. On the Thus on the Canary Islands also repairs of the ships are performed.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus)
Map with Canary Islands, today a part of Spain
Map with Canary Islands, today a part of Spain [6]

September 9, 1492
Columbus: start from the Canary Islands to the unknown area
Only on September 9 the ships are leaving the Canary Islands. There is a steady north east wind and the expedition is driving fast to the west with it.

The ship of Columbus


The ship of Columbus
The ship of Columbus [7]

The
                      ship of Columbus with visible Templar's cross
The ship of Columbus with visible Templar's cross [8]

Let's have a closer look to the ship of Columbus: This "flagship" [8] with it's name "Santa Maria" has got the cross of the Templar Order. Therefore there are some speculations if there was a connection between Columbus and the Templars

1474: world map of Toscanelli with a direct
                      connection between Europe and Japan (Cipango) vergrössern1474: world map of Toscanelli [9]

This was the map Columbus was orientating with during his expedition. He meant that he would land directly in Japan on an island called "Cipango".



Sep 6, 1492

Columbus' expedition to the "unknown" - the map turns out wrong - psychological crisis of the crew
Not the map of Toscanelli is turning out as a fake. No islands in the Atlantic can be seen. This provokes panic now:

->> Martin Alonso Pinzón, the captain of the ship "Pinta", and his brother, Vincente Yanez, the captain of the ship "Nina", are both imploring Columbus to go back

->> and every time Columbus is successful to convince these two captains Pinzón and Yanez another and another time for going on with the expedition (Huby, p.53)

->> Columbus is also juggling with the distances: At one hand he knows how far the expedition has driven already, and at the other hand he is appeasing his crew again and again with the maps indicating that the distances could not be so far (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus)

Rebellion of the crew with the argument that there would not be any way home
But the crew is losing it's hope with the argument that during the way home they had to sail against the constant north east winds. Additionally in the middle of the crossing of the Atlantic the compass needle is turning from the west to the north. This change is not normal and provokes even more fear yet with the idea that Earth would be a "disc".

[This idea that the Earth would be a disc was always preached by the stupid Church in those times and was deeply rooted in the popular belief. But secret societies knew that Earth was round...]

And there are more factors with a falling meteor and thick growing plants of "Sargasso Sea" [?]. On Oct 8/9 of 1492 the crew is rebelling another time and Columbus has to promise that this expedition with turn home when there is not found any land within three days.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus; Stand 1999)

Map with the
                    expeditions of Columbus (Colombo) Map with the expeditions of Columbus (Colombo) [10]

-- 1492 : Guanahani - San Salvador - Hispañola / La Spañola (La Española) - Jamaica - Cuba

-- 1493 : Antilles

-- 1498 : Trinidad Venezuela Orinoco River delta

-- 1502 : Mexico and Panama
Every time Columbus means that Cuba would be a peninsula of Japan or China...



Oct 11, 1492
Findings in the sea
On October 11, 1492, "Pinta" is fishing a piece of bamboo, a pole, a board and a flash with carvings out of the sea. On 10 pm Columbus is believing to see lights on the horizon (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus).

Oct 12, 1492
Columbus landing on the Bahamas Islands - the expedition means to be in Japan or in China

Rodrigo de Triana, the scout of the first ship of "Pinta", is shouting "Land, land!" ("tierra, tierra!")

->> Now Columbus is believing to be near Japan and China already and one could meet the Great Khan of Beijing soon - the ruler of the Tatar Empire - which was described in the books of Marco Polo

->> Columbus is believing that now the way to India would be free for Spain (Huby, p.53)

[not mentioned:
The crew - and above all Columbus - are hoping to make a big gold robbery or going home with golden presents and spice profits, and Columbus is hoping for 10% of the profits of the new colonies...]

Oct 13, 1492
Bahamas: Guanahani / San Salvador: The ships of Columbus are in dangerous coral areas but can find a way for landing on Guanahani Island (Huby, p.53).

Columbus is stepping on the land accompanied by officials and crew members and with the banner of Ferdinand and Isabella. The crew is pleading Columbus to forgive them because of the rebellions (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus).

The natives are Tainos, they are friendly, simple, peaceful, without weapons. Columbus is calling them "Indians" because he means to be in India.

Now there is some exchange trade: The crew is exchanging red caps and glass pearls with other objects which are rated precious by the Tainos. But the Tainos don't have what Columbus was hoping by the stories told by Marco Polo: They have no gold (Huby, p.54).

Columbus is calling the island "San Salvador" ("The Savior").
(http://home.tronet.de/gesamtschule/faecher/gl/entdeker/kolumbus/fahrt.htm).

[It seems that Columbus is never ready to accept the original native names of the islands in his maps. He is even beginning with the cultural Hispanicization].

Double-dealing of Columbus: slavery for the natives is preprogrammed
Columbus is ordering his crew to be "without violence and kind" to the natives.

But:
At the same time Columbus is announcing to the king Ferdinand of Spain that the"natives" would be easily to subdue and that they would be appointed for slavery because

"three of our men are sufficient to dominate thousands of them" (original German: "drei unserer Männer genügen, tausend von ihnen zu beherrschen"; Huby, p.54).

[With this statement Columbus is clearly going with the Nazi system of the Church which should be installed in the native territories. He is even meaning to be in Japan, and he is dreaming even to subdue Japan, China and India...]

Looking for Japan and China
Now Columbus wants to find Japan and the Chinese continent as it is drawn on the map of Toscanelli and as it should be awaited according to the theory about Earth until those times (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

since Oct 15, 1492 appr.
Bahamas Islands: Columbus giving names for the Islands
The ships of Columbus are cruising the "Bahamas" looking for Japan and China (Huby, p.54). They are passing and naming the new Islands:
--   "Santa Maria de la Concepción" (today Rum Cay),
-- "Fernandina" (today: Long Island), and
-- "Isabella" (today: Crooked Island).

Bahamas Islands, map Bahamas Islands, map [11]:

San Salvador / Guanahani is in the middle, Santa María de la Concepción / Rum Cay is just beneath, Fernandina / Long Island is just further to the left, Isabelle / Crooked Island is just further down to the right.

On Oct 28, 1492: Landing on Cuba
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).
Columbus means that he had reached Japan / Zipangu now. He is calling this land "West India" (Huby, p.15), respectively when Columbus detects that this is also only an Island then he is renaming it "Juana".
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus).

[The original native names are lost by the later following complete holocaust and extermination against the natives in the Caribbean].

Cuba: Columbus is sending an expedition group to the inner of the island. But instead of returning with gold or spices the group is coming back with tobacco (Huby, p.54). Gold and pearls as Marco Polo was describing Zipangu cannot be found by Columbus' expedition (Huby, p.43).

Dec 6, 1492
Columbus is reaching the neighboring island which he is calling "Hispañola", and he is reporting about a "paradise". Columbus is pretending to be deeply impressed and is writing in his log book:

Original in German:
"Hier gibt es Häfen an den Küsten und viele Flüsse, gut und breit. Die Inseln sind alle hoch und tragen ragende Berge. Diese, schmuck und schön, zeigen tausenderlei Gestalt, sind zugängig und voller Bäume, tausendartig und hoch, die den Himmel zu berühren scheinen. Sie blühen teils, teils tragen sie Frucht.

Die Nachtigall singt und tausend Vögel anderer Art. Der Palmen gibt es sechs bis acht Arten, wundersam zu sehen, wegen ihrer schönen Vielfalt. Die Menschen gehen alle nackend, Männlein und Fräulein. Sie haben nicht Eisen, noch Stahl, noch Waffen [...] Sie sind so arglos und frei mit ihrem Hab und Gut - man muss es gesehen haben, um es zu glauben." (Huby, S.54)


Translation:
"Here are ports on the coast lines and many rivers, well and large. The islands are all high and have high hills. These are beautiful and beauty showing thousands of beings, they are accessible and full of trees, 1,000s of kinds of them and high and it seems they would touch the sky. They are partly blooming, partly having fruits.

Nightingale is singing and other 1,000s of birds also. There are about six or eight kinds of palm trees here, wonderful to see because of their beautiful variety. Humans are all naked, men and women. They have no iron, no steel, no weapons [...] They are innocent and free with their goods - one has to have seen this for believing it." (Huby, p.54)

"Hispañola" is called by it's dwellers also "lucky island" (Huby, p.59).

[On "Hispañola" only some groups of natives have survived the extermination of the natives].


First idea for gold findings on "Hispañola" - and idea of slavery and Brazil wood

Until these days Columbus only could find little golden pieces. On "Hispañola" it's the first time when he is told about a gold mine in the inner of the island.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus)

Columbus is annotating in his log book the following text as a message to the Spanish Crown:

"The islands which I saw were really very beautiful, green with leaves and fertile... I can say you - the whole Christianity will be able to make business here. From here one could sent as many slaves like Brazil wood - in the name of holy trinity."
(original in German: "Die Inseln die ich sah waren überaus schön, grün belaubt und fruchtbar... Ich sage euch - die ganze Christenheit wird Geschäfte machen können. Von hier aus könnte man im Namen der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit ebenso viele Sklaven zum Versand bringen wie Brasilholz.")
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

But Columbus is failing the main purpose of the expedition. He cannot bring home "rich items of Asia" like gold and spices, but he is bringing back only friendly, naked natives and some golden jewelries from Haiti (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

[Columbus has to stress slavery because he cannot show any big gold treasury. Already the fact that any big robbed treasury is missing is endangering his life at the Spanish Crown and he could be punished for this without being guilty. Some sailors coming back without any robbed good were punished then by the European nobles, in some cases they were even beheaded...]

Dec 24, 1492
Trip back of the Columbus expedition: loss of the ship "Santa Maria" - foundation of the fort "Navidad" ("Christmas") with the wood of the ship

After the "Christmas" celebration the crew is sleeping during the trip back. A young sailor is on the rudder. Suddenly the light of the forward ship "Nina" is expiring, and the ship "Santa Maria" is driving without orientation. Then "Santa Maria", the biggest ship with 100 tons of volume content and with 52 crew members is landing on an inclined coral riff in the Caracol Bay of "Hispañola", but the landing is so softly that nobody is being aware of anything. The rudders are stronger than the little noise of the beach. Only when one rudder is wedging the rudder man is aware of it.

->> the ship of "Santa Maria" is lost
->> one part of the crew has to stay on Hispañola now

->> many want to stay on the island and are hoping that they would be the first when the gold trade with Japan / Zipangu and China will open [or when they find a gold treasury]

->> Columbus takes the decision to built a fort with the wood of the ship "Santa Maria" calling this fort "La Navidad" ["Christmas"].
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus.

Columbus
                    1492-1493: Layout (resp. the beginning of a map)
                    with the coast line of "La Spañola" /
                    "Hispañola" with the position of Fort
                    "La Navidad" / "Christmas" [12]
Columbus 1492-1493: Layout (resp. the beginning of a map) with the coast line of "La Spañola" / "Hispañola" with the position of Fort "La Navidad" / "Christmas" [12]; Columbus believed yet that this would be a peninsula of Japan or China.
Map of
                    Hispañola with La Navidad, Isabela, Concepción and
                    Santo Domingo Map of Hispañola with La Navidad, Isabela, Concepción and Santo Domingo [13]

Isabella is called in this way honoring the racist "Christian" queen of Spain. Santo Domingo means "Holy Sunday" and seems a strange name which is missing in Europe.


