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Colonialism in Chronology - chapter III

"American" Holocaust in Central and South "America"

Massacres, "Christianizations" and exploitation fulfilling an order of the Pope and of the Crown 1492-1558


3.5. "American" Holocaust in Peru - Potosí: 8 million dead

Cajamarca: crown Kuntur Wasi San
                              Pablobigger photo
Cajamarca: crown Kuntur Wasi San Pablo

Potosi: Cerro Rico
Treasures of gold of the native were robbed in South "America", melt in bars and shipped, and then the ship was often sinking...
Rich Mountain (Cerro Rico) near Potosí with it's silver mines is a guarantee for the Spaniards having a hard currency, with slavery and millions of lethal victims...

by Michael Palomino (2005)

translation by Michael Palomino in 2014

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Sources

Reinhard, Wolfgang: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion.
- Bd.I: Die Alte Welt bis 1818. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Köln/Mainz 1983
- Bd.II: Die Neue Welt. Verlag W.Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln, Mainz. Verlagsort: Stuttgart, 1985
 
Huby, Felix. Traumreisen; Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker. Deutscher Bücherbund GmbH, Stuttgart, Hamburg, München, 1980


-- Rahmendaten: DTV-Atlas der Geschichte, DTV-Lexikon
-- Jestrabek: Konquistadoren, Kapital und Kirche; http://home.t-online.de/home/Jestrabek/amerika.htm (April 2005)
and others, see the foot notes.


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Content

47. Charles V lets plunder Rome, the Pope is detained - Turkish armies are pushing to the region of Vienna - Mayas defending Uxmál - destruction of the Maya culture since 1527 - Welser in Venezuela - Pizarro making propaganda for the occupation of Peru - Inca fight for the throne: Huascar against Atahualpa 

48. Cortés remains a bully boy - Welser with mines, slave trade and the occupation of Venezuela 

49. Turkish siege of Vienna forcing Charles V and Francis I for peace - Luther establishing the "evangelic" divine service - Charles V selling the rights of the Moluccas to Portugal - Cortés reaching the Spanish high nobility - Pizarro receives the order for an occupation of Peru - Caboto banned to Africa because of lack of success - limited Welser terrorism in Venezuela  

50. Feb 24, 1530: Charles V crowned as an emperor - prohibition of slavery is not observed - Quimbaya natives with high gold smith skills - Atahualpa becoming the new Inca ruler

51. Pizarro's expedition destroying the native settlements on the coast line of Ecuador - North "America" becoming "not interesting" for colonial activities - evangelic towns of Europe preparing a coalition with France against Charles V - Maya native defending Uxmál - Spanish invasion to Peruvian highlands - Portugal conquering the mound of Silver River (Rio de la Plata) - appearance of Maria on Guadeloupe - Spanish invasion conquering Cajamarca in Peru - Fugger treaty for southern Peru without consequences 

52. "Religious peace of Nuremberg" against the Turks - Francis I profiting by Turkish attacks - order of France raiding Spanish and Italian coast towns - murder of Atahualpa by Pizarro in Peru - calumny against the natives being "cannibals" is going on 

53. France claiming a new interpretation of the Tordesillas lines - Pizarro occupying Cusco - mixture of the population - no efficiency of the Spanish mail service 

54. Luther's complete Bible translation in "Luther German" (Early New High German) - expeditions of Welser and Fugger family - foundation of Jesuit orders for the Pope for an "unconditioned mission" - French mapping of Saint Lawrence River - Charles V eliminating the prohibition of slavery - report of the south coast of North "America" - expedition of Cortés in lower California - Pizarro in Cusco, Manco the new puppet - occupation of Ecuador under Benalcazar and Alvarado 

55. French expedition at Saint Lawrence River - "viceroyalty of New Spain" in Mexico - foundation of Lima for supply and ordnance - Spanish occupation of Bolivia under Almagro - history sources favoring the Incas - archaeological findings 

56. The alliance of France with Turkey against Charles V - Mexico: inquisition - founding of "Buenos Aires" against Portugal - holocaust against Chibcha natives - Inca upheaval, siege and fire of Cusco - further Inca resistance - Bolivia under Spanish occupation under Almagro  

57. Foundation of Asunción - native resistance in Paraguay until 1544 - border quarrel between Peru and Bolivia  

58. Armistice in Europe - complete Spanish conquered highlands of Chibcha natives - Pizarro lets murder Almagro - foundation of Bogotá - Spanish land expedition up to Kansas under De Soto  

59. Constitution for Jesuit Order with a "blind obedience" - rise of Bernal Diaz del Castillo in Mexico - Spanish expedition up to Kansas under Coronado - "Expedition" under Valdivia in Chile  

60. Turkish occupation of Hungary - third French expedition under Cartier without success - useless expedition of Charles V against Turkish pirates in North Africa - Spanish expedition to Africa without success - Spanish occupation of Yucatán - Cortés in Spain and campaigns, loss of an amulet in Algiers, occupation of Yucatán, Cortés a pensioner - holocaust destroying the Maya natives - scriptures about the Maya culture - holocaust destroying the Chibcha natives - Almagro followers murdering Pizarro - civil war in Peru - upheavals in Paraguay going on  - foundation of Santiago de Chile - Amazon 

61. Report of Las Casas about natives - "native protection law" - new prohibition of slavery by the Spanish Crown without effect - law like concentration camps against natives - upheaval of colonialists against the "protection laws" [!] - "foundation" of "Viceroyalty of Peru" - "indecent" colors - complete occupation of the "Philippines" - "foundation" of Merida in Yucatán - guerrilla war of Quimbaya natives - 4th war between Charles V and Francis I - bones of Columbus to Santo Domingo 

62. Name "Philippines" - concentration camps and forced labor for natives in mines and production plants: "mita" system  

63. Spanish protestant coalition against Francis I - French Spanish coalition against protestants - petition for a council in Trient - university of Königsberg - Spanish Amazon expedition is a success - more resistance by natives in Peru despite of the murder of Capac II - Peru's viceroy Vela projecting the abrogation of the "protectorate" ("encomienda") 

64. Council of Trient without protestants - Yucatán Peninsula is almost occupied completely - detection of silver mines in Potosí - foundation of the town of Potosí - holocaust against natives by forced labor in mines in Potosí: 8 million deads 

65. Rebellion of Xiu Maya on Yucatan Peninsula - Welser family giving up Venezuela - victory of the encomienda bosses in Peru - murder of viceroy Vela - Pizarro's projects for an independence of Peru are sabotaged by La Gasca - religious war in Europe  

66. Protestant defeat in Europe - council of Trient is shifted to Bologna - second Xiu rebellion in Yucatán and Spanish occupation - death of Cortés - Spanish North "America" - Charles V dictating an "interim" - expedition to the western coast without gold findings 

67. Peru: Pizarro executed - "merits" of Chile's conquerer Valdivia - beginning of the "Jesuit mission" in Peru in 1549  

68. Diaz del Castillo in the Indian Council - victory of Araucans (Mapuches) in Peru - Peru's coast line is free of natives - Lima is absolutely loyal to the Emperor - new orientation in the European trade and world wide rise of the coastal states - "Europeanization" of the world 

69. Council in Bologna with protestants - rebellion in Magdeburg (Germany) and condemnation of Magdeburg - negotiations Magdeburg-France - Spanish university in Lima - viceroy of Peru Mendoza 

70. Coalition Magdeburg-France - flight of Charles V - status quo between catholics and protestants in the "Passau Treaty" - 4 years war between Charles V and French Protestant coalition - England searching for an "eastern way" in the polar sea - history book "Historia" by Lopez de Gomara in favor of the conquerers - charge of Bartolomé de las Casas against the Spanish occupants: depiction of the holocaust against the natives  

71. Chronicle of Peru by Cieza de León - first Spanish university in Mexico - "foundation" of Santiago del Estero - victory by the Araucans (Mapuche) in Chile 

72. Religious peace of Augsburg - reform papacy - Peru's viceroy Hurtado de Mendoza  

73. Abdication of Charles V - bones of Cortés to Mexico 

74. Death of Charles V - successor Emperor Ferdinand - Philipp II governing Spain - death of Philip's wife - no catholicization of England

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Chronology

1527

47.
Charles V lets plunder Rome, the Pope is detained - Turkish armies are pushing to the region of Vienna - Mayas defending Uxmál - destruction of the Maya culture since 1527 - Welser in Venezuela - Pizarro making propaganda for the occupation of Peru - Inca fight for the throne: Huascar against Atahualpa

Europe: In the second war between Charles V and Francis I the developments are going so far that the troops under Charles V are plundering Rome ("Sacco di Roma"). At the same time Turkish troops - [collaborating with Francis I] (!) - in the region of Vienna threatening one of the capitals of the Spanish Austrian Empire. At the same time Lutheran freelancers are ridiculing the detained Pope. By the Turkish threat the war parties are urged to collaborate (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

Supplement:
Thus it is an absolute lie that Europe had been threatened by Islam only because Turkish troops were "emerging" before Vienna. This event was provoked by the "Christian" parties deliberately.

Europe: Foundation of the first evangelic university of Marburg (DTV-Atlas I., S.235).