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2. Naming the "Antilles" according to "Antilia" - natives bringing syphilis to Europe - Taino natives destroying the fort "Navidad" - partition of the world by Pope Alexander VI on Mai 4, 1493 - calumny against the natives described as cannibals - name "Carib" - Columbus detecting the destroyed fort "Navidad"

Jan 16, 1493
Both little ships "Pinta" and "Nina" of the Columbus expedition are successfully coming home (Huby, p.54; Reinhard, vol.II, p.41). A stormy west wind is separating the two ships damaging them (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus).

Jan 18, 1493
Landing of the Columbus expedition on the Azores Islands
(Reinhard, vol. II., p.41).

Map with the position of the Azores Islands
Map with the position of the Azores Islands [14] between the Caribbean and Portugal, today the islands are Portuguese territory.


March 4, 1493

For repairs of the ships Columbus is landing with the "Nina" in Lisbon. "Pinta" is reaching the continent in northern Portugal in the Spanish town of Bayona.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus).

The Portuguese are reacting not so friendly to the arrival of Columbus in Lisbon but treating him as an enemy. King John II is receiving the expedition graciously but he is calling for possessing the newly found territories. Columbus cannot accept this (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

March 15, 1493
Reception of Columbus in Spain - syphilis - the "Great Admiral of India"
Accidentally both ships - "Nina" and "Pinta" are reaching Spain in Palos (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus).

Columbus is received in Spain as an admiral (Huby, S.55).

Columbus is making his tour passing Spain town by town where festivals are organized for him. And he brought six natives (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41). The imported natives are on the tour through Spain having contact with Spanish women infecting them by intercourse with syphilis which is unknown in Europe until these days (Reinhard, vol.II, p.64).

[As the immune system in Europe is not ready to fight the syphilis agent there are many heavy symptoms which the natives from "America" do not have. Now the epidemic is spreading from Spain over South of France and Italy over whole Europe].

Columbus gets a second order for a second "trip to India" (Huby, p.55).

Columbus is promoted and can call himself now "Great Admiral of India" now (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43; Huby, p.53).

England's frustration: Henry VII of England has to confess that he was not right to reject the the proposal of Columbus' brother searching for a "west way" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Spring 1493 appr.
Hispañola: The sailors staying on "Hispañola" are beginning to suppress and to rob the Taino natives. At the same time the Spanish of the fort of Navidad are organizing a life of luxury.

Taino natives are also organizing something and they even have the courage to attack the Spanish fort "Navidad" / "Christmas" and they are even killing all whites and destroying this fort (Huby, p.55) under the leadership of Caonabo (H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

or there is another version:

Because of fights of the Spanish settlers beneath themselves and because of conflicts with the natives the settlement of Navidad is destroyed in spring 1493 (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

Spring and summer of 1493
Spain is preparing a second big Columbus expedition now. Within 5 months 17 ships are built and equipped
+ there is a crew composed of over 1,200 men
+ cattle, plants, seeds and farmer's equipment is disposed for the trip (Huby, p.55).

With this Columbus gets
-- for the organization: the help of  Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca
-- for the financing matters: the help of Pinelli from Genoa (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

1493: World map of Laon (drawing by Ravenstein)

1493: World map of Laon (drawing by
                        Ravenstein)
vergrössernOn this world map of Laon of 1493 are existing Europe, Africa and Asia only [15]


May 5, 1493
"Partition" of the world by Pope Alexander VI
For arranging the "responsibilities" between Spain and Portugal the Pope is called for a solution now. By a "bull" the Pope is defining a general frontier line of the two Empires, the meridian of 39.5º. Spanish Crown is authorized to dominate the western half, the Portuguese Crown the eastern half, ruling with "Christian" [partly lethal] authority" for trips to "India" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.49).

Pope
                        Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
Detail from a fresco painting of Pinturicchio in the Vatican with Pope Alexander VI [16,17]



This Pope Alexander VI comes from Valencia and is fixing the "Spanish" and the "Portuguese" sphere. The quotation of the Papal bull:

German text:
"Kraft unserer apostolischen Gewalt und der Autorität des Allmächtigen Gottes, die uns über den heiligen Petrus zugekommen ist, sowie als Vikar Jesu Christi, schenken, gewähren und teilen wir zu Euch und Euren Erben und Nachfolgern, den Königen von Kastilien und Leon, auf immer alle entdeckten und zu entdeckenden Inseln und Länder in Richtung nach Westen und Süden, wobei eine Linie vom Nordpol zum Südpol zu ziehen ist, welche von den Azoren und Kapverdischen Inseln hundert Meilen nach Westen und Süden verläuft, so dass alle entdeckten Inseln und Länder jenseits der Linie [...]

Euch gehören, und wir setzen Euch, Eure Erben und Nachkommen als deren Herren mit voller, freier und allseitiger Gewalt, Autorität und Jurisdiktion ein [...]." (Reinhard II., S.43)


Translation:
"By our apostolic strength and authority of our almighty God which has fallen to us by Holy Petrus and as a vicar of Jesus Christ we give, permit and part for you and for your successors, the kings of Castile and Leon, for always all detected and in future detected islands and territories to the west and to the south, respecting a border line from the North Pole to the South Pole which is running 100 miles from the Azores and Cape Verde Islands thus all detected islands and territories at the other side of this line [...]

will be yours, and we are installing you and your successors as their lords with full, free and all kind of violence, authority and jurisdiction [...]." (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43)






+ there is the order for mission
+ there is the prohibition to all other dukes to intrude there [this means: persons of other belief like Muslims have a harsh prohibition for trips to "West India", but also Jews and converted Jews are pursued]

Further conditions:
-- the juridical form is an ordered feud
-- the Pope is referring to his "responsibility" for the health of the non-believers (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44).

->> this bull is a Spanish stroke against Portugal which has a similar treaty with the Pope for African territories already

->> John II of Portugal is protesting opening direct negotiations with Spain because of the sea route which is not so optimal for Portuguese ships along the currents (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44)

->> John II is always eager for testing if there in the northern part of "West India" could be some Portuguese territory yet (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

King John II of Portugal
King John II of Portugal [18]

Map with
                      the Papal line of 1493, meridian of 39.5º
Map with the Papal line of 1493, meridian of 39.5º [19]

The Portuguese king is protesting meaning that the partition of the world with the meridian of 39.5º would not be the optimum for him because the fleets would need more space for sailing exploiting well the winds and sea currents.



Summer 1493 appr.
Portugal: The competition to Spain is going on
King John II takes the resolution to continue with his own program of India despite of the discovery of "India" by Spain on a direct naval route (Reinhard, vol.I, p.50).

Columbus' hope for a copy of the Portuguese system of military bases
Columbus wants to copy the colonial system of Portugal with it's military bases for making big profits with the trade with the local population in "West India". Columbus' ideas are above all about gold, slaves and spices. Therefore it is like this: Also when he is writing "sympathetic" texts in his ship describing "innocence" of the natives he is not stopping his drive for profit (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

On Sep 25, 1493 Columbus is starting the second expedition to "West India", now with a route a little bit more south. Columbus means that the village of "Navidad" / "Christmas" can be found well and healthy and perhaps some gold can be found (Huby, p.55).

This second expedition is comprising 14 caravel ships, three nao ships, and 1,200 to 1,500 men, fully equipped for installing new settlements (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

Here is a Portuguese nao ship
Here is a Portuguese nao ship [20]

This is a big ship of about 1565 with the typical sails with huge crosses on it as it was also during any "crusade" before, and as it is "typical" for "Christian" colonialism: This is the Templar's Cross which is everywhere, and for every ship 100e trees have to be cut...

Somebody is asking why Spain has hardly any forest left but almost only desert is left in Spain?


On this second trip of Columbus are traveling also Juan Ponce de Leon, the latter governor of "Costa Rica" / "Rich Coast" (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Juan Ponce De Leon)

and Diego Velásquez, the latter governor of Cuba.
(Internet: Compton's Encyclopedia: Velásquez, Diego; Stand 1999)

Juan Ponce de Leon
Juan Ponce de Leon [21]
Diego Velasquez de Cuellar, later governor
                        of Cuba
Diego Velasquez de Cuellar, later governor of Cuba [22]

End of 1493
Columbus "detecting" 20 "Caribbean" islands
Among others this expedition is detecting "Maria-Galante", "Guadeloupe", and "Martinique". Only gold cannot be found by Columbus (Huby, p.65). The crew of Columbus is showing a "good discipline" now (Huby, p.55).

Naming: The "Antilles" get their name according to the legendary island "Antilia" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

[It seems that these colonialists have never the simple idea asking the natives for the original names of the islands. After the holocaust against the natives with the extermination these original names are lost for ever].

"Antilles" Islands with Martinique and
                  Guadeloupe
"Antilles" Islands with Martinique and Guadeloupe [23]

1493-1496
Hispañola: Caribs and Tainos
This second Columbus expedition is "detecting" several West Indian islands and is beginning with white settlements of Hispañola Island.
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

Calumny of cannibals of Columbus
Columbus is calling the natives of the Caribbean simply "Caribs" because these natives had allegedly been cannibals [Spanish: carne=meat]. In reality most of these rumors are calumnies. There are inventions of Barbaric cults justifying the "civilization" process. The "Caribs" were mostly hunters and sailors, and the Tainos were peaceful farmers.
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

[Thus Carib is "meat eater" and Caribbean is "meat eater's region", cannibal region. In this way the racist Nazi Christs with Columbus were thinking and writing. And all these calumnies and defamations will be confirmed later with documents].

Natives of Tainos on Puerto Rico (Rich Port)
Tainos on Puerto Rico,
                        women Tainos on Puerto Rico,
                        children Tainos on Puerto Rico,
                        family
Tainos on Puerto Rico on the margin of the society [24, 25, 26]




Puerto Rico, Taino chief
                        Cibanakan
Puerto Rico, Taino chief Cibanakan [27]
Taino in Guantánamo near the Toa River in
                        Cuba
Taino in Guantánamo near the Toa River in Cuba [28]
Taino on Puerto Rico, tribal chief Pedro
                      Guanikeyu Torres
Taino on Puerto Rico, tribal chief
Pedro Guanikeyu Torres [29]
And there is one more link about Tainos of today: http://www.taino-tribe.org/jatiboni-s.html


Hispañola: At the end of 1493 Columbus has to detect that the fort "Navidad" / "Christmas" is devastated and all whites are killed. Columbus has to look for another place of settlement (Huby, p.55).


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3. Columbus founding the town of "Isabella" - new partition of the world with the treaty of Tordesillas June 7, 1494 - flight of Tainos to Cuba

On Jan 2, 1494 Columbus is landing with his expedition on "Hispañola" where he is founding the first "Spanish town" on "native ground" where he is considering the position would be favorable. He is naming the town according to the racist "Christ" Spanish queen "Isabella".