Central and South "America" in general: Spanish dynasties:

The conqueror's families (this is an agreement of Spanish swineherds) are founding now their own dynasties dominating the natives (Indigenas) by their heritage [web29].

Yucatán, Uxmál: A first Spanish military campaign of the Spanish conquerers against Uxmál is stopped by the Xiu natives of Uxmál. The Xiu tribe is one of the most powerful of the Maya world. At the same time the Maya tribes are not helping much each other but there is quarrel and civil war [web01].

Map of Yucatán with the positions of
                            Uxmal between Mérida and Campeche Map of Yucatán with the positions of Uxmal between Mérida and Campeche [1]


Cuba: In 1527 appr. the wife of Cortés is dying on Cuba (Reinhard, vol.II, p.53).

Mexico: After the destruction of the bases for the Maya natives in Mexico the destruction of the Maya culture is following since 1527. Also here it is the declared business of the ["Christian" racist] clerics to destroy the Maya culture completely (Jestrabek).

[First "only" the cultural activities are forbidden, and inquisition is installed].

In 1527 Venezuela is bonded to the German merchant's house of the Welser family in Germany (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225).
[So the Spanish government is making business with foreign land...]

In the 1520s and 1530s the Welser family can install itself firmly in Venezuela. Additionally the Welser family is managing a trading post on Hispańola (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Spain-Peru: In the same year Pizarro is making propaganda in Spain for an occupation of Peru ("birú"). (Reinhard, vol.II, p.55)

In Peru in the Inca Empire itself there is a big fight breaking out between two possible successors for the Inca throne. The sons of Huayna are fighting
-- Capac Huascar in Cusco
-- and Atahualpa in Quito.

Huascar with his rulership of priests in Cusco is fighting against Atahualpa with the army on his side with the base in today's Ecuador (Reinhard, vol.II, p.29).

The fights for the throne are lasting until 1532. (DTV-Atlas I., S.223)

[up to the Spanish conquest].

Map with the Inca Empire with the
                            positions of Quito and Cusco
Map with the Inca Empire with the positions of Quito and Cusco [2]

Atahualpa in Quito
Capac Huascar in Cusco
Atahualpa in Quito,
                            portrait Atahualpa in Quito,
                              portrait Atahualpa in Quito,
                            portrait
Capac Huascar in Cusco, portrait
Capac Huascar in Cusco, portrait
Capac Huascar, europäisierte
                            Darstellung gemäss Guaman Poma, 16.Jh.
Capac Huascar in Cusco, portrait
[3]
[4]
[5]

[6]
Capac Huascar; this is a Europeanized depiction according to Guaman Poma (16th century) [7]


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1528

48.
Cortés remains a bully boy - Welser with mines, slave trade and the occupation of Venezuela

Mexico-Spain: In 1528 Cortés is going to Spain and is received by Charles V with full honors. But he does not like any court's policy. He rather likes to come back to Mexico as a military commander.

Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Hernando Cortez

Venezuela: Welser family can conclude a treaty with the Spanish Crown stating that German miners can give "development aid" in the Spanish territories.

There are more treaties between the Spanish Crown and the Welser family stating that

-- the Welser family should deliver the Spanish colonies with 4,000 black slaves

-- that the Welser can occupy the territory of Venezuela stating a percentage of the pray for the Spanish Emperor Secretary, Francisco de los Cobos (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

[Perhaps there were more "treaties"?]

Bartholomäus V. Welser, Portrait
Bartholomäus V. Welser (1484-1561) [8]
Hans Welser, Portrait
Hans Welser (1497-1559) [9]
Philippine Welser,
                            portrait


Map
                              of southern Germany with the position of
                              Augsburg between Munich and Stuttgart
Map of southern Germany with the position of Augsburg between Munich and Stuttgart [11]
(original in German:
<Welser, Philippine (1527-1580), morganatische ("nicht standesgemässe") Gattin des Erzherzogs Ferdinand von Österreich, späteren Kaisers; Nichte des Augsburger Kaufherrn Bartholomäus Welser.>[web30]
Translation:
<Welser, Philippine (1527-1580), was a morganatic bride ("of lower social class") of the archduke Ferdinand of Austria, later he became an emperor; she is the niece of the merchant Bartholomäus Welser from Augsburg.> [web30]


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1529

49.
Turkish siege of Vienna forcing Charles V and Francis I for peace - Luther establishing the "evangelic" divine service - Charles V selling the rights of the Moluccas to Portugal - Cortés reaching the Spanish high nobility - Pizarro receives the order for an occupation of Peru - Caboto banned to Africa because of lack of success - limited Welser terrorism in Venezuela

Turkish armies are sieging Vienna so Charles V and Francis I are forced to conclude the "women's peace" of Cambrai. But this is not more than an armistice (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237)

[DTV history atlas is never speaking about victims of wars, about famines and epidemics provoked by such wars in Europe].

Luther is establishing church reforms
-- reformed catechism
-- booklet of marriage and booklet of baptism
-- and the base of the evangelic divine service is the supper, the speech and singing together.

Melanchthon and Bugenhagen are writing examples of speeches for local pastors (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.235).

Spain-Portugal: "Treaty of Zaragoza": Charles V sells the "claims" for the "Moluccas" Islands to Portugal getting 350,000 ducats for it from the Portuguese Crown (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).

[According to the papal line of 1494 Spain is not entitled to any rulership on the Moluccas Islands. Thus Charles V has invented this and let "enrich" himself by his invention and his dominance in the world. All money is spent in more wars, the bloody rite of "Christianity"...]

Spain: Cortés is rising to Spanish high nobility. He goes to Spain to Charles V. and

-- becomes a duke "Marques de la Valle de Oaxaca" ["Duke of Oaxaca Valley"]

-- gets a feud of over 11,000 km2 with over 200,000 inhabitants

-- is appointed for being a general captain

and he is marrying into the Spanish high nobility.

But
The civil administration of Oaxaca (Mexico) is not entrusted to him because of rumors that Cortés would be vulnerable for corruption (Reinhard, vol.II, p.53).

Spain-Peru: Pizarro is sailing to Spain getting the order to occupy Peru by the Spanish queen:

-- Pizarro is appointed as a commander and governor of Peru which has to be conquered yet

-- the previous "fellows" of Pizarro are ennobled now and the cleric fellow is promoted for being a bishop (Reinhard, vol.II, p.55).

At Jan 19, 1530, Mr. Pizarro is leaving Spain in the direction of Panama with the permission to conquer Peru.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Francisco Pizarro)

[Supplement: The name of "biru", "golden land", seems to be stimulus enough for conquering and subduing half a continent more and the cultural destruction will follow. Holocaust brings profit...]

Francisco Pizarro, a brute, brutal
                  "Christian" "golden hamster"...
Francisco Pizarro, a brute, brutal "Christian" "golden hamster"... [12]

Spain-"Rio de la Plata": On the coast line of the today's Argentina Sebastian Caboto cannot find enough looted goods. After his return to Spain he is blamed that his expedition had been not fertile thus the Spanish Crown is banning him to Africa.
(Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: John Cabot & Sebastian
new: Rob Ossian's Pirate's Cove: not so detailed any more: http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/cabot_john.htm)

[Supplement:
This is a good example under which pressure the sailors stayed. The mass robbery and the holocaust against the natives was by command of the "Christian" Crown. Did the Vatican and did the European nobles give a compensation for their destructive work anywhere anytime?]

Venezuela: Since 1529 the territory of the today's Venezuela is occupied by German Welser family (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57). Staff members of the Welser authority are making expeditions:

-- Ambrosius Alfinger and Nikolaus Federmann from Ulm
-- Georg Hohermut from Speyer, Philipp von Hutten and Bartholomäus Welser (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57). :

The means are the same of the Spaniards: slavery, looted goods, robbery, and massacres. Welser authorities are "founding" the towns of Coro and Maracaibo [for sure not without expulsion of the local natives before].

But the country remains not well developed by "reasons of profitability" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

[And this is a big luck for the natives because the Welser authorities are not penetrating much to the countryside. Many natives of Venezuela can save their culture and kind of living in connection with nature on the far spread water ways during the complete colonial time and after].

Map of Venezuela with the
                            position of the town of Maracaibo
Map of Venezuela with the position of the town of Maracaibo [13]
Map of Venezuela with the
                            position of the town of Coro
Map of Venezuela with the position of the town of Coro [14]

1529: world map by Diego Ribero [15]
1529: world map by Diego Ribero
bigger photo In the meantime the easter coast line of the native's continent is mapped very precisely forming an insuperable barrier for the Spaniards on their way to India.


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1530

50.
Feb 24, 1530: Charles V crowned as an emperor - prohibition of slaves is not observed - Quimbaya natives with high gold smith skills - Atahualpa becoming the new Inca ruler

Europe: crowning of Charles V: [last] crowning of an emperor in Bologna (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237)

Crowning of the emperor of Charles V: portrait by
                  Albert Dürer
Crowning of the emperor of Charles V: portrait by Albert Dürer [16]

At his 30th birthday the Habsburg Emperor Charles V is getting the highest "honor" of his time: On Feb 24, 1530, the Pope is crowning him as an emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire of German Nation."