Later is turning out that the location for "Isabella" is not favorable but Columbus is not changing the position any more keeping this unfavorable position (Huby, p.55).

In this uncomfortable climate of Hispañola (hot and humid) more than the half of the crew of this Columbus expedition is falling ill between January and March 1494 thus this time over the half of the expedition wants to go back home with Columbus (Huby, p.55).

[Not mentioned:
The sailors of Columbus are probably not accustomed to wash their clothes themselves, and in this hot and humid climate of the Caribbean there are more agents in the clothes than in Europe. The same problem will be with natives when they begin wearing clothes: There are much more illnesses with clothes because the clothes are not washed...]

June 7, 1494
Pope, Spain, Portugal: Treaty of Tordesillas
There is an "agreement" between the Spanish and the Portuguese side in the treaty of Tordesillas fixing the border line of responsibility on the meridian of 46.5º (Reinhard, vol.I, p.49).

Tordesillas, the bridge passing
                      the Duero River
Tordesillas, the bridge passing the Duero River [30]
Map with Tordesillas (Spain) with the
                          Duero River
Map with Tordesillas (Spain) with the Duero River [31]

->> now both sides recognize the bases of the Papal bull
->> the demarcation line is shifted from the meridian of 38.5 to 46.5 degrees
->> now all further conflicts because of the Portuguese East India fleet should be evaded and winds and currents in the southern Atlantic should be exploited and used in a good way driving enough to the west
->>at the end the "result" is a Portuguese Brazil" because a bigger end of South "America" is within the Portuguese territory within the meridian of 46.5º (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44).

Map with
                      the Tordesillas line at a meridian of 46.5º - June
                      7, 1494
Map with the Tordesillas line at a meridian of 46.5º - June 7, 1494 [32]

1494: To this partition of the world with the meridian of 46.5º also the Portuguese crown was agreeing...


Tordesillas memorial plate with "beautiful words" = Colonialism="community" [!]
The purpose of the treaty is described in absolutely "beautiful words" and the colonial slave economy and policy of robbery are described as "community". Quotation:

Text in German: Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494
"An diesem Ort unterschrieben am 7.Juni 1494 Diplomaten - Kastilier und Portugiesen - unterstützt von Kartographen beider Länder, ein Abkommen, das auf päpstlicher Erlaubnis basierend, die Welt in zwei Zonen teilt, die Ziel der Entdeckung und Evangelisation sein sollten. Aus diesem Abkommen entstanden die Länder, die heute die hispanisch-lusitanische Gemeinschaft in "Amerika", Asien und Afrika bilden."
(Internet: M.Payer: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen)


Translation:
"At this location on June 7, 1494, diplomats - of Castile and Portugal - are signing - with the support of map specialists of both countries, an agreement. The base for this agreement is the Papal permission to part the world into two zones with the aim of detection and christianization. With this agreement the countries are defined being called and forming the Hispanic Lusitanic community in "America, Asia, and Africa."

[->> this "community" was a slave system and a system for the destruction of mankind in favor of the white, Spanish "masters"
->> this treaty of Tordesillas is a juridical beginning of a 500 years long world war with the white race against all others
->> Spanish and Portuguese government and Vatican should correct their idea of history adapting this memorial plate mentioning the holocaust against the natives.
Did anybody mention any compensation? Are there any memorial festivities for the exterminated natives?]

since 1494
Spanish "colonial order" - provisional theoretical prohibition of slavery - natives taking flight to Cuba

For the Spanish countries the state is installing a colonial law dependent from Spain - against arbitrary action of the conquerers (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225). The Spanish Crown is prohibiting any enslavement of the population of West India (Reinhard, vol.II, p.59) [on the paper...]

1494-1496 appr.
Hispañola: During the following time the Taino natives are making war against the white occupants. The Kazikin of Taino Anacaona is murdered by the Spanish during peace negotiations. The successor Hatuey can achieve at the end of 1496 about to give way for a flight of the Taino over the Strait to Cuba (H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

[Little rests of the natives are surviving until today in the inner of the Dominican Republic / Sunday's Republic (TV reports)].


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4.
Gold findings on "Hispañola" - Columbus rated to be "lost" in Spain [!] - Columbus sending a slave ship to Spain - Columbus on Cuba and on Jamaica - robbery by the whites on Hispañola and counter attacks of the natives - punishing expedition under Columbus against the natives- first trip to India by Da Gama

Beginning of 1495
Hispañola: First findings of gold
Again Columbus is sending little expedition groups to the inner of the island, this time under the leadership of Alonso de Hojeda. The result is
->> findings of gold dust and gold nuggets
->> this gold is washed by hard labor in the rivers of today's Haiti.

Despite of this Columbus is writing now in an enthusiastic style to king Ferdinand that he would hope to be able

"to send as much gold as there is in the mines of Biscay." (Huby, p.55)

[Supplement:
When Columbus would come to Spain without a big prey then a punishment is threatening by the Spanish king, at least the degradation of his title "admiral"].

On Feb 2, 1495 a part of the Columbus expedition - 12 of 17 ships - are making the trip home. Columbus is staying in the "Caribbean". There is a freight for the king financing the costs for the expedition:
-- there is gold of a value of 30,000 ducats
-- there is cinnamon tasting like bad ginger
-- there is minor pepper
-- there are 60 parrots
-- there are 26 natives, three of them are said to be "cannibals" (Huby, p.56).

Already with this second expedition Columbus is dislocating "natives".
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

[Comparison:
During wars in Europe at the same time the dukes, kings and emperors are victimizing their farmers and warriors with 100.000s of them. But of those religious "Christian" ritual human murders nobody is speaking until today].

Spain: As in the middle of March 1495 appr. the Columbus expedition has not come home yet the Spanish king is declaring this expedition as "lost" and is opening "West India" for private "investors" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44).

[Supplement:
Here one can see also the dependency of the king by other noble families which has played a big role as it seems].

Now Columbus makes his own expeditions within the Caribbean with some more expeditions in the west of Hispañola. He hopes to see some of the big towns of India. But he has to notice that Hispañola is an island (Huby, p.56).

[Until this time Columbus considered "Hispañola" a peninsula of Japan called "Zipangu"...]

At the end of April 1495 Columbus is going on searching "detecting" the coast line of Cuba at Guantanamo Bay, and then he is heading along the whole southern coast line meaning that this would be one [more] Indian peninsula (Huby, p.56).

The
                            positions of "Hispañola" (today
                            Dominican Republic and Haiti), with Cuba and
                            Jamaica
The positions of "Hispañola" (today Dominican Republic and Haiti), with Cuba and Jamaica [33]

Map of Cuba, the province of Guantanamo
Map of Cuba, the province of Guantanamo [34]
Map of Guantanamo Province with Guantanamo
                      Bay (Spanish: Bahía de Guantanamo)
Map of Guantanamo Province with Guantanamo Bay (Spanish: Bahía de Guantanamo) [35]


May 1495 appr.
Spain: Columbus is sending a slave ship for the Spanish court
Columbus is sending a first ship with 400 rebellious natives from Hispañola to Spain thus the emperor should have his profit with them (Reinhard, vol. II,p.41).
(Columbus himself remains on Hispañola for further "science"). Columbus means that this slave ship would be a duty for him because there would be simply not enough profit for the Spanish king for this expedition.

During crossing the Atlantic on the way to Spain 50% of the native captives on this slave ship are dying.

After the arrival of this slave ship in Spain the captain Fonseca, assist of Columbus concerning financial matters and co organizer of this second expedition, is selling the natives "promoting" the Andalusian economy (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43).

[not mentioned:
-- Fonseca is purchasing himself a part of these slaves
-- the natives have the syphilis agent...]

Sending slaves by Columbus are not approved by the Spanish Crown and partly the natives are even sent back, but slavery as slavery is not condemned (Reinhard, vol.Ii, p.48).

From Cuba to Jamaica: On May 3, 1495, Columbus is calling the south cape of Cuba as "Cap de Cruz" ("Cape Cross"). Then he is separating from the island (which is Japan as he means...) and then he is detecting Jamaica on 5 May, 1494 calling the bay where he is landing "Santa Gloria" ("Saint Glory") "honoring this beautiful land" (Huby, p.56).

Today this bay is called Saint Ann's Bay (http://aerospace.wcc.hawaii.edu/shadows.html).

Map of
                      Cuba Map of Cuba [36]:

The position of Cabo Cruz / "Cape Cross" and the position of Jamaica south of Cuba
Map of
                      Jamaica
Map of Jamaica [37]:

The position of Saint Ann's Bay which was called "[bahía] Santa Gloria" / "Saint Glory Bay" first



During the whole summer Columbus is searching the "Caribbean" but he is only detecting islands and he is sailing around Jamaica (Huby, p.56).

Summer 1495
Hispañola: Chaos and mutual massacres
Gangs of soldiers and groups of not content white colonialist are striving the country spreading horror against the remnant natives there. The tribes are counter attacking and killing white people (Huby, 56).

On Sep 29, 1495 Columbus is returning to Hispañola and he is ill. And he is desperate because

oo he has no proof that Cuba is a peninsula of Japan
oo he has no proof for any civilization of China or Japan or for a proximate location near the Great Khan
oo he has hardly found any gold and had not found any pearl which could be awaited from "India"
oo and in the town of "Isabella" there is a chaos (Huby, p.56).

Instead of punishing his rebellious troops who have taken action against the natives the Great Admiral Columbus is performing one punishment expedition after the other now against the natives on "Hispañola" (Huby, p.56).

[Oct 25, 1495]
Portugal: death of king Johann II - and projected trips to India
Successor is Manuel I continuing also the Portuguese India program. The wisdom about the wind conditions to India is eventually extended on secret expeeditions (Reinhard, vol.I, p.49).

Portugal's king Manuel I is projecting regular trips to India under Vasco da Gama. Under the leadership of the discoverer of the "Cape of Good Hope" Bartholomeo Diaz [also: Bartolomeu Dias], new ships are built for Vasco da Gama (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Bartholomew Diaz).

Portugal: king Manuel I
big photoPortugal: king Manuel I [38]
Bartolomeo Diaz, profile
Bartolomeo Diaz, profile [39]

End of 1495
Columbus on his trip home - brother Bartholomé Columbus staying in "Isabella"
Some hundred Spaniards do not want to stay on "Hispañola" and are going back to Spain with Columbus (Huby, p.56).

[In Spain people mean that Columbus would be lost yet...]

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5.
Spain deciding for the territorial principle - English expedition under Cabot / Caboto - town of "Isabella" destroyed by natives - foundation of the town "Santo Domingo" / "Holy Sunday" - Columbus hiding in Spain in a convent - Spanish investigation commission for Hispañola


1496 appr.
Spain with new projects for a "way to West India"
There are several reasons for Spain for reinforcing the "West India project":
-- there is system and network of military bases yet
-- from the new territories no profit is flowing yet respectively there is no purchase of appreciated goods selling them with high profits in Europe as this was in the Middle East during the "crusades" and as this will be with the Portuguese ships reaching India
-- and as it seems Columbus does not come back.

The Spanish Crown is making detailed projects:
-- with settlements and colonies guaranteeing the rule and the maximum of profits
-- first the "detectors" have to measure the land precisely
-- and for this huge project money in the Crown is missing (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44).

Thus the expense for the Crown of 104,000 guilders for the station on Hispañola are not responsible considering "profits" of gold of only 30,000 ducat.

->> Thus now the Spanish colonization system is differing from the Portuguese model with it's trading posts and is switching on a private ruler's model over territories because the merchant good as a profit bringer is missing.

->> for more "penetration" and installing of mines the Spanish Crown does not want to give the needed money

->> the Crown of Castile is installing further inducements for private initiative and private capital under the leadership of the Crown

->> there are long term projects for a maximum of profit with the occupation of land as a mean for profit (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47)

->> the whole project is not such an economic one any more but is becoming more a political process now with the systematically projected submission of all native populations. In India for example such a submission of the populations is performed since 1800 only (Reinhard, vol.II, p.48).

England: Henry VII wants to support expeditions in the North West searching for a way to "India". He is granting a detector's patent to the Venetian Giovanni Caboto with traditional conditions and Caboto is called rapidly in an English way Cabot (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Giovanni Cabot / John Cabot Giovanni Cabot / John Cabot [40]: sailor for England heading for Newfoundland, today a part of Canada

Hispañola:
Also the second settlement which is founded by Columbus, "Isabella", is destroyed during fights between whites and natives (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

Hispañola: The brother of Christoph Columbus, Bartholomé Columbus, is founding the town "Santo Domingo" / "Holy Sunday" (Huby, p.56). This is the oldest, today yet existing town of Europeans in the "New World" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.41).

"Hispañola", today Dominican
                      Republic with the position of the town of
                      "Santo Domingo" / "Holy
                      Sunday"
"Hispañola", today Dominican Republic with the position of the town of "Santo Domingo" / "Holy Sunday" [41]


June 11, 1496
Spain: Arrival of Columbus in Cadiz - Columbus is hiding himself in a Minorite Franciscan convent - investigation commission
Two of seven ships are reaching Spain. Columbus is coming back with 250 whites and 30 natives. The ships are made principally only for 25 persons each


Columbus himself is aware of his mismanagement and is hiding himself in a convent of the Minorite Franciscans. But he has one more time energy for a third expedition (Huby, p.56).

The Spanish Crown is withdrawing the declaration that Columbus would be "lost" and the private initiative for colonization is stopped (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44).

Since June 11, 1496, Columbus is loosing the confidence of Ferdinand and Isabella
-- because the profits from "West India" are not coming
-- because Columbus is a patient personality and it seems that he is not inappropriate as a leading person.

He could not appease the Spanish settlers who were quarreling without leadership.

->> for a certain time there is no more expedition permitted (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43)
->> the never lasting stories how and from where in this new "West India" gold should be "brought" are not bettering his position (Reinhard, vol. II, p.48).

The royal court of Castile is following the rumors about mismanagement on "Hispañola" Island and is sending an own investigation's commission to Hispañola for investigating the rumors. Columbus does not know about this (Huby, p.56; Reinhard, vol.II, p.43).


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6.
Caboto / Cabot detecting North "America" for England - Aztec expansion and Aztec sun stone with sacrifice of human blood


1497
North "America": Italian Giovanni Caboto is landing on the North "American" continent (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225). Cabot is reaching Newfoundland and is detecting rich fishing grounds. Like Columbus also he means to be in China...

After his return a rumor is spreading that sailors from Bristol had reached Newfoundland even before him (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Map with the trip of Giovanni
                      Caboto / John Cabot
Map with the trip of Giovanni Caboto / John Cabot [42]
Giovanni Caboto, portrait
Giovanni Caboto, portrait [43]
Italian stamp
                        honoring Giovanni Caboto / John Cabot on an
                        Italian stamp
Italian stamp honoring Giovanni Caboto / John Cabot on an Italian stamp [44]

Spain:
Columbus is making propaganda for a third expedition to "West India", but now nobody wants to support him any more. The Spanish rich nobles (Grandes) are even trying to delay and to bloc a next trip of Columbus. In the meantime Columbus is suffering a joint inflammation (Huby, p.56).

At the same time Hernando Cortés is heading for Salamanca studying there. And at the same time Vasco da Gama should find the direct way to India for the Spanish Crown.
(Michael Waesch: Hernando Cortez: http://www.michael-waesch.de/cortez/cortez.htm)

Vasco da Gama / de Gama
Vasco da Gama / de Gama [45], sailor of Spanish colonialism searching the direct way to India


Mexico: Imperialism of Aztec in Chiapas and in Guatemala - sun stone and blood of hearts

(A.Baumann: mesoamerika/azteken-zeittafel.htm; new: http://www.indianer-welt.de)

Aztecs in Mexico believe they would be in the age of the "fifth sun". Sun had been formed in Teotihuacán when the god Nanahuatzin was falling into a fire and therefore had converted into the rising sun. As the sun was without movement in the sky the gods were sacrificing blood giving energy for the movement in the sky.

This "fifth sun" should be honored by a "sun stone" symbolizing the necessity of human sacrifices for the sun: thus the sun has enough energy for rising the next morning again.

In 1497 the sixth Aztec ruler - Axayácatl - lets manufacture this stone for installing it in the main temple.
(A.Baumann: mesoamerika/azteken-sonnenstein.htm; new: www.indianer-welt.de).

This basalt stone is 24 tons heavy and shows the sun god Tonatiuh where warmth is coming from, and according to the idea of the Aztecs he needs the most precious warmth which exists: blood of the heart of human beings from the living heart (Huby, p.109).

Aztec cults in Tenochtitlán
Model of the temple of
                      Tenochtitlán, capital of the Aztecs
Model of the temple of Tenochtitlán, capital of the Aztecs [46]
Sun stone
                        of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlán
Sun stone of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlán [47]
Sun god Tonatiuh of the Aztecs
Sun god Tonatiuh of the Aztecs [47]


Portugal-Africa-India: Start of the expedition under Vasco da Gama on Aug 3, 1497 heading for India. This trip is documented by Álvaro Velho and is lasting until 1497. With this the "Vasco da Gama Age" is beginning for Portugal, with four ships and 170 men (Reinhard, vol.I, p.50).

Map with the position of Mozambique
Map with the position of Mozambique [48]

On March 2, 1498 the coast of the today's Mozambique is reached and the coast line of Africa is "detected". There are Arab and Persian princedoms (mixed language is Kisuaheli with Arab and Bantu elements).

This African coast has become rich by the trade with India: African goods are gold and ivory, and Indian products are textiles and glass works (Reinhard, vol.I, p.51).


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7.
Second expedition of Cabot is not coming back - Portugal's slavery on Madeira - Da Gama reaching Calicut - Columbus on Trinidad and at the Orinoco River - detention of Columbus on "Hispañola" and the investigation commission - Hojeda robbing the map of Columbus - expeditions under Hojeda and Vespucci

1498
England: Cabot gets a second permission for another expedition for looking for the "way to the west". But this expedition does not come back again (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47)

At the same time Portugal is establishing a slave economy on Madeira on sugar plantations. In 1498 for example Madeira is delivering to Portugal 1,800 tons of sugar (120,000 arrobas). But parts of it are also flowing to Antwerp and to German traders of the Welser family (Reinhard, vol.I, p.46).

Portugal-India: On May 20, 1498, Vasco da Gama's fleet is reaching Calicut. In their "Christian" madness against Muslims the Portuguese consider the Hindus as Christians first holding prayers in the Hindu temples (Reinhard, vol.I, p.50). After a friendly reception by the local raja Samoré ("master of the sea") there are mutual defamations of Christian against Muslims respectively Arabs (being "thieves", "devils" etc., Reinhard, vol.I, p.51).

On May 30, 1498 the third expedition of Admiral Columbus is starting to "West India". Columbus can start with eight ships. His route is more to the south yet as before and after the two failing expedition he is hoping to find really a direct way to Japan or China yet (Huby, p.56).

Map with
                      the expeditions of Columbus (Colombo)
Map with the expeditions of Columbus (Colombo) [49]

-- 1492 : Guanahani - San Salvador - Hispañola / La Española (La Spañola) - Jamaica - Cuba

-- 1493 : Antilles

-- 1498 : Trinidad-Venezuela-Orinoco River delta

-- 1502 : Mexico and Panama
Columbus always means that Cuba would be a peninsula of Japan or China...

On July 31, 1498 this third expedition of Columbus is reaching the today's island of Trinidad, and then Columbus is touching the continent the first time. There is the conclusion that this must be a continent because Orinoco River delta is so wide (Huby, p.56).

Map with
                      the positions of Trinidad and Tobago with
                      Venezuela and the Orinoco River delta
Map with the positions of Trinidad and Tobago with Venezuela and the Orinoco River delta [50].

Orinoco River delta
This
                        delta is not free of the destructive
                        "civilization" any more Satellite photo of the Orinoco River
                          delta Canoing in the
                        Orinoco River delta...
vergrössernThis delta is not free of the destructive "civilization" any more [51]
vergrössern Satellite photo of the Orinoco River delta [52]
Canoing in the Orinoco River delta... [53]

And when you go there as a white then the mosquitoes will bite you as much so you will leave within 2 days...

Impression about the world of the natives of the Orinoco River delta (photos from April 2005)

Colonialists are partly not ready to learn from the natives who have the direct contact with nature yet. As the natives here are living in a territory with many obstacles where was nothing to be found for the "Christian" colonialists the natives here were spared from the "American" Holocaust partly.

Today the natives in Venezuela also have clothes, mainly by juridical reasons because otherwise they would be downgraded by the racist "Christian" whites not to be "humans"...

Natives of the Orinoco River delta
Orinoco River delta[54] Orinoco River delta, parrot[55] Orinoco River delta, people[56]
Orinoco River delta, houses, parrot, people
Orinoco River delta, native children at a
                      wooden house[57] Orinoco River delta, natives canoing[58]

Orinoco River delta, native children at a wooden house - natives canoing
Native people in a
                        settlement in the Orinoco River delta Native people in a
                        settlement in the Orinoco River delta Native people in a
                        settlement in the Orinoco River delta
Native people in a
                        settlement in the Orinoco River delta Native people in a
                        settlement in the Orinoco River delta
Native people in a settlement in the Orinoco River delta [59-63]
Girl in a village in the Orinoco delta
                          weaving with palm leaves
Girl in a village in the Orinoco delta weaving with palm leaves [64]



Ara parrots
Ara parrots [65]. These long feathers are like a currency .