Now Charles V is the mightiest ruler of the "world" with
-- Austria
-- Spain with Netherlands
-- large parts of Italy
-- new oversea colonies.

This is the empire where "sun is never going down" ("empire on which the sun never sets") but it is in danger by Turkish troops near Vienna, and it is in danger also in the Mediterranean. The fight with France urged Charles V to some wars. And concerning domestic policy he is more and more confronted with more and more independent German local governments ans with Luther's reformation [web02].

[Charles V is not capable for an interpretation of the reformation as a step for more human rights].

To the contrary: During the empire council ("Reichstag") in Augsburg Charles V wants to save the "unity of belief" and of course he is provoking an escalation by this. The protestants are presenting their confessions of faith presenting
oo "Confession Augustana" (CA) by Melanchthon
oo "Tetrapolitana" by Bucer and Capito
oo "Fidei ratio" by Zwingli.

->> then Catholic theologists, with them Mr. Eck and Mr. Faber, are contradicting the "evangelic" scriptures in their "Confutatio"

->> then Charles V is rejecting the apology of "Confessio Augustana" and is confirming the edict of Worms

->> not the evangelical local German governments try to form a coalition against the emperor (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.235).
Gorgeous entry of emperor Charles V
                              is one of the culmination points of the
                              Empire Council (Imperial Diet) of 1530

bigger photo Gorgeous entry of emperor Charles V is one of the culmination points of the Empire Council (Imperial Diet) of 1530. This engraving is from Jörg Breu the elder (1475-1537)  from Augsburg, the engraving is from 1530 or some time later [17]

The present people: emperor Charles V (second from the left), king Ferdinand (left), duke Friedrich of Palatinate, accompanied by papal judges (legates) Campeggio (right in the background) and seven war servants.


This depiction seems to be impressive, but the dogma of a unique belief (with indulgence and so on) by Charles V seems not at all impressive but very degenerated.

Spain: A general prohibition of slaves is spoken by Charles V on 1530 but is "not observed" by the conquerers in "America" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.59).

South "America", high plain: The tribes of Quimbaya natives are immigrated Carib natives. They reached a high development, above all with handicraft skills as gold smiths (Jestrabek).

In Peru Atahualpa can prevail as the new Inca ruler (DTV lexicon, vol.8, p.291).

Atahualpa can win the power and lets reorganize the state's system (Reinhard, vol.II, p.29).

[If there is a dictatorship by Atahualpa or not is not mentioned].


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1531

51.
Pizarro's expedition destroying the native settlements on the coast line of Ecuador - North "America" becoming "not interesting" for colonial activities - evangelic towns of Europe preparing a coalition with France against Charles V - Maya native defending Uxmál - Spanish invasion to Peruvian highlands - Portugal conquering the mound of Silver River (Rio de la Plata) - appearance of Maria on Guadeloupe - Spanish invasion conquering Cajamarca in Peru - Fugger treaty for southern Peru without consequences

Ecuador-Peru since January 1531 Spanish invasion under Pizarro at the coast line of Ecuador
-- with three ships [?] (Ossian: Pizarro)
-- coming from Panama
-- with his half brothers
-- with almost 200 men
-- with 37 horses (Reinhard, vol.II, p.55).

"Pizarro - he cannot write nor read and was only a swineherd - was beginning with the occupation of Peru now." (Jestrabek)

(original in German: "Pizarro - ein schreibunkundiger ehemaliger Schweinehirt - beginnt die Eroberung Perus." (Jestrabek).


This invasion is becoming a heavy march now along the coast line of the today's Ecuador (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

Pizarro needs almost one year to subdue the native settlements on the coast line [web03].

First gold loads are sent to Panama for organizing more Spanish "help" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

1531-1533: Map of the Spanish
                                invasion under Pizarro in today's
                                Ecuador and Peru
bigger photo 1531-1533: Map of the Spanish invasion under Pizarro in today's Ecuador and Peru [18]

Peru was rated to be a "gold land" ("El Dorado"). The Incas were watching the invasion and sent messengers [18].

Map of Peru with the invasion
                                routes of the "Christian"
                                conquerors Francisco and Hernando
                                Pizarro 1532 and 1533bigger photo
Map of Peru with the invasion routes of the "Christian" conquerors Francisco and Hernando Pizarro 1532 and 1533 [19]


Since the invasion in Ecuador and Peru and with all the mass robbery and with the more and more clearer coast line in the Caribbean North "America" is more and more "not interesting" for the European powers. Portugal, Spain, England, and France are noticing that there is no gold to be robbed in North "America" and that there will be no passage to India leading through the continent (Reinhard, vol.II, p.48).

[->> With this indication the argument of the Church is completely refuted that colonialism only happened for the mission. Did the Vatican give any compensation anytime?]

Europe: The reformed German imperial towns are forming a new coalition against Charles V now, the "Schmalkaldic League" ("Schmalkaldischer Bund") against Charles V. The German towns are forming a federal army with a common federal financial board. They are looking for connections abroad, above all to France (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.235).

Mexico, Uxmál: On Yucatán Peninsula a second Spanish military campaign against Uxmál is sailing and the Xiu natives can defend their town [web01].

Peru November 1532: Pizarro's invasion is continued with the rise to the highlands (Reinhard vol.II, p.56) in the direction of Cajamarca [web03].

The following map shows the way of Pizarro's invasion from the Peruvian coast line to Cajamarca down to Cusco:

1531-1533: map with the
                    invasion under the leadership of Pizarro with the
                    rise to the highlands of Peru from Cajamarca to
                    Cuzco
1531-1533: map with the invasion under the leadership of Pizarro with the rise to the highlands of Peru from Cajamarca to Cuzco [20]

[With the Spanish "colonialists" one has to consider that they were considered as "liberators" first because the Incas themselves were suppressing many cultures and populations. Thus Pizarros' group can often occupy big regions without any fight. But after the completed occupation the "American" Holocaust is also organized for all natives in Peru...].

"Rio de la Plata": Portuguese occupation of the territory at "Silver River" ("Rio de la Plata") (Huby, p.58)

Mexico: Guadalupe Island: appearance of the alleged holy Maria on Guadalupe Island



Guadalupe: depiction of the holy
                            Maria of Guadalupe
Guadalupe: depiction of the holy Maria of Guadalupe [21]
Map with the position of
                            Guadalupe Island (Mexico) with the holy
                            Maria of Guadalupe
Map with the position of Guadalupe Island (Mexico) with the holy Maria of Guadalupe [22]

During the following time after this appearance there are missions installed and big churches are built without limits for a "virgin" as it can be seen with the following examples:

Examples of ecclesial dominance on Guadalupe Island, Mexico
Church ("basilica") on
                              Guadalupe Island in Mexico
Church ("basilica") on
                              Guadalupe Island in Mexico
Guadalupe Island in Mexico, church
                              "Our Hostess" ("Nuestra
                              Seńora") Guadalupe Island in Mexico, Virgin
                              cathedral ("Templo de la
                              virgen")
Two churches ("Basilica") on Guadalupe Island in Mexico [23]
Guadalupe Island in Mexico, church "Our Hostess" ("Nuestra Seńora") [24]
Guadalupe Island in Mexico, Virgin cathedral ("Templo de la virgen") [25]


Peru November 1531: Spanish occupation of Cajamarca under the leadership of Pizarro. One part of the native chiefs are tortured by Pizarro for getting "more information" about the conditions in the Inca Empire. In this way Pizarro gets information about the fight between Atahualpa and Huascar.

Huascar is detained by the troops of Atahualpa now. Atahualpa himself wants to lead the battle against the whites not considering the white impertinent tactics. Because:

Pizarro will act according to the "well established" scheme: He will urge for the conversion of the population, he will consider a war, he will detain the leader of the enemy and he will intimidate the Peruvian tribes with a massacre. This is a "well established scheme" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

The pray from Cajamarca is provoking more dynamics for new madness of occupations (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

Impressions from the town of Cajamarca

Map with the position of Cajamarca in
                            Peru
Map with the position of Cajamarca in Peru [26]
View on Cajamarca
View on Cajamarca [27]

Cajamarca girl's portrait
Cajamarca  girl's portrait
Cajamarca cathedral
Cajamarca  cathedral
Cajamarca row of houses
Cajamarca row of houses
Cajamarca,
                            church's stairs
Cajamarca, church's stairs
Cajamarca, children
Cajamarca, children
Cajamarca San Francisco church
Cajamarca  San Francisco church
[28]


Cajamarca: crown Kuntur Wasi San
                              Pablobigger photo
Cajamarca: crown Kuntur Wasi San Pablo [29]
Cajamarca golden jewelrybigger photo
Cajamarca golden jewelry [30]


Fugger, Spain, South "America": The Fugger family gets a treaty from the Spanish Crown to conquer the southern part of the historic Peru, but this treaty is never realized. The territory for the Fugger family is going from the location of Chincha down all today's Chile to the Magellan Strait and in general 200 miles upcountry. But this project is never realized by the German Fugger trade's union (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Map with Peru and with the position of
                            Chincha and whole South "America"
                            down to the Magellan Strait Map with Peru and with the position of Chincha and whole South "America" down to the Magellan Strait [31].


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1532

52.
"Religious peace of Nuremberg" against the Turks - Francis I profiting by Turkish attacks - order of France raiding Spanish and Italian coast towns - murder of Atahualpa by Pizarro in Peru - calumny against the natives being "cannibals" is going on

Europe: The emperor Charles V has become susceptible to blackmail by the Turkish armies. The evangelic countries can force him now to the "Religious peace of Nuremberg" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.235). The emperor has no other choice because he has no big army and he is without money. Only by this "Religious peace of Nuremberg" Charles V can get help against "the Turks" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

[-- in fact the Turkish armies before Vienna helped to hinder the Catholic Spanish dictatorship in Central Europe and helped much to the protestant side for their breakthrough
-- thus the media and journalists of the "western" world are wanted not to conceal these events any more in future].

Francis I is going even one step further ordering the pirates and ordering the Turkish vassal Chaireddin Barbarossa (1475-1546) to raid tows on Spanish and Italian coast lines. This Barbarossa is acting from Algeria spreading murder and horror in Spanish and Italian coastal towns (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

Francis I, "king" of France
Francis I, "king" of France [32]

Peru: Cajamarca: Francisco Pizarro is tricking Atahualpa for detaining him in Cajamarca and murdering him (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.223).

But look how the details are: Pizarro lets show the treasure and then lets murder Atahualpa. The sources describe all more or left the same trickery and Nazi like event:

Pizarro meets the ambassador of Atahualpa. Atahualpa is accepting the invitation of Pizarro visiting him with a group of his men being without arms. And Pizarro's soldiers are awaiting the group in an armed position.

When Atahualpa is rejecting the conversion to "Christianity" and is rejecting the supreme rulership of the Spanish Emperor, Pizarro lets detain the Inca ruler. And the Spaniards are organizing a massacre murdering 2,000 natives. Then Atahualpa is offering a ransom: a complete room five meters large, 7 meters long, full of gold up to the height of a man, and the same also in silver. And Pizarro is accepting [web03].

or:

(original in German:
<Den gefangenen Atahualpa liess er sich erst freikaufen - durch Berge von Gold und Silber - hielt sein Wort aber dann nicht und ermordete ihn trotzdem. Pizarro liess dem Inka lediglich die Wahl - ob er als Heide verbrannt werden wollte oder ob er als Christ erdrosselt werden wollte. So starb Atahualpa als getaufter Christ.> (Jestrabek)


Translation:
<He [Pizarro] let pay the detained Atahualpa a ransom first - by mountains of gold and silver - and then he [Pizarro] did not keep his promise murdering him despite of all. Pizarro let the Inca only the choice - if he should be burnt as a non-believer or if he should be strangled as a "Christ". And thus Atahualpa was killed as a baptized "Christ".>

or:

Pizarro lets detain Atahualpa and is promising his release for a high ransom. But "by the interest of the Crown" Pizarro is leaving Atahualpa detained on and is inventing that Atahualpa had projected a "conspiracy" and with this claim Pizarro lets execute him (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

Atahualpa detained
1532: the murder of Atahualpa
Atahualpa detained[33]


1532: the murder of Atahualpa[34]

1532: the murder of Atahualpa[34]
1532: the murder of Atahualpa[35]

Europe: calumny against "natives" being "cannibals"
Simon Grynaeus and Johann Huttich
                            showing in a detail of their world map
                            natives as cannibals
Simon Grynaeus and Johann Huttich showing in a detail of their world map natives as cannibals; from
Novis orbis regionum ac insularum veteribus incognitarum. Basle: Johann Hervagius, 1532. Detail of the map. [36]

Indications of Penn Library:

<One tenuous iconographic tradition depicted American natives as cruel, bloodthirsty aggressors. Often, such images represented the Indians as cannibals. Scholars continue to debate whether or not any native groups actually consumed human flesh for purposes either of religious ritual or of revenge and conquest. But regardless of the truth of the matter, European artists and engravers depicted scenes of cannibalism occurring anywhere from the Caribbean to Canada.> [web04]

[Supplement: "Christian" white cannibals with all their wars never mentioned as cannibals
"Christian" wars are claiming the 100,000 fold of human victims and are even claiming victims today yet. These war victims are many more than the native rituals were humans were sacrificed.

This cannibalism in the "Christian" world seems to have a much longer and bigger tradition than the cannibalism of the natives. Until today "mines" and bombs of "Christian" production plants are eating humans on this world, 30,000 children are killed per day by hunger daily. These are the human sacrifices of today: for the laws of "globalization". The white race is the worst one because the laws of "globalization" are made by the white race, not by the "yellow" one, not by the "red" one and not by the "black" race. Also the laws of communism were made by the white race. It cannot be worse.

It is the white race which is calling itself "Christian" until today in many governments and is producing at the same time bombs, tanks and mines. It is the white race which never has changed until today!]

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1533

53.
France claiming a new interpretation of the Tordesillas lines - Pizarro occupying Cusco - mixture of the population - no efficiency of the Spanish mail service

France-Vatican: Francis I from France can reach a success with French friendly Pope Clement VII. His request of a new interpretation of the bull of Pope Alexander VI is approved. Tordesillas Line of 1494 is newly interpreted considering only the "detected" territories and not the newly detected any more.

Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII [37]

->> Francis I is ordering a new detection mandate to the sailor Jacques Cartier

->> the Spanish ambassador is protesting at Francis I because the Tordesillas Line would not be respected

->> now Francis I is countering that the biblical forefather Adam did not install the kings of Castile as universal successors of the whole world (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

[With this decision of the pope the world war in the name of "Christian Church" is developing a new escalation. Until this day historiography did not recognize that this was the escalation during the 500 years lasting world war from 1492 until today, today the world war is going on above all with financial means, by the criminal "U.S.A." also with military means...].

Jacques Cartier, sailor for France in North
                        "America"bigger photo
Jacques Cartier, sailor for France in North "America" [38]

Peru: Inca Empire is weak and paralyzed by the long lasting civil war because of the quarrel about the throne between Huascar and Atahualpa. That's why Pizarro can defeat Peru without big work (Jestrabek).

The Spaniards can conquer Cusco (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.223).

Pizarro is succeeding in the removal of the brother of Atahualpa, Huascar, in Cusco [web03].

The Spaniards are destroying the Inca Empire with it's capital of Cusco (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.223).


The Spaniards are appointing Manco Capac II as a new ruler (DTV lexicon, vol.8, p.291).

or:

Atahualpa is executed in Cajamarca. Topa Hullpa is following him on the throne [web05].


Historiography

In the epoch after Inca times the historians are developing a generalization calling all Quechua speaking natives who were subjects of the Inca rulers as "Incas". The upper class is mixing with the Spaniards and this Inca upper class is disappearing in the middle and upper class. (DTV lexicon vol.8, p.291)

Spanish mail service with horses needs for the trip from Lima to Cusco 16 days. The mail messengers of the Inca Empire of before only needed four days for this... (Reinhard, vol.II, p.31)

[Addition: Lima has to be founded yet].

Cusco: Pizarro and his fellow campaigner Almagro are quarreling about the supreme rulership in Peru. After the conquest of Cusco Mr. Almagro is trying to establish a local power in Cusco but he is not succeeding. Instead of this he is "recommended" to conquer southern Peru (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

[In those times this means today's southern Peru, Bolivia and Chile].

Diego de Almagro
Diego de Almagro [39]

Impressions of Cusco
Cuzco, stairs
Cuzco, stairs [40]
View on Cuzco 
View on Cuzco [41]
Map of Peru with the position of
                            Cusco
Map of Peru with the position of Cusco [41]
Lama in Cusco
Lama in Cusco [42]
Lamas and farmers in Cusco
Lamas and farmers in Cusco [43]




Cusco: Central Square with church
Cusco: Central Square with church [44]
Cuzco: Central Square with row of
                            houses
Cuzco: Central Square with row of houses [45]
Fountain in Cusco at Central Square
Fountain in Cusco at Central Square [46]
Cusco,
                            woman's portrait
Cusco, woman's portrait [47]




Cusco, selling of beautiful fabrics
Cusco, selling of beautiful fabrics [48]
Cusco, women
                            in a market
Cusco, women in a market [49]
Cusco: curious baby's portraitbigger photo
Cusco: curious baby's portrait [50]
Cusco: mother with baby on her back,
                              portraitsbigger photo
Cusco: mother with baby on her back, portraits [51]




Cusco: father, portrait
Cusco: father, portrait [52]
Cusco: train station with trains
Cusco: train station with trains [53]
Cusco, music group Q'eromarka
Cusco, music group Q'eromarka [54]
Cusco, hay transport on foot
Cusco, hay transport on foot [55]

1533: globe of Johannes Schöner [56]
Globus von Johannes Schöner 1533

bigger photo Facsimile of Schöner's Weimar globe: This photo shows the western hemisphere with the coast lines of Central and South "America". And thee is a direct connection of North "America" to the Asian continent.


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1534

54.
Luther's complete Bible translation in "Luther German" (Early New High German) - expeditions of Welser and Fugger family - foundation of Jesuit orders for the Pope for an "unconditioned mission" - French mapping of Saint Lawrence River - Charles V eliminating the prohibition of slavery - report of the south coast of North "America" - expedition of Cortés in lower California - Pizarro in Cusco, Manco the new puppet - occupation of Ecuador under Benalcazar and Alvarado


Luther presents the complete Bible in his new German, in "Luther German" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231).