Orinoco River, ara parrots
Orinoco River, ara parrots [66]


Orinoco, Venezuela : Indiowelt:
                              Papagei / loro / papagayo / parrot: Roter
                              Ara / red ara / ara rojo
Orinoco River, red ara [67]
Orinoco delta, river crocodile
Orinoco delta, river crocodile [68]


Orinoco delta, a young toucan
Orinoco delta, a young toucan [69]


Columbus
is yet believing now that he had found the Asian continent.
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com)

These natives have houses on stilts and the "detectors" let inspire themselves calling this region "Little Venice": "Venezuela".
(http://www.deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/venezuela.htm - April 2005)

Columbus means that this had to be at least "another" continent, an unknown part of South-East Asia. Columbus is keeping his idea that Cuba would be a Chinese [or Japanese] peninsula (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43).

Columbus is disappointed again when he has to note that the dwellers are neither blacks nor orientals but they are the same kind of beings like the "Caribs".

->> these natives are not trading any silk nor brocade
->> the native women have neck jewelry with seed grains and with real pearls (Huby, p.56).

In August 1498 Columbus is convinced of a new continent among others with the Biblical justification. Columbus is noting into his log book the following:

"I believe that this is a big new continent which was unknown until today. And also reason is deciding for this thesis because of the big river, and because it is also written in Esra in the fourth book chapter 6 that there are sic parts in the world with dry land and one with water." (Huby, p.56)
"Ich glaube, dass dies ein sehr grosser Kontinent ist, der bis heute unbekannt war. Und auch die Vernunft spricht sehr dafür wegen eines so grossen Flusses, und weil es doch von Esra in seinem 4.Buch, Kap. 6 also verheissen ist, dass sechs Teile der Welt trockenes Land sind und ein Teil Wasser." (Huby, S.56)

Columbus, who is worrying about his brother on "Hispañola" and who has provisions for "Hispañola" on board which are threating to rotten wants to keep more detections of this continent for another time. Now he is heading to the north and therefore on Aug 15, 1498 he is missing the almost endless pearl fishing grounds near "Margarita" Island only by some few miles (Huby, p.56).

On Aug 31, 1498 the third expedition of Columbus is reaching the new town of Santo Domingo / Holy Sunday which was found by his brother Bartholomé. The investigative commission of king Ferdinand (Huby, p.56) under F. Bobadilla (H.Mückler: Kolumbus, Christoph) lets detain Columbus at once and Columbus is in chains (Huby, p.56).

(Hermann Mückler: http://www.univie.ac.at/voelkerkunde/Asian-Pacific/columbus.htm; April 2005)

Statue of Columbus in Santo Domingo /
                          Holy Sunday in the Columbus Park
Statue of Columbus in Santo Domingo / Holy Sunday in the Columbus Park [70]


Christopher Columbus / Christophe
                          Colombe
Christopher Columbus / Christophe Colombe [71]

At the end of 1498 appr. Hojeda [Columbus is in chains in a prison] is robbing the fresh sea map of Columbus and is making own expeditions with Vespucci in the "Caribbean". Hojeda and Vespucci are bringing the wanted robbery goods to the Spanish Crown during the next years. During the same time Columbus has to stay trials (Huby, p.56).

Vespucci and Hojeda are driving [with the robbed map] to the northern coast of South "America" noticing the coast line. Also Vespucci is considering these "detected" territories as parts of Asia as Columbus did (Reinhard, vol.II, p.45).

Alonso de Ojeda
Alonso de Ojeda [72], sailor in South "America" in Portugal's colonialism
Amerigo
                        Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci [73], sailor in Portugal's colonialism

"Hispañola": Columbus

At the end of 1498 approximately Columbus has to stay a trial. Columbus cannot reject the reproach of lack of leadership. As a governor of a colony he is failing completely. His title as a "governor and supreme judge of the islands and territories of the Indies" is denied (Huby, p.57).


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8.
Resolution of deprivation of all native populations - pearls and gold in southern Caribbean - return of the first Indian fleet of Da Gama with heavy losses - expedition of Portugal up to Greenland


1499

Spain: The Crown is opening the new territories for Castile private initiative in general.

->> the Crown is appointing sailors for being dictators for life for the occupied territories (title "capitán general" / "capitán adelanto")

->> and there are precise rules for the procedure

->> and there are tax regulations:
-- 20% of the prey has to go to the Crown
-- when the Crown is sharing to the expedition then 50% of the prey has to be given to the Crown (Reinhard, vol. II, p.44).

[-- this is the juridical base to deprive all native populations in whole "America"
-- the Spanish sailor has no sociological study at all but they have the power in "America"
-- the possession of maps is a guarantee for power and richness.
Did anybody tell something about a compensation?]

From 1499 to 1506 Spain is undertaking 11 expeditions to "West India" with findings of pearls and gold in the southern Caribbean, under leadership of members of Columbus' first expeditions from sailor and merchant families from Andalusia and Italy from Sevilla.

In general these expeditions after Columbus are named by the "historians" as "Andalusian trips":

->> "the eastern and northern coast lines between Panama and northern Brazil are "searched" (Reinhard, vol.II,p.44)

->> the travel reports of the "little detectors" are sensational for the racist "Christian" noble families in Europe, above all when there are reports about new pearl and gold sources (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49).

In 1499 Peralonso Nino is detecting the endless pearl fishing grounds just behind Margarita Island [today next to Venezuela]. At the same time a rumor is spreading that Columbus had detected the pearl fishing grounds, but he had kept this as a secret for enrich himself later with it (Huby, p.56).

Portugal is not sleeping. The Portuguese are stating that the trade routes between Arabia and India are firmly established, The trade routes seem to be unchangeable:

-- India is delivering ginger, pepper and cinnamon to Arabia, and the Malacca Peninsula is delivering cloves (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52)
-- pepper comes from Sumatra
-- there is an Arab "pepper line" from Calicut to Aden and there is a trade route of the sultanate of Gujerat from Malacca to the Indus River with trade monopolies in the center of Cambaya and in the ports of Diu, Rander, and Surat.

But this structure of the Arab trade routs is uphold with family connections only. Monopolies or rights for trade posts are not known to the Arabs or Indians (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53).

India: Goa: At the end Vasco da Gama can conclude a trade with raja Samoré getting a load of spices and an offer to the king Manuel in Portugal for pepper, cinnamon, cloves, ginger and gem stones, as an offer for gold, silver, corals and scarlet fabric (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52).

Now the trip home is becoming another torture because Vasco da Gama was not instructed about the winds on the sea. Because of many lethal cases by scurvy without wind one of the ships is burnt (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52).

The fleet is reaching the Azores where Da Gama is burying his brother Paulo.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Vasco da Gama).

In summer 1499 the fleet can reach Portugal (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52). For his "performance" the king of Portugal is giving him
-- the title "Don"
-- a generous pension
-- and the permission to go on with the trade with India [with enormous profits].

[Addition:
May be the lacking information about the wind conditions which caused the death of the brother of Da Gama is provoking a drive for revenge against the raja Samoré].

Portugal-Greenland: In 1499 Portugal is also performing an expedition to the north up to Greenland under the leadership of Juão Fernandes, a Portuguese farmer (Portuguese: "Lavrador"). Perhaps there is a direct way to "West India" in the north... The goal is the occupation of "West India", which is at the eastern side of the Tordesillas line.

João Fernandes is reaching Greenland and is calling it "Farmer's Land" ("tierra del Lavrador").

Later [when?] this name of "Lavrador" of Greenland is given to the island which is today's "Labrador" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

[According to the partition of the meridians Greenland should be parted between Spain and Portugal. But the cold was hindering them to do this as it seems...]

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9.
New ruler's title of Manuel I defined for the world war against Islam - second Indian fleet under Pedro Alvares Cabral touching the Brazilian coast line - death of Bartholomeo Diaz during a storm - reaching Calicut - massacre against Muslims - gold from Guinea for Portugal - theoretic prohibition of slavery of the Spanish Crown - Inka Empire - the Columbus brothers are in chains

1500

Portugal: King Manuel I is
creating himself a new title: "King of Portugal and Algarve, ruler of Guinea and of the detections, of shipping and of trade with Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India". The aim against Muslim Arab trade route is defined with this (Reinhard, vol.I, p.52).

[With this Manuel I is supporting a new epoch of world war against Islam without considering the life conditions in Muslim ruled territories. It seems very strange that "Western" media are only speaking about "Arab extremists" but never about "Christian extremists"!]

In 1500 the "second India fleet" of Portugal under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral is starting with 13 ships and 1,200 to 1,500 crew members to India (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53). Within this group is also the detector of the Cape of Good Hope, Bartholomeo Diaz. (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Bartholomeo Diaz).


Pedro Álvares Cabral, sailor in
                              Spanish colonialism
Pedro Álvares Cabral, sailor in Spanish colonialism [74]

Cabral
                          on a Portuguese stamp
Cabral on a Portuguese stamp [75]
Bartolomeu Dias / Bartolomeo Diaz, sailor
                          in Portuguese colonialism
Bartolomeu Dias / Bartolomeo Diaz, sailor in Portuguese colonialism [76]

The fleet of Cabral: Brazil
Now is happening the following: Because of a navigation fault this fleet is detecting the today's Brazil on April 22, 1500 (or Aug 22, 1500? Reinhard, vol.II, p.44). This land is becoming a new stopover and the land is called "Land of the true cross" (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53), in Portuguese "Ilha da Vera Cruz" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44). Then the expedition is confronted with heavy storms and four ships are sinking. Diaz is within the group of the deads (Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Bartholomeo Diaz). On Sep 13, 1500 the expedition is reaching Calicut (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53).

Here is a depiction of Portuguese trips to India on a stamp of Mozambique when Mozambique was a Portuguese colony before.

The
                            depiction of the Portuguese trips to India
                            on a stamp of Mozambique when Mozambique was
                            a Portuguese colony yet
The depiction of the Portuguese trips to India on a stamp of Mozambique when Mozambique was a Portuguese colony yet [77].

->> now King Manuel of Portugal is claiming the newly detected land because it is part of his sphere of influence (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44)
->> and king Manuel is beginning to send own expeditions to South "America" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.45).

September-December 1500
"Christians" provoking a massacre in Calicut against the raja Samoré and the Muslims
Raja Samoré is permitting the Portuguese the installation of a trading post. But Cabral is claiming getting privileges against the Arab competition what raja Samoré is not permitting (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53).

[not mentioned:
-- Cabral is representing the new title of king Manuel I
-- perhaps Cabral has the desire of a revenge against this raja because he was not informed about the wind conditions during the last time before].

Now Cabral is performing violence capturing a full starting Arab ship. Now the mistrustful Muslims are conquering the Portuguese trading post killing 50 Portuguese, within the victims also the leader of the trading post. Now Cabral is capturing 9 or 10 more Muslim ships in the port and lets massacre 500 to 600 Muslims (Reinhard, vol.I, p.53). The ships are plundered and burnt. The last action of Cabral in Calicut is the shooting with his ship's artillery and leaving the town with his ships (Reinhard, vol.I, p.54).

[This violence was not depicted on any stamp for sure...]

Gold for Portugal from Guinea: Between 1500 and 1520 Portuguese "colony" of Guinea in Africa is delivering at least 700 kg gold to Portugal (Reinhard, vol.I, p.45).

[With this Spain is getting under real pressure].

Portugal, North "America":

Search for land in the north - no return
An expedition under Gaspar Corte Real, member of the famous family of the Azores, is drowning near Newfoundland (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).



Statue of Gaspar Corte de Real on
                                Newfoundland


Statue of Gaspar Corte de Real on
                              Newfoundland
The
                            position of Newfoundland in connection with
                            Europe
Statue of Gaspar Corte de Real on Newfoundland [78,79]
The position of Newfoundland in connection with Europe [80]

In the same year of 1500 Spain is deciding a definite juridical prohibition of arbitrary slavery [which is only for Spain itself?], because the kings need subjects for governing the new countries. But prisoners of a "justified war" [!] should be enslaved as before according to European war law (Reinhard, vol.II, p.59).

Spain: "Hispañola": emigration of Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
He is beginning to install a farm on "Hispañola". But the project is not successful ending with indebtment.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Vasco Nuñez de Balboa)

Peru: In 1500 the Inka Empire is reaching it's widest extension. It is comprising about one million km2 - from today's Ecuador and Columbia over Perú and Bolivia down to Chile and Argentina.
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

Map
                            with the Inka Empire (in Quechua language:
                            Tahuantinsuyo) and the four parts
Map with the Inka Empire (in Quechua language: Tahuantinsuyo) and the four parts [81]

from: Quintanilla de Nogales, Graciela ; Espada de Rosquellas, Rosa ; Montesinos Rollano, Germán: Nueva Geografía de Bolivia 1999. -- 8. ed. -- La Paz : Multimac, 1999. -- Depósito Legal No. 4-1-280-90. -- S. 41


There is a vast image circle about Inka culture of Huaman Poma Curi Occlo - a successor of Inca nobles - in 1130 he was depicting the life in the Inca Empire in pictures. This comprehensive circle was lost during a long time and was refound in 1908 by the searcher Richard Pietschmann - in the library of Copenhague - which seems to be very strange.
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

Spain: In October 1500 the royal investigator on Hispañola, Mr. F. Bobadilla, lets bring the Columbus brothers Christoph and Bartolomé to Spain.
(Internet: H.Mückler: Kolumbus, Christoph).

Columbus, the "conqueror of the Atlantic", is coming back to Spain in chains (Huby, p.57).

Columbus in chains in a ship (and also
                            his brother was in chains...)
Columbus in chains in a ship (and also his brother was in chains...) [82]


Back in Spain Columbus gets a partly rehabilitation and is getting the position and the salary of an Admiral again. But
-- the rights of a viceroy are not given any more
-- and the administration of the occupied territories is executed now by "experts of the Crown" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43).

Portugal tries again to search a way to India in the North. There is starting an expedition under Miguel Corte Real, the brother of Gaspar Corte Real who never came back. And also Miguel Corte Real's expedition is not coming back (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Miguel Corte Real, sailor
                    in Portugal's colonialism
Miguel Corte Real, sailor in Portugal's colonialism [83]


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10.
Expedition of Coelho and Vespucci to South "America" - holocaust on "Hispañola" under Ovando introducing the "Ecomienda" system ("protectorate") - order of Spanish Crown for forced labor for natives - destruction of the culture of the natives - Portuguese English fishing before Newfoundland


1501
In 1501 and 1502 Portugal is performing competitive expeditions against the Spanish in South "America" because one little part of Brazil is allowed of being occupied by Portuguese troops.

Under the leadership of Gonçalo Coelho a first Portuguese expedition is sent to "Portuguese West India". One of the expedition members is also Mr. Amerigo Vespucci, the "trading post director" of the Medici family in Sevilla. This expedition is mapping the eastern coast line of South "America".

Amerigo Vespucci, sailor of Portugal's
                  colonialism in South "America"
Amerigo Vespucci, sailor of Portugal's colonialism in South "America" [84]

Vespucci is contested. For one group he is a forger and liar, but his followers of the Medici family he is a significant detector, among others also for his school mate Gonfaloniere Soderini to whom 6 letters were sent by Vespucci - rumors say (Reinhard, vol. II, p.45).

The beginning of the systematic destruction of native life

Spain-"Hispañola": In 1501 Nicolás de Ovandoneuer is appointed to be a "Governor and highest judge of the islands and continental territories of India". With his gorgeous fleet this new "Master of India" is starting his "work", and with him the "American Holocaust" is beginning on "Hispañola" in a big style, in the today's Dominican Republic and Haiti (Huby, p.57).

Nicolas / Nicolás de Ovando, colonialist
                          for Spain
Nicolas / Nicolás de Ovando, colonialist for Spain [85]

Under his leadership the holocaust against the natives began...

Spanish crown is ordering to the natives forced labor in gold mines with arbitrary wages,

"because for collecting gold and for other works which we are ordering to perform it will be necessary to serve oneself of the services of the Indians so you should force them to work in our service system and to everybody has to be paid the salary which seems appropriate to you." (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60)
(in German: "denn um Gold zu sammeln und die anderen Arbeiten zu tun, die wir durchzuführen anordnen, wird es nötig sein, sich der Dienste der Indianer zu bedienen, weshalb ihr sie zur Arbeit in unserem Dienst zwingen sollt, wobei jedem der Lohn zu bezahlen ist, der euch angemessen erscheint." (Reinhard II., S.60).
The Spaniards were now destroying the native's life systematically with forced labor. The local population was not accustomed to "regulated" farming with fields and cattle with a plan. they did not know neither the wheel nor the clock. For the Spaniards this is not understandable and they are interpreting this behavior as "laziness" thus they mean that a forced labor for natives would be the only solution (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60).

Ovando is leading on "Hispañola" and is beginning the destruction of the natives so, he is beginning the "American Holocaust". To the population of "Hispañola" Ovando is stating that Spain would not use the territories for the own use because all this would only be a "help" for "relieving their situation" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.48).

The truth is just the contrary: The successors of Columbus on "Hispañola" are just installing a horror of rulership and they are beginning to exterminate the local tribes of the Dominican Republic / Haiti by forced labor (Huby, p.59).

Spanish white rulers on "Hispañola" were installing the "Encomienda system" ["protectorate"], a rule of concentration camps against the natives, a feudal suppression system:

-- a Spaniard gets a part of the robbed land as a feud

-- a certain number of natives is "added" and these natives are under a forced labor duty or tax duty
-- and there is a forced instruction of the "true belief" - with catholicism

-- for the slightest reasons there is punishment like hanging - burning - cutting noses - being attacked and being torn by dogs.

(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com)

[These conditions are obviously similar to the "American", English, Russian, and German concentration camps. Every Spanish overlord could have his own private concentration camp. Only historiography has not come with the definition of concentration camp for these dreadful conditions of enslavement and destruction of identity until today (2014)].

Portugal-England: In 1501 both countries are concluding a common agreement over the "detections" in the North Atlantic area. By their activities a Portuguese mapping activity is developing in the North Atlantic. Additionally an international fishing activity is developing near Newfoundland, lasting until 1510 (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).


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11.
Fourth Columbus expedition - beginning construction of military forts in Santo Domingo - Ovando's robbing fleet is destroyed by a storm - no direct way to China and India - Aztec expansion and Aztec prophecy for the return of a priest king Quetzalquatl

1502
Portugal-India: In February of 1502 a second trip to India is starting under Da Gama.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Vasco da Gama).

Spain: At the same time Columbus is insisting at the Spanish Crown for one more permission for a new trip to "West India" auditioning several times at the king (Huby, p.57).

In March 1502 appr. the fourth and last trip of Columbus to "West India" can start (Huby, p.57). .

Now Columbus wants to find definitely the passage to India [and he is always thinking yet that Cuba would be a peninsula of China].

->> As a prevention king Ferdinand is giving Columbus a letter for Vasco da Gama for the case that Columbus should meet Da Gama (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43).

Hispañola: Following the order of Fray Nicolás de Ovando the construction of military forts is beginning in Santo Domingo in 1502 at Ozama River. The fort is called according to the river "Fort Ozama" (Spanish: "Fortaleza Ozama"). This fort is made of ocher coral stone from the sea, and the leader of the construction work is major Gomez Garcia Varela.

See here the details about this fort: http://www.suncaribbean.net/rd_laCapital_ZC_mapaMurallas_09fortOzama.htm (April 2005).

It can be admitted that since this time the natives were obliged for heavy stone work and stone transports being killed in masses. The web site is not mentioning who really was building the fort...

In April 1502 the expedition under Columbus is reaching the island of Hispañola at Santo Domingo. A fleet of Ovando is ready to start full of robbed goods and gold. At the same time Ovando is rejecting the permission to use the port. Now Columbus is warning Ovando from a storm which will reach Hispañola soon, but Ovando is not taking this warning earnest (Huby, p.57).

Ovando's fleet is starting and is just sailing into the storm. 19 ships are sinking by this cyclon, the crews are drowning and killed, three ships are crashing at the coast line. The ships of Columbus remain without damage (Huby, p.57).

Now in summer 1502 Columbus lets go his expedition far to the West controlling the Mexican coast line. He detects the coast lines of the today's states of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. He is sending little expeditions without end to the inner of the land for detecting a passage to India and gold, but he has no success (Huby, p.57).

In autumn 1502 the expedition of Columbus is confronted with the rainy season. Columbus is heading from the coast line of today's Columbia to Hispañola rapidly. But now the rain is working together with wood worms. The holes in the ships are always bigger. The ships "Capitana" and "Santiago" are sinking before the arrival in Jamaica already. With only one ship his expedition is reaching Jamaica and there Columbus has to wait 17 months for a salvation (Huby, p.57). The crew is suffering hunger and illness. There is a rebellion coming up (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43).

Map with the fourth expedition of
                          Columbus in 1502 in Central
                          "America"
Map with the fourth expedition of Columbus in 1502 in Central "America" [86]



In 1502 Pizarro is emigrating to Hispañola, with the governor of the colony [Ovando].
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Francisco Pizarro).

1502-1504: World map of Caveri
1502-1504: World map of Caveri
vergrössernWorld map of Caveri [Canerio] 1502-04 with the eastern coast line of "America", without western coast lines [87]

1502-1520
Mexico: Aztecs: Government of Moctezuma II and conquests
(A.Baumann: mesoamerika/azteken-zeittafel.htm; today: www.indianer-welt.de)

Montezuma II is "expanding" his empire (until his fall is coming in 1520) (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.223).

The Aztecs believe to a prophecy of astrologists and fortune tellers: They are awaiting a priest king "Quetzalcoatl" who was expelled in former times. According to the sun timetable this priest king Quetzalcoatl will come from the east. Moctezuma II will resign then because the gods "want" it like this, the wise of the Aztecs mean... (Huby, p.95)
Map with
                        the expansion of the Aztec Empire with the basic
                        territories and the expansions since the
                        government of Itzcoatl
Map with the expansion of the Aztec Empire with the basic territories and the expansions since the government of Itzcoatl [88]



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12.
Welser family - all colonial profit is lost with European wars and banks - foundation of the West India Office in Sevilla - Da Gama's fleet is making high profits - Vespucci in Patagonia - calumny of Vespucci that all natives would be cannibals and all native women would be addicted to sex - Spain's system of concentration camps: orders for forced relocations of natives in "villages" and "forced civilization" - system of "repartimientos" ["partitions"] and "encomienda" ["protectorate"] in "West India" - hunger and illnesses


1503
Germany-Spain: There are negotiations between German bank house "Welser" of Augsburg with the Spanish king for a share with the exploitation of "America".
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

Wars in Europe: In fact there are arriving huge fortunes to Europe from robbed "America", but Spain and Portugal cannot enjoy these treasuries because the big part is flowing into the war departments and into the hands of other European powers and banks.
(H.Jestrabek: http://ourworld.compuserve.com).