[This Bible translation is very important for the spread of Early New High German - but it seems that the Pope is hardly taking earnest anything of Luther...]

Welser and Fugger merchants: Mr. Jakob Welser from Nuremberg and Mr. Sebastian Neidhart from Ulm (the son-in-law of Christoph Herwart from Augsburg) and eventually also the Fugger family (Huby, p.57) are investing in 12 to 14 ships for a South "America" expedition (Huby, p.58).

Pope: Foundation of the Jesuit order "Societas Jesu" ("S.J.") with Ignatius of Loyola and his seven followers who are on the Pope's disposal for the mission unconditionally (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.239).

North "America": French are searching for a western way by an expedition under Cartier at the mouth of Saint Lawrence River (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Spain: Charles V is abrogating the prohibition of slavery by the pressure of the conquerers (Reinhard, vol.II, p.59).

Mexico and North "America": In the new town of Mexico City survivors of an expedition to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico have marched from Texas to Mexico and now they are reporting... (Reinhard, vol.II, p.54)

Central "America": Expedition under Cortés to Lower California (Baja California) 1534 (-1535) [web06, web07]
. Cortés is beginning with the "exploration" of the west coast of North "America" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.54). The expedition of Cortés is mapping the peninsula of Lower California [web08].
1535: Map of the last expedition
                              under Cortés to Lower California
1535: Map of the last expedition under Cortés to Lower California [57]

This expedition was mapping the top of the peninsula of Lower California [57].
Map
                            of about 1650 stating that California
                            Peninsula would be an island

Map of about 1650 stating that California Peninsula would be an island [58]

The expedition members of Cortés and the mappers in Europe meant a long time yet that Baja California would be an island how it is drawn here in a map of about 1650 [58].


Peru: Pizarro is appointing Cusco to be a town of "Spanish law" installing a new Inca as a head of government and puppet (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56). This puppet is Manco, Atahualpa's brother [web03].

Now supplies and ordnance become a problem and all this has to be organized passing the coast line evading the long and hard way on land. The next project is the Spanish control over the coast line and over the ports so (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

Ecuador: Pizarro's captain Mr. Sebastian de Benalcázar is separating himself from Pizarro's troops searching alone for the war's treasure of Atahualpa. Within this action Benalcázar is conquering Quito (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

Sebastian de Benalcazar, Portrait
Sebastian de Benalcázar [59]

Ecuador-Peru:
Troops of Pedro de Alvarado are raiding the territory of the today's Ecuador with the aim of an occupation of all Peru. But Alvarado comes too late. Peru is already conquered [!] (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

But now the "Christian" troops are united against the natives:

1534 / 1535

Chibcha Highlands: Around the year 1534 Spanish troops under Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada are conquering the Chibcha Highlands (today the highland of "Columbia"). This invasion is starting from Santa Marta [Caribbean coast line] upwards the Magdalena River under heavy losses, and the princedoms of gold and emeralds of the highlands are conquered (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Venezuela-Chibcha Highlands: At the same time the German Welser captain Mr. Nikolaus Federmann is performing an expedition passing the jungle in direction of the highlands of Chibcha culture (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada, Portrait
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada [60]
Der Welser Nikolaus Federmann,
                            Portrait
Welser Nikolaus Federmann [61]


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1535

55.
French expedition at Saint Lawrence River - "viceroyalty of New Spain" in Mexico - foundation of Lima for supply and ordnance - Spanish occupation of Bolivia under Almagro - history sources favoring the Incas - archaeological findings

French search for a west way: There is a second expedition under Cartier (1535-1536). Cartier is heading the Saint Lawrence River upwards founding the first settlement on the territory of Quebec which is founded later (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

German actions: There is an expedition of Welser and Fugger on the "Silver River" ("Rio de la Plata") under the leadership of Pedro de Mendoza who has reached the status of a high nobleman now leading the Welser and Fugger fleet to the "Rio de la Plata" (Huby, p.58).

Don Pedro de Mendoza
Depiction of Don Pedro de Mendoza [62]

Spain, African north coast:
For limiting the pirate leader Chaireddin Barbarossa Charles V is making an expedition starting in Naples heading to Africa conquering Tunis (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237).

Mexico: "Foundation" of the "Viceroyalty of New Spain"
The "viceroyalties" are parted in "capitanias generales" and the viceroyalties have an own law and justice ("audiencias"). The town get a limited self administration by a "Cabildo" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225).


Pizarro is ruling in the new "viceroyalty" with arbitrariness, high tax claims and with a widely spread slavery (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

[A former swineherd cannot rule as a humanist. There is the big question why the Spanish Crown did not exchange the swineherds in Mexico...]

Ecuador-North Peru: Almagro's troops are reaching Quito.

Alvarado and Benalcázar are commonly winning against the troops of Atahualpa (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

After this victory the intrigues between the conquerers are continuing. Alvarado is isolated now, his troops are headhunted and are serving to Almagro then who is continuing his raid southwards (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

North Peru: Benalcázar is making a tour from Quito to the highlands of Chibcha culture, but he is meeting other Spanish troops there under Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Peru: "Foundation" of the "Ciudad de los Reyes" / "King's Town" (later called "Lima") by Francisco Pizarro (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225). Diego de Almagro is prevailing this foundation of the new capital. The main function of this town is the control of supply and ordnance over the sea. This town should be the capital of the projected "New Castile" - today's town of Lima.

Map with the position of Lima about in
                            the middle of today's Peru -Bolivia was a
                            part of Peru first
Map with the position of Lima about in the middle of today's Peru -Bolivia was a part of Peru first [63]
Diego de Almagro, oil painting of Diego
                            Domingo Meza
Diego de Almagro, oil painting of Diego Domingo Meza [64]


Diego de Almagro is very engaged organizing supply and ordnance and can install a local power in "Ciudad de los Reyes" / "King's Town" (Lima) against Pizarro (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

South Peru: Almagro is coming with troops for an invasion against the south of the Inca Empire. But the local dwellers are defending themselves successfully (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Peru: unilateral historical sources
Until the performance of the occupation by the Spaniards the cultures of South "America" hardly know any writing. Life of the tribes before the occupation is recorded by the Spanish administration and by prominent mestizos:

-- the conquerer Juan de Betanzos who is married with an Inca princess and who is making records following an order of the viceroy
-- the conservative soldier Pedro de Cieza de Leon with a kind of geography and then with further records following an order of the viceroy
-- Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa writing a history about the "American" tribes which is controlled by 42 prominent natives and is approved by them
-- and there are further chroniclers:
oo Garcilaso de la Vega, mestizo (mother is an Inca)
oo and there is his guarantor: Jesuit priest Blas Valera (mother a mestizo)
oo Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (Reinhard, vol.II, p.26).

Historical resources about the Inca states must be considered all with caution because by political and personal reasons they have the tendency to favor the Incas: The Inca occupations before 1530 are rated as positive and the tribe subdued by the Incas is presented as minor.

->> in the meantime the complete historiography is corrected in favor of the states of before by archaeological findings

->> the Incas were not at all the distributor of culture as it is told many times (Reinhard, vol.II, p.26)

->> good findings in South "America" in the highlands and also in the desert at the coast line are proving the high level of cultures which were BEFORE the occupation of the Inca epoch (Reinhard, vol.II, p.26-27).

1535: world map / globe of Nancy
1535: world map / globe of Nancy
bigger photoFacsimile of the Nancy globe of 1535 [65]
North "America" is depicted as a part of Asia.
http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/363.html (April 2005)

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1536

56.
The alliance of France with Turkey against Charles V - Mexico: inquisition - founding of "Buenos Aires" against Portugal - holocaust against Chibcha natives - Inca upheaval, siege and fire of Cusco - further Inca resistance - Bolivia under Spanish occupation under Almagro

Francis I: French Turkish alliance [!] against Spain in 1536: With this French Turkish alliance Francis I is beginning the third war against Charles V. The Pope is playing the mediator now (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237.

Mexico: Introduction of the "Holy Inquisition"
(Payer: Philippines)

[with 100,000s of lethal victims, see here the "Christian" blood rite:
-- by hanging
-- by drowning
-- by torture by torture machines
-- by burning on the stake
-- this inquisition was also applied against Jews who had fled from inquisition in Europe to "America" and who did not await inquisition also in "America" etc. etc.].

Spanish foundation of "Buenos Aires" in 1536. The foundation of the town is performed under Don Pedro de Mendoza. With this Spanish town any Portuguese occupation of the river's mouth should be hindered (Huby, p.58; web09)

South "America", highlands: Begin of the destruction of the Chibcha culture 1536-1541 under the Spanish regime of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.223).

Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada, Portrait
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada [66]

And there is an upheaval in Cusco being smashed by Manco's troops:

Siege of Cusco:
Already in 1536 the Incas are giving up. The army of the Inca Manco Capac II is sieging Cusco during 10 months (Jestrabek).

Manco Capac II
Manco Capac II. [67]

This upheaval can be smashed by Spanish forces but it is hard for them (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

After this upheaval Cusco is burning.
(A.Baumann: suedamerika/inka-zeihttp://www.indianer-welt.de/sued/inka/inka-zeit.htmt.htm (2014)

Peru since 1536: Under the sons of Inca Manco Capac II more upheavals are following in the mountain ranges of Vilcabamba (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56). [near Cusco and near Machu Picchu].

Bolivia 1536 appr.: Spanish troops under Almagro are conquering the territory which is later called Bolivia (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225).

Once
                            again: Diego de Almagro, one of the
                            "zealous" racist colonialists Once again: Diego de Almagro, one of the "zealous" racist colonialists [64]


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1537

57.
Foundation of Asunción - native resistance in Paraguay until 1544 - border quarrel between Peru and Bolivia

Paraguay 1537: The town of "Asunción" ("Assumption of May") is founded. There is a native upheaval against this foundation of this town at the mouth of Pilcomayo River in "Paraguay" lasting until 1544 (Huby, p.58).

Map
                            with the position of the town of Asunción
                            ("Assumption of May") at the mouth
                            of Pilcomayo River into Paraguay River
Map with the position of the town of Asunción ("Assumption of May") at the mouth of Pilcomayo River into Paraguay River [68].


Peru: Since 1537 appr. Pizarro and Almagro are quarreling about territories. Conditions similar to a civil war are developing between the two Spanish conquerers [web03].


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1538-1539

58.
Armistice in Europe - complete Spanish conquered highlands of Chibcha natives - Pizarro lets murder Almagro - foundation of Bogotá - Spanish land expedition up to Kansas under De Soto

Europe, Turkey, Charles V, Francis I: Armistice of Nice
by mediation of the Pope (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

South "America": The highlands of the Chibcha natives are completely under Spanish occupation under Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (DTV history atlas, vol.I., p.225)

Peru-Bolivia: Members of Pizarro's group are murdering Diego de Almagro (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56). In about 1538 Pizarro is also ordering that the trial to conquer Chile should be continued (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

1538/1539: South "America", Chibcha highlands: Now the town of Santa Fé de Bogotá is founded by three Europeans together: Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, Federmann, and Benalcázar - [on foreign territory], and then they go. The governor of Santa Marta should inherit the work of the three "conquerers" later (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Map
                            with the positions of Santa Marta and
                            Bogotá, capital of today's Columbia
Map with the positions of Santa Marta and Bogotá, capital of today's Columbia [69]



North "America": Hernando de Soto is leading an expedition from 1539 to 1543 passing the whole south of the northern continent of "America" with 237 horses [web10], financed with pray from Peru (Reinhard, vol.II, p.55).

Hernando de Soto, Portrait
Hernando de Soto [70]


Map with the expedition under
                                Hernando de Soto 1539-1543 passing the
                                whole south of North
                                "America"
bigger photo Map with the expedition under Hernando de Soto 1539-1543
passing the whole south of North "America" [71]

This expedition is penetrating up to the today's Kansas but cannot find any gold. Therefore the territory is "not interesting" and is [for the moment] not occupied by the Spaniards (Reinhard, vol.II, p.55).

[->> As long as there is no robbery of gold a "mission" is not at all a topic for the sailors or for the Crown...]

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1540

59.
Constitution for Jesuit Order with a "blind obedience" - rise of Bernal Diaz del Castillo in Mexico - Spanish expedition up to Kansas under Coronado - "Expedition" under Valdivia in Chile

Pope, Jesuit Order: This order under Ignatius of Loyola is confirmed by Pope Paul III. The only goal is the conversion of the "non-believers and heretics" (also Jews). (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.239)

Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola [72]
Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III [73]


-- an elected "order's general" ("Black Pope") is leading the province and the houses of the order with an absolute military authority
-- the "Black Pope" is added an admonitory ward (warner) who is obliged to a steady critic
-- the monks of the order are in traditional priest clothes and are obliged to fulfill vows
-- the election is performed by exercises and by mutual spying and watching
-- there is a group of "assists" and from them the "professionals" ("professi") are coming above all with the fourth vow of "blind obedience" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.239).

-- Jesuits are given jobs deliberately at the duke's courts as educators and as confessors
-- Jesuits can found schools and universities ("Jesuit institutes", "Jesuit grammar schools")
-- Jesuits are teachers, preachers and missioners

->> Jesuits are becoming the most important order for a renewal of the papal Church, for "the fight against heretics" [with destruction of culture and terrorism] and for the world wide mission, above all in "America", India, Japan, China (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.239).

Mexico, Spain: Bernal Diaz del Castillo is promoted to be the governor of Coatzacoalco.

Map with Mexico and the town of
                            Coatzacoalcos on the coast line of the Gulf
                            of Mexico
Map with Mexico and the town of Coatzacoalcos on the coast line of the Gulf of Mexico [74]
Map of the town of
                            Coatzacoalcos at Coatzacoalcos River
Map of the town of Coatzacoalcos at Coatzacoalcos River [75]

-- at the same time Diaz is sent from Tenochtitlán to Spain by former soldier followers claiming a rise of the salaries ("patents")

-- and a short time later Diaz is also promoted to be the governor of whole Guatemala (Huby, p.109).

North "America" 1540 (-1542): Francisco Vázquez de Coronado is leading an expedition from Ciudad de México to North "America" up to today's Kansas looking for "Quivira" and looking for the legendary "seven golden towns of Cibola" [web11].

since 1540 (-1554)
Chile: From 1540-1554 Spanish expeditions under Pedro de Valdivia to the land of today's Chile are performed (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225). The invasion under Valdivia is "more successful" than the one before under Almagro (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57). [Affected natives are the Aymara and Mapuches].

Pedro de Valdivia, Portrait
Pedro de Valdivia [76]


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1541

60.
Turkish occupation of Hungary - third French expedition under Cartier without success - useless expedition of Charles V against Turkish pirates in North Africa - Spanish expedition to Africa without success - Spanish occupation of Yucatán - Cortés in Spain and campaigns, loss of an amulet in Algiers, occupation of Yucatán, Cortés a pensioner - holocaust destroying the Maya natives - scriptures about the Maya culture - holocaust destroying the Chibcha natives - Almagro followers murdering Pizarro - civil war in Peru - upheavals in Paraguay going on  - foundation of Santiago de Chile - Amazon

Hungary under Turkish rule

Turkish armies can occupy the town of "Ofen" [today the part "Buda" of "Budapest"]. "Ofen" is "lost" to the Turks (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

Remark: "Christian" world dominance - Muslims in Hungary
There must be stated some facts here concerning the Muslims in Hungary:
-- France had an alliance with Turkey against Charles V and only because of this alliance the Turkish armies had the possibility to come forward to central Europe
-- the Arab occupation of eastern Europe is going on like a parallel to the "Christian" occupation of "America". Seen in a pedagogical way this is a simple event of "showing and copying"
-- additionally total Europe is weak because of the eternal fight between Charles V and Francis I
-- and it's only logic that the Arab world is having counter strategies against the projects of the Pope for a world wide dominance because the access to "America" is forbidden to the Muslims
-- "western" media are mostly only presenting the "Turkish" danger without mentioning anything about the "Christian" terrorism in "America"
-- until today the "western" media are not asking or responding to the question if Muslim missions in "America" had also ended with such an extermination of the "American" natives there.

French search for a western way: A third expedition under Cartier is without success. Neither gold nor a passage to India can be found (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Africa's northern coast line: The punitive expedition of Charles V to Algeria against the pirate Chaireddin Barbarossa is failing. The Turkish positions of the Othman Empire can survive and can even reinforce their positions (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

Cortés: Cortés is returning to Spain for refreshing the confidence to the emperor which had suffered by rumors that Cortés would be corrupt [web12].

Cortés becomes a member on a Spanish expedition in Algiers having a favorite jewel on his neck he had robbed in Tenochtitlán. It's so precious for him that he does not trust it to anybody.

->> the fleet is getting in a storm, Cortés has to save himself swimming
->> Cortés is loosing the jewel which is drowning in the sea (Huby, p.99)
->> and the whole campaign was "not successful" [web08].

Mexico, Maya: The Spanish occupation of Yucatán (DTV lexicon vol.11, p.332) under Cortés is performed under Cortés in the same year yet after the failed expedition against Algiers [web06, web07].

Spain 1541-1547: Cortés remains a pensioner until his death 1547 [web08].

Mexico: Yucatán after the Spanish occupation: The Maya natives are pursued constantly, are affected by epidemics and hunger and are reduced massively by this (DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.331)

With this the "American Holocaust" by the "Christian" inquisition and by hunger in Central "America" is continued.

Sources about Maya natives in Latin
In the 16th century are put down the myths and chronicles of the Maya natives ("Chilam Balam") and also the holy book of the Quiché Maya ("Popol Vuh") in Latin (DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.331).

[May be these works are tendentious. Chilam Balam can be seen in the internet, for example on http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/maya/cbc/cbc11.htm (April 2005) and excerpts can be seen on several web sites].

In about 1560 Bishop Diego de Landa is writing the "History of Yucatán". But this work is not greatly considered and is forgotten then. It's rediscovery comes only in the middle of the 19th century. (DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.332)

Diego de Landa, writer of the "History of
                    Yucatán"
Diego de Landa, writer of the "History of Yucatán" [77]

Some Maya towns are left in ruins [May be that the population has fled before because of different reasons or is even deported]. The jungle is overgrowing the ruins up to it's unrecognizability (DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.332).