Spain: A first "West India Office" is founded in Sevilla, a control board for "West India" with the name "Casa de la Contratación de las Indias de Sevilla" ["Indian Sevilla Trade Center"] (Reinhard, vol.II, p.44).

[This "trade" has got it's base on the "American Holocaust" against the natives with extermination of millions by hunger, slavery and mass robbery. Did anybody say anything about compensation?]

Spain-"Hispañola": Cortés is emigrating. He is about 18 years old, a soldier, a farmer, and he is working in the Spanish military head quarters.
(R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Hernando Cortez)

Portugal: Da Gama's fleet is coming back from India making high profits with the first tax payments from India in form of gold. Da Gama receives one more time money and honors from the Portuguese king. Da Gama becomes a royal assist.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Vasco da Gama).

1503-1504: Vespucci's expedition
Portugal
is organizing an expedition under Vespucci. The Spanish Mr. Vespucci has accepted an "invitation" from the Portuguese kings and is working for the Portuguese Crown now. Vespucci's expedition is heading for South "America" and according to his own indications he is reaching the land which is called "Patagonia" later (Reinhard, vol.II, p.45).

Vespucci's calumnies: "Wilds" would be cannibals
Vespucci does not know what is honor. He is downgrading the natives without limits. In letters he is describing the natives of "Portuguese West India" as "wilds":
-- they would have no law
-- they would have no belief
-- they would have no property
-- they would be without drive for power, inheritance or property
-- but they would be full of drive for revenge and greed for human flesh (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).

["Christian" victims for the army of the "nobles" and for "Christian" goals is rated in the western media as a honorful event until today and is not rated as mass murder for which the nobles are responsible! - "American" Natives never committed such a mass murder with armies!]

since 1503
Vespucci: Atlas "Mundus Novus": systematic calumnies against the natives
After his return this Mr. Vespucci is not only writing letters with calumnies, but he is even printing an atlas "Mundus Novus" with reports to the Italian nobles, the Medici family, about his Brazil trip.

->> Vespucci claims that the native women would all be lascivious and would be ready for promiscuity without limits (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46)

->> and this faked propaganda work is printed with 40 editions in only few years in six different languages (Reinhard, vol.II, p.45).

[Now this is one of the proofs how the criminal "Christians" are downgrading any other culture in their madness of alcohol and dominance not seeing anything of it].

Vespucci: Mundus Novus
Vespucci: Mundus Novus : cover with a
                              king in a knight's armor. German
                              translation of 1505
bigger photo
                          possible Vespucci: Mundus Novus: cover with a king in a knight's armor. German translation of 1505 [89]
This is a propaganda illustration of
                          Mundus Novus by the "Christian"
                          racist Amerigo Vespucci
This is a propaganda illustration of Mundus Novus by the "Christian" racist Amerigo Vespucci [90]: See the manipulations: The natives are very big and the white Europeans are depicted as little persons like Lilliputians. In this way the natives are always blamed being a danger and in this way fear and enemy stereotypes are spread.

This racist "Mundus Novus" can be seen in the Internet under the same name with the word "Vespucci" in different versions, e.g. in German in a home work by Ruben Schönenberger on http://www.hausarbeiten.de/faecher/hausarbeit/lat/19910.html (April 2005).


Bartholomé Columbus / Alessandro Zorzi,
                          abstract for a map of "West India"
                          1503-1522
Bartholomé Columbus / Alessandro Zorzi, abstract for a map of "West India" 1503-1522 [91]

Spain: Since 1503 the Spanish Crown is ordering the natives getting a "forced civilization" in "villages".

"installing villages where the natives are living together how the persons do in our kingdoms [...] that they will put clothes and will handle life as reasonable human beings." (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60)
(German text: "dass Dörfer angelegt werden, in denen die Indianer zusammenleben, so wie es die Personen tun, die in unseren hiesigen Reichen leben [...] dass sie sich kleiden und wie vernünftige Menschen umhergehen." (Reinhard II., S.60).
Now the "Spanish masters" are obliged

-- to treat the natives as "free workers"
-- to "lodge" the natives
-- to "clothe" the natives
-- to "give food" to the natives
-- to "give wages" to the natives
-- to instruct the natives with "Christian religion" during their free time.

->> this is the system of "repartimientos" ["partitions"], the forced relocations with "the partition of the natives" giving them to "trustful persons" who are appointed by the "officials of the Crown" and who have to assist a certain number of natives considering the number of the natives being assisted has to be determined by the chiefs themselves

->> this is the "Europeanization", this is the destruction of native culture on their own land

->> these forced relocations and registrations in "villages" are also a mean for tax control of the exploiting state of Spain (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60).

Spanish concentration camps against the natives

This practice of "repartimientos" ["partitions"] and "encominenda" ["protectorate"] is including
-- forced labor without limits
-- recruitment of women's work and children's work by force
-- separation of families
-- brutal terrorism when there is resistance of flight
-- often is not even given the minimum of food for them.

->> this system is partly worse than slavery (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60)

->> forced labor is also eliminating fertility (Reinhard, vol.II, p.64) [when women are starving so much thus their reproduction apparatus is failing, no period is coming any more etc.]

-- because the working force is not considered as a good which has to be fostered
-- because the working force is "used" for getting a maximum of profits without considering anything
-- because the working force is replaceable in a certain way when somebody is dying (Reinhard, vol.II, p.60).

[Until today the media of the "Western World" did not really think about this American Holocaust committed against the natives by the Spaniards during 200 years... Is there a memorial day in Spain for this mass murder committed against the natives?]

The destruction of the native cultures - the destruction of the ecological balance in Central and South "America" - mass death provoked by the white man with new illnesses

oo native cultivation on poles is "abrogated"
oo agriculture with plow and meadow is introduced and is provoking a logic erosion of the soil on slopes

oo this white man is also introducing new illnesses which were unknown to the locals until today with infections by bacteria and viruses

oo "domestic animals" are additionally infecting thus there is a new rule: Where the number of domestic animals is rising the number of natives is falling

oo dispersed habitats of the natives are forbidden and the newly installed "villages" are reinforcing the infections becoming real infection centers for illnesses

+ most of the natives have a blood group which cannot form antibodies against pestilence and small pocks.

This means

->> already a cold and influenza can have catastrophic consequences for the locals
->> Mestizen with mixed new blood groups have more resistance

->> in tribes only having peaceful friendly contact with the Europeans there are also many lethal cases after the white have left - without any effect of any force (Reinhard, vol.II, p.64).

[This means: The narrow conditions by forced relocations into villages and the forced labor did favor the mass death of the natives decisively].

[Comparison of the "American Holocaust" with the NS Holocaust
One has really to imagine that this "American Holocaust" was performed just with the same methods of NS Holocaust against the Jews. Both times also Vatican was essentially involved (Hitler is not excommunicated until today...). The comparison is cited here one more time:

Table: comparison of "American" Holocaust with NS Holocaust
"American" Holocaust against the natives 1500-1850 NS Holocaust against the Jewish population and members of left parties and gypsies 1933-1945
Situation of war and competition between Spain and Portugal
War situation with Russia
Organization of a 500 years long world war by the Vatican
Recognition of the NS state by the Pope with a concordat
Forced relocations into narrow conditions, high rate of infection
Deportations into narrow conditions, high rate of infection
forced clothes forced clothes
forced work in stone pits, gold panning, gold mines, silver mines etc.
forced work in production plants, stone pits, work with stones, dig ditches for tanks, at the end tunnel constructioning
heaviest confinement for resistance heaviest confinement for resistance
hardly any food
often hardly any food, theft by neighboring captives
hunger and illness up to the mass death
hunger and illness up to epidemics up to mass death
slave huntings e.g. whole islands and coast lines are "native free" (word creation by Michael Palomino)
head money for Jews in eastern Europe 1941-1944, definition of whole regions as "free of Jews"
the occupants are heading for their career the occupants are heading for their career
Order to erect a "Christian" world domination against all natives religions
Order to erect a Nazi world dominance against communis
Calumniation and calumny against the natives stating they would be "cannibals" and "subhumans"
Calumniation and calumny against Jews, left party members and gypsies as "rats", against Russians as "subhumans"
The Spanish Crown was never having a close look at the events.
Hitler was never having a close look at the events.

Did the natives receive any compensation from Spain or from Vatican?

Did the white Spanish power groups in Central and South "America" pay a compensation for the natives?

Who is responsible for the school books?

It's the task of the media and education boards of the world to disguise this white Spanish racism in Central and South "America" at least breaking this Spanish racist taboo changing the situation which is in favor to the natives who are living now yet.


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13.
Columbus coming back to Spain seriously ill - denial of all titles

Spain, "West India": In spring 1504 Hernan Cortés is emigrating to "Hispañola".
(Internet: Encarta Online Concise: article: Cortés, Hernán; estate 1999)

In April 1504 Columbus and his crew are saved in Jamaica and are brought to "Hispañola" (Huby, p.57).

or:
In June 1504 Columbus is saved. He did send natives in canoes to "Hispañola" for getting help. Saving ships can bring the crew and Columbus to "Hispañola".
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus).

The last action is performed from Sep 12, 1504, on: Columbus is taken as a passenger to Spain. Columbus is seriously ill and this ship is especially prepared for him for his trip home. He is reaching the shipowner company of Sanlúcar on Nov 7, 1504 (Huby, p.57).

The position
                          of Sanlúcar at the Spanish coast line next to
                          Cadiz
The position of Sanlúcar at the Spanish coast line next to Cadiz [92]


At the end of 1504 Columbus is only received in a friendly way by king Ferdinand because queen Isabella is going to die. Columbus is guaranteed a supply. But he is loosing all titles and wages (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43).

Columbus' expeditions are presented in Spain as useless actions (Huby, p.57). But Columbus does not want to resign to his demands (Reinhard, vol.II, p.43) and he is inventing new reasons presenting himself as a better man before the king:

-- natives in "Western India" would be more simple to mission than Hindus and Muslims and Buddhists
-- friendliness and openness of the native could be used for forming "just well usable slaves" of them.

But this propaganda of Columbus is failing because now other sailors are taking the lead for more "detections" (Huby, p.57).

At the same time Columbus is not remaining a poor man despite of all denial of all titles. He is going on having parts of the gold mine on Hispañola [where natives have to die for whole Spain... Holocaust brings profit!]
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus).