[Satellite infrared photos can detect the ruins of the towns in the jungle today. Thus rediscoveries are not rare].

South "America", high planes: holocaust against the Chibcha natives: The culture of the Chibcha natives is completely destroyed by the Spanish conquerers under the Spanish leadership of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.223).

Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, also a
                            zealous racist colonialist
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, also a zealous racist colonialist [78]

And what kind of culture is destroyed there?

Impressions of Chibcha culture in today's Columbia
Extraterrestrial of the Chibcha epoch
                            (a "god")[79] Extraterrestrial of the Chibcha epoch
                            (a "god") on a locket in gold[80] Extraterrestrial of the Chibcha epoch
                            (a "god") on a locket in gold[80] Extraterrestrial lion of Chibcha epoch
                            in gold[81]
Gods (extraterrestrials) and fabulous animals in gold - these are extraterrestrials of former times.
Columbia has 6 gold museums where such items are shown, above all in Bogotá and in Cali.

A woman of Kogui Chibcha natives. [82]
A woman of Kogui Chibcha natives. The tribe has a stock of 6,000 people yet.
Chibcha natives, little
                            statue of a woman in gold[83] Depiction of a Chibcha
                            native hunting fishes
Depiction of a Chibcha native hunting fishes [84].

Natives precisely know where which fish can be found.

[The white colonizers are robbing the high planes of today's Columbia without end and their occupation is going on with the emerald mines where local people has to work for famine wages].

Peru-Bolivia: Francisco Pizarro is murdered by followers of the Almagro group. Peru is falling into a civil war (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

Spain-Paraguay: Charles V wants to defeat the upheaval in Paraguay which is going on since 1537 since the "foundation" of the town of "Asunción". Thus Charles V is giving the order for this projected defeat to Álvaro Núńez Cabeza de Vaca (Huby, p.58).

Álvaro Núńez Cabeza de Vaca [Cow's Face]
Álvaro Núńez Cabeza de Vaca [Cow's Face] [85]

"Foundation" of the town of Santiago de Chile by Pedro de Valdivia (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

1541/1542
Amazon:
An expedition under Gonzalo Pizarro is looking for gold and cinnamon in the Amazon region.

->> one part of the troops of Pizarro has built ships and is exploring the rivers in the Amazon basin now going down all the Amazon River returning along the coast line to Venezuela [Little Venice]

->> there is a journey's diary by Fray Gaspar de Carvajal mentioning the "amazones". This name "Amazon" is prevailing at the end (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Gonzalo Pizarro Portrait
Gonzalo Pizarro [86]


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1542

61.
Report of Las Casas about natives - "native protection law" - new prohibition of slavery by the Spanish Crown without effect - law like concentration camps against natives - upheaval of colonialists against the "protection laws" [!] - "foundation" of "Viceroyalty of Peru" - "indecent" colors - complete occupation of the "Philippines" - "foundation" of Merida in Yucatán - guerrilla war of Quimbaya natives - 4th war between Charles V and Francis I - bones of Columbus to Santo Domingo

Here are indications of the Library of Congress:

<
Las Casas is known as a champion of the rights of native Americans. In this document, he presented a petition to help enforce new laws for America enacted in Spain in 1542. Through it he presented arguments to the Spanish governing body, the Consejo de las Indias [Council of the Indies], regarding the conduct of the religious orders concerning the issues of slavery, death, and rampant disregard for native life.>
Library of Congress: http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/guide/general.html (April 2005)


Bartolomé de las Casas writing
Bartolomé de las Casas writing [87]

Charles V
now is reinstalling the "reform laws" with the prohibition of slavery. This prohibition of slavery is even a constant part of the reform laws". But already enslaved persons remain slaves
-- thus there is no liberation of the slaves (abolitionism)
-- but slavery is continued normally in the frontier regions and in the territories with war where it is serving and useful for the state (Reinhard, vol.II, p.59).

Spain, colonies: "Native protection laws", "reductions" 1542 (-1545)
-- the natives are considered free vassals of the Crown now
-- "protection territories" are installed ("reductions") (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225)
-- the Crown is giving the right to the conquerers claiming taxes from the natives which can also be with the delivery of goods (natural produce)
-- at the same time the conquerers have to "assist" the natives "in a Christian way" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225).

[DTV history atlas is concealing what means "Christian way" in practice, but we are not concealing this]:

In Mexico and in Peru the "protectorate" called "encomienda" is installed. This is a law of concentration camp against the natives, a feudal suppressive system as it was on "Hispańola":

-- a Spaniard gets a part of his robbed land as a feud
-- and with the feud a certain number of natives are "apportioned" with forced labor or tribute liability (tax)
-- there is forced instruction with the "true belief" - which should be catholicism
-- and for the slightest reason there are heavy penalties like hanging - burning - cut noses - or being torn into pieces by dogs (Jestrabek).

Torture and death penalty by "Christian" Church
"Christian" Torture: The
                            questioned person is hanged on the hands
"Christian" Torture: The questioned person is hanged on the hands [88]
"Christian" death penalty
                            against natives with hanging 01
"Christian" death penalty against natives with hanging 01 [89]
"Christian" death penalty
                            against natives with hanging 02
"Christian" death penalty against natives with hanging 02 [89]



"Christian" death penalty
                            against natives and others with a stake 01
"Christian" death penalty against natives and others with a stake 01 [90]
"Christian" death penalty
                            against natives and others with a stake 02
"Christian" death penalty against natives and others with a stake 02 [91]
"Christian" death penalty
                            against natives and others with a stake 03
"Christian" death penalty against natives and others with a stake 03 [92]



Water probe: When the
                            bonded person is drowning then he was guilty
                            and had committed the sin...
Water probe: When the bonded person is drowning then he was guilty and had committed the sin... [93]

Torture with a torture box,
                            or there is hammering on the hands
Torture with a torture box, or there is hammering on the hands [94]


[It is obvious that such conditions are similar to the "American", English, Russian and German concentration camps. Any Spanish feud ruler could have his own private concentration camp. But the media and the affected governments did never define these dreadful conditions of slavery and destruction of identity as concentration camp yet.

Is there a memorial day where the natives being victims of the "American Holocaust" are honored?]

And it's even worse:
Just after the announcement of the protection law for the natives the Spanish colonialists are performing an upheaval now. After the announcement of the "native friendly" laws in "biru" / Peru / New Castile an upheaval of the Spanish is outbreaking there (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

[Emperor Charles V is not intervening but is "diverted" by his wars against Francis I...]

Peru: In 1542 / 1543 follows the "foundation" of the "Viceroyalty of Peru" under the governor of Vaca de Castro (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225). After the civil war the new Spanish governor Vaca de Castro "is reordering the conditions". (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56)

[How the measures of Castro are in detail is not reported].

New capital of this "Viceroyalty of Peru" is "King's Town" ("Ciudad de los reyes") which is later called "Lima" (Jestrabek).

Cristóbal Vaca de Castro: founder of the
                      "Viceroyalty of Peru"

Cristóbal Vaca de Castro: founder of the "Viceroyalty of Peru" [95]

The newly occupied regions of the Andes (today's Bolivia) are "integrated" into the new Viceroyalty of Peru [web13].

Cultural destruction in Peru: paintings with "indecent colors" are destroyed

Native painting in South "America" was without knowledge about perspective or depictions of shadows. But the colors were that intensive that the racist "Christian" colonialists rated these colors as "indecent" and "sinful" and all paintings of the natives (indigenas) were destroyed by this. The rich web site about potato history (www.kartoffelgeschichte.de) is reporting this just in a footnote:

(original in German:
<Die Bevölkerung Südamerikas zu Zeiten der spanischen Eroberung war erstaunt und überwältigt von den Bildern der Europäer. Die Sehgewohnheiten der europäischen Maler des 16. Jahrhunderts unterschieden sich von denen der indigenen Zeichner. Die Spanier waren an der naturalistischen Kunst der italienischen Renaissance geschult, die ihre Gegenstände mit Linearperspektive und modellierendem Hell-Dunkel im Feld festhielt. Die »indianischen « Figuren und Dinge waren ohne diese Perspektive, schattenlos und in knallig-bunten Farben mehr symbolisch abgebildet. Dominikaner-, Franziskaner- und Augustinermönche ­waren ob dieser Malerei schockiert, so daß es »gerade in der Anfangszeit in Mexiko – zu massenhaften Verbrennungen der Faltcodices der einheimischen Künstler kam; die »grelle« Farbgebung galt als unzüchtig und die gefiederte Schlage Quetzalcoátl als heidnisch. Dieses Wüten erschwert die heutige Forschung.  Diego Valades, ein »Mestize«, der in der von Mönchen eingerichteten Malerschule des Pedro da Gante lernte, empfahl in seiner 1579 gedruckten Schrift »Rhetorica Christiana« den Einsatz der christlich-europäischen Malerei bei der Missionierung der Indios.> [web29]


Translation:
<The population of South "America" during the Spanish occupations was surprised by the pictures of the Europeans. The common customs of European painting in the 16th century were very different from the ones of the native drawers. Spaniards were trained in naturalistic arts and in Italian renaissance depicting their objects with linear perspective and modeled bright and dark in the field. The "native" figures and objects were without perspective, without shadows but colorful in intensive colors, also more symbolically. Now the Dominican, Franciscan and Augustinian monks were shocked of this painting so "just at the beginning in Mexico - there were many burning actions of the folded book codices of the local artists; the "intensive" colors were considered as indecent and the feathered snake Quetzalcoatl was rated as element of non-believers. This destructiveness of the Spaniards makes the today's research very difficult. Diego Valades was a "mestizo" who was learning in the painting schools of Pedro da Gante - the schools were run by monks. In 1579 Valades was recommending in his scripture "Rhetorica Christiana" that Christian European painting should also be an element of missioning the natives.> [web29]

"Philippines": In 1542 the "Philippines" are conquered by the Spanish and millions of persons are deprived of their rights under Spanish leadership of Mr. Ruy Lopéz de Villalobos (Reinhard, vol.I, p.72).