More information about the Holocaust in the Dominican Republic-Haiti:

-- http://www.kartoffel-geschichte.de/Erste_Furche/Ei_des_Columbus/ei_des_columbus.html (2009)


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Sources

Reinhard, Wolfgang: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion.
- Bd.I: Die Alte Welt bis 1818. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Köln/Mainz 1983
- Bd.II: Die Neue Welt. Verlag W.Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln, Mainz. Verlagsort: Stuttgart, 1985
 
Huby, Felix. Traumreisen; Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker. Deutscher Bücherbund GmbH, Stuttgart, Hamburg, München, 1980

about Columbus: Internet: H.Mückler: Kolumbus, Christoph:
http://www.univie.ac.at/Voelkerkunde/apsis/oceania/columbus.htm

about Philippines: Internet: Payer, Margarete: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen
http://machno.hbi-stuttgart.de/_payer/weltw43.html

further sources:
Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library

Internet: http://web.history.ufl.edu/west1/expan.htm

maps: Seibold, Jim: Cartographic Images: The Late Medieval Maps 1300-1500
Internet: http://www.iag.net/~jsiebold/carto.html



Photo sources
[1] map of North and Central "America" with native languages until 1492: Michael Palomino 2003
[2] map of South "America" with native languages until 1492: Michael Palomino 2003
[3] King Ferdinand: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/kolumbus1.htm (Stand 1999)

[4] Columbus: http://www.restena.lu/primaire/schouweiler/travaux_eleves/1999/pimalo/pi_kolumbus.htm (April 2005)
[5] racist queen Isabella: http://www.saintbenedict.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Store_Code=SBCRGS&Product_Code=Ht46 (April 2005)
[6] map with Canary Islands: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_ES2.aspx (April 2005) [7] ship Santa Maria of Columbus: http://www.indianerwww.de/indian/m_kolumb.htm (April 2005)
[8] ship Santa Maria of Columbus with a Templar's cross: http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/columbus.htm (April 2005)
[9] world map of Toscanelli: http://wontolla.bei.t-online.de/indios.html (April 2005); (precious history link)
[10] Map with the expeditions of Columbus: http://www.indio.net/taino/research/colum.htm (April 2005)

[11] map with Bahamas Islands: http://travel.yahoo.com/p-travelguide-577494-map_of_bahamas_the-i (April 2005)
[12,13] Norbert Fiks: maps of Hispañola with Navidad and Isabela: www.fiks.de: http://www.ewetel.net/~norbert.fiks/columbus/seiten/siedlung.htm (April 2005; link with the log book of Columbus etc.)[14] map with Azores Island: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_PT2.aspx (April 2005)
[15] world map by Laon (drawing by Ravenstein): http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/LMwebpages/259.html (Stand 2005)
[16,17] Pope Alexander VI: http://www.weltchronik.de/bio/cethegus/a/alexandervi.html (April 2005)
[18] King John II of Portugal: from: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_II._(Portugal) (April 2005)
[19] Map with the Papal line with a meridian at 39.5º: Michael Palomino, November 2003
[20] Nao ship: http://wopc.co.uk/portugal/ (April 2005)

[21] Juan Ponce de León: www.piessus.com/Miami/History1.html (April 2005)
[22] Diego Velasquez de Cuellar: www.ignatiushistory.info/00121.html (April 2005)
[23] map with Antilles Islands: http://www.la-sirena.com/8UsefullInfo/English/How_to_Anguilla_E.htm (April 2005)
[24,25,26] Tainos on Puerto Rico: http://www.presenciataina.tv/historical.html (April 2005)
[27] Taino chief Cibanakan: http://inside.binghamton.edu/September-October/28sept00/28sept00.html (April 2005)
[28] Tainos in Guantánamo: http://www.onaway.org/indig/taino.htm (April 2005)
[29] Taino chief Pedro Guanikeyu Torres: http://www.taino-tribe.org (April 2005)
[30] Tordesillas, great bridge: http://www.motoclubtordesillas.com/informacion_tordesillas.htm (April 2005)

[31] map with Tordesillas in Spain with Duero River: http://www.pueblos-espana.org/castilla+y+leon/valladolid/tordesillas/ (April 2005)
[32] Map with the Tordesillas line at a meridian of 46.5º: of Michael Palomino, November 2003
[33] Hispañola, today Dominican Republic and Haiti: http://www.deutschland-macht-urlaub.com/Karibik-Urlaub.html
[34] Guantanamo Province on Cuba: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guant%E1namo_Province (April 2005)
[35] Guantanamo Bay on Cuba, map: http://www.guiahavana.com/mapas/guantanamo.asp (April 2005)
[36] map with Cuba: http://www.m-gross.de/karte_kuba.html (April 2005)
[37] map with Jamaica: http://insel.heim.at/madeira/341121/galerie_jamaica.htm (April 2005)
[38] king Manuel I. of Portugal: http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/royal5a.htm (April 2005)
[39] Bartolomeo Diaz: http://www.scuola.com/cinquecento/oceani/pag/ragazzi/cartografo/01.htm (April 2005)
[40] Giovanni Cabot / John Cabot: http://www.reformation.org/cabotia.html (April 2005)

[41] map with Dominican Republic with Santo Domingo: http://www.ritmo-latino.ch/spanisch/index.html?dominikanischerepublik.html (April 2005)
[42] map with the trip of John Cabot from England to Newfoundland: http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/edis771/fall99webquests/student/srebeccaandrews/explorerpages/resourcesonjohncabot.html (April 2005)
[43] Giovanni Caboto / John Cabot, portrait: http://www.nsa.naples.navy.mil/gaetansa/newpage129.htm (April 2005)
[44] Giovanni Caboto / John Cabot on a stamp of Italy: http://italic.org/ (April 2005)
[45] Vasco da Gama / Vasco de Gama, portrait: http://www.bbc.net.uk/history/historic_figures/gama_vasco_da.shtml (April 2005)
[46] Model of Tenochtitlán: Antje Baumann: http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/aztek/aztek-stadt.htm
[47] sun stone and sun god Tonatiuh: Antje Baumann: http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/aztek/aztek-son.htm (December 2005)
[48] map with the position of Mozambique: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MZ.aspx (April 2005)
[49] map with the expeditions of Columbus: http://www.indio.net/taino/research/colum.htm (April 2005)

[50] map with Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela: http://www.topaz.com.fr/information.html (April 2005)
[51] Orinoco River delta, map: http://www.jakera.com/kayaking.htm
[52] Orinoco River delta, satellite photo: www.sunsetinntours.com/ delta_orinoco.htm
[53] Orinoco River delta, canoing: http://www.tucaya.com/eng/tours/regiones/delta.htm
[54] Orinoco River delta, houses: http://www.w00tw00t.co.uk/holidays/margarita/orinoco-delta.htm
[55] Orinoco River delta, parrot: http://www.w00tw00t.co.uk/holidays/margarita/orinoco-delta.htm
[56] Orinoco River delta, people: http://www.w00tw00t.co.uk/holidays/margarita/orinoco-delta.htm
[57] Orinoco River delta, children at a wooden house: http://www.lrz-muenchen.de/~traxler/personal/ven/delta/s/delta20.jpg.html
[58] Orinoco River delta, canoing: http://www.sunsetinntours.com/delta_orinoco.htm
[59-63] Native people in a settlement in the Orinoco River delta: http://www.sergireboredo.com/rpv/deltaorinoco/deltaorinoco.htm

[64] girl in a village in the Orinoco delta weaving with palm leaves: http://www.reporter-photographe.com/venezuela/Delta-Orinoco.htm
[65] parrots in the Orinoco River delta: http://www.neuropolis.hu/privat/olcsi/Venezuela/Orinoco
[66] Blue aras in the Orinoco River delta: www.venezuela-tuya.com/ campamentos/bocadetigre.htm
[67] red ara in the Orinoco River delta: www.rburns.com/PTC/orinoco.htm
[68] River crocodile in the Orinoco River delta: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/photos/nt/nt0147aS.html
[69] Toucan in the Orinoco River delta: http://ebushpilot.com/orinoco3.htm

[70] Columbus statue in Santo Domingo in the Columbus Park: http://www.caribbean-islander.com/sd_parque_colon.htm (April 2005)
[71] Columbus, portrait: http://www.horizo.com/venezuela_histoire.htm (April 2005)
[72] Alonso de Ojeda: http://www.arches.uga.edu/~teri/alonso.html (April 2005)
[73] Amerigo Vespucci: http://digilander.libero.it/bepi/amerigo/amerigo.htm (April 2005)
[74] Pedro Álvares Cabral, portrait: http://www.superlegendas.com.br/valcir/pedro_alvares_cabral.htm (April 2005)
[75] Cabral, portrait on a stamp of Portugal: Norbert Fiks: http://www.ewetel.net/~norbert.fiks/columbus/seiten/cabral2.htm (April 2005)
[76] Bartolomeu Dias / Bartolomeo Diaz, portrait on a stamp of Portugal:
http://history.smsu.edu/jchuchiak/HST%20350--THeme%208--Portuguese_explorations.htm (April 2005)
[77] Portuguese trip to India on a stamp of Mozambique: Norbert Fiks:
http://www.fiks.de; http://www.ewetel.net/~norbert.fiks/columbus/seiten/cabral2.htm (April 2005)
[78,79] Statue of Gaspar Corte de Real: http://www.apol.net/dightonrock/pilgrim_chapter_01.htm (April 2005)
[80] map with the position of Newfoundland: Argentia World: http://www.argentia.ca/arworld.html (April 2005)

[81] map with the Inca Empire: from: Margarete und Alois Payer: www.payer.de/bolivien2/bolivien0202.htm (April 2005)
[82] Columbus in chains on a trip back to Spain: http://www.rootsweb.com/~neresour/OLLibrary/Montgomery/mahp012.htm (April 2005)
[83] Miguel Corte Real, portrait:http://www.dightonrock.com/retrato_de_miguel_corte_real.htm (April 2005)
[84] Amerigo Vespucci, profile: http://allaboutexplorers.com/explorers/vespucci.html (April 2005)
[85] Nicolas de Ovando, portrait: http://www.terra.com.do/turismo/historia/santodomingo/portada.htm
[86] map with the fourth expedition of Columbus in 1502 in Central "America": http://www.nautigalia.com/marinosybarcos/colon/cuatroviajes.htm (April 2005)
[87] World map of Caveri 1502-04: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/307.html
[88] Map with the expansion of the Aztec Empire: Dr. JOHN F. CHUCHIAK IV:
http://history.smsu.edu/jchuchiak/HST%20397--Theme%2026--Moctezuma_ii.htm (April 2005)
[89] Mundus Novus, cover with a king in a knight's armor: http://www.arq.de/english/projects_caboverde.htm (April 2005)
[90] Mundus Novus, propaganda illustration: http://www.sas.ac.uk/warburg/mnemosyne/Action/amreicanhist.htm (April 2005)

[91] abstract of a map of "West India" by Bartholomé Columbus and Alessandro Zorzi: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/304.html
[92] map with Sevilla, Sanlúcar and Cáciz: http://www.pezcyclingnews.com/?pg=fullstory&id=2042

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