Yucatán Peninsula: Spanish "foundation" of the town of Mérida [web14].

Yucatan Peninsula: Map with the
                            position of the town of Merida Yucatan Peninsula: Map with the position of the town of  Merida [96]


South "America", high plains 1542 (-1604): The Quimbaya natives can perform a successful guerrilla war against the Spaniards in the territory of today's Columbia (Jestrabek).

What was destroyed and robbed with the Quimbaya culture?

Golden culture of Quimbaya natives in today's Columbia
Gold mask of Quimbaya
Gold mask of Quimbaya [97]
Golden earrings of Quimbaya 01
Golden earrings of Quimbaya 01 [98]
Golden earrings of Quimbaya 02
Golden earrings of Quimbaya 02 [99]
Woman in a costume of Quimbaya natives
                            with feathers and a bra of gold
Woman in a costume of Quimbaya natives with feathers and a bra of gold [100]



big photo: http://www.nemosto.net/tomo3.html




Quimbaya sitting figurine in gold
                              (extraterrestrial)bigger photo
Quimbaya sitting figurine in gold (extraterrestrial) [101]
Quimbaya dancer (extraterrestrial) as a
                            golden plate
Quimbaya dancer (extraterrestrial) as a golden plate [102]
Quimbaya badge in gold
Quimbaya badge in gold [103]
Quimbaya helmet hammered in gold
Quimbaya helmet hammered in gold [104]




Unrolled finger ring of Quimbaya
                            culture with a lizard
Unrolled finger ring of Quimbaya culture with a lizard [105]
Unrolled Quimbaya finger ring with two
                            heads of birds
Unrolled Quimbaya finger ring with two heads of birds [106]
Unrolled Quimbaya finger ring with a
                            sitting figure
Unrolled Quimbaya finger ring with a sitting figure [107]

In 1542 in Europe Francis I is forming a new coalition beginning the fourth war against Charles V. (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237)

The bones of Columbus and of his son Diego are brought and buried in the cathedral of Santo Domingo [web15].

[Supplement: The tactic of the whites against the natives in South "America" before and after the independences

So one can say that the "Eldorado" / "gold land" and "biru" / "gold land" were just realities. It can even be that a part of Europe's gold smith's skills is coming from Columbia.

The white colonialist were robbing what they could, and most of it was shipped to Spain. These ships were attacked then and thus a big part of the gold from South "America" landed on the ocean floor. Or the gold was "invested" into wars or expeditions. For sure it was melt. Until today the mines are in the hands of the whites, for example Rothschild with emerald mines, guarded by private armies etc.

Did anybody say anything about compensation?

But it's coming even worse: After the "independences" the situation is hardly changing for the natives or is even becoming worse: Spanish Crown was protecting the natives partly. But with the independences this protection by the Spanish Crown was abrogated and the white rulers of the "independent" governments were acting just against the remnant natives (e.g. in Chile).

All in all the countries in South "America" would also have the force for competing the "U.S.A." seriously. Since the independences the governments of South "America" are mostly whites ("Christians", sometimes also Jews), and most of them are racist against the natives and they are bribed by "U.S.A." in the "ONU".

Since the independences the policy of "U.S.A." - above all CIA - is destabilizing systematically the countries of South "America". Therefore the natives and the primary nations themselves have hardly any chance in South "America". "U.S.A." and CIA are financing civil wars there (e.g. in Columbia), let contaminate complete regions and rivers under the pretext acting against "drugs" wherever it can be (e.g. in Columbia, but Bush Family is one of the biggest drug dealer gangs), they are destabilizing currencies, they are organizing coups (e.g. in Chile) etc. for having a "frontier" for ever and therefore the populations are never allowed to be independent (see the spying scandal of NSA in 2014 going down to Brazil). The Peruvian government is also involved in world wide drug dealing (they lost already several national airlines because of transports of drugs), they are collaborating with the Vatican dealing drugs (therefore "Christianity" will never be abrogated in Peru), and they are stockpiling their funds in Switzerland (Peruvian newspaper's news).

That means: "Biru" never may be "Biru" again, and Quimbaya and other Columbian natives are never allowed to be chiefs in their own country because the "Christians" and mestizos in South "America" have the big money and weapons. The same counts for Mapuche in Chile and Argentina where in Argentina oil was found on Mapuche territory but never given anything from the profit to the Mapuches. Not only this: Songs, dances, fairy tales, myths almost all is destroyed and exterminated and the "Christian" governments want to keep this also like this.

Did anybody say anything about law of nations?]


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1543

62.
Name "Philippines" - concentration camps and forced labor for natives in mines and production plants: "mita" system

"Philippines": Whereas the Spanish claims for the "Philippines" are contradicted by Portugal claiming the partition of the world by the Tordesillas Treaty Lopez de Villalobos is giving the name "Islas Filipinas" to the islands according to the Spanish crown prince who becomes later king Philipp II. Mindanao Island is called "Caesarea Caroli" honoring Charles V.
(Payer: Philippinen)

Peru: Since 1543 the natives in Peru are forced to settle in reductions with forced labor ("mita") in the mines and factories. The language of the natives in Peru is mostly Quechua and is kept as a national language there first.

But temples are destroyed and on the basement of the temples churches are built. See the quotation from Jestrabek (from: Ursula Schlenther: Aus dem Vorwort zur Anthologie 'Ketschua - Lyrik')
:

(original in German:
<Gleichzeitig verfolgten die spanischen Eroberer und ihre katholischen Handlanger jedoch fanatisch das 'heidnische' - mit der Ketschua-Sprache engstens verbundene - Gedankengut der Indianer und errichteten auf den Ruinen ihrer Tempel weithin sichtbar ihre Kirchen. Aber bis auf den heutigen Tag hat die christliche Lehre in den Menschen - denen sie das Heil bringen sollte und für die sie nur mit Blut und Qual verbunden war - nicht feste Wurzeln schlagen können.>)


Translation:
<At the same time the Spanish conquerors and their catholic servants were following fanatically to destroy and exterminate all "non-believers" - which were tight in connection with the Quechua language - destroying their spiritual base destroying all temples building new well visible churches on the ruins. But until today the Christian doctrine could not root in their hearts - which should bring a salvation but was only blood and torture for them.>

[Churches were built by the natives probably? Whole Central and South "America" became a huge concentration camp now for the natives with some isolated islands in the jungle. Is there a compensation?]

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1544

63.
Spanish protestant coalition against Francis I - French Spanish coalition against protestants - petition for a council in Trient - university of Königsberg - Spanish Amazon expedition is a success - more resistance by natives in Peru despite of the murder of Capac II - Peru's viceroy Vela projecting the abrogation of the "protectorate" ("encomienda")

The empire assembly (Imperial Diet) in Germany in the town of Speyer in 1544 is promising Charles V. a national assembly. With this he wins the support of the protestant German princes of the empire and he can for a new coalition threatening his enemies Francis I and Paris. (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237)

During the "peace of Crépy" Francis I
-- is giving in
-- is assuring Charles V help against the protestant imperial estates
-- and is resigning to Naples.

Charles V gives Burgundy back. Now Charles V and Francis I are commonly against the protestants. Charles V is inducing Pope Paul III for a "clarification" of the religious questions at an assembly (council) in Trient. (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237)

In the same year of 1544 the second evangelic university is founded in Königsberg. (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.235)

South "America": A Spanish continental expedition under the leadership of Orellana is passing the rivers Marańón and Amazon, and they reach the sea shore. (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225)


Map with the route of the
                                  expedition in 1544 under Orellana on
                                  Marańón River and Amazon River

Map with the route of the expedition in 1544 under Orellana on Marańón River and Amazon River [108]


In 1544 in Peru Manco Capac II is murdered. But the Incas are resisting on against the Spaniards (DTV lexicon vol.8, p.291).

In Peru the first viceroy Blasco Nuńez de Vela (1544-1546) is projecting the abrogation of the encomienda system [protectorates; but it will last 100 to 200 years until there will be no one left to "protect"...]


1544-1546: Blasco Nuńez de Vela, first viceroy of Peru

Blasco Nuńez de Vela
Blasco Nuńez de Vela [109]
(original in German:
"1544 bis 1546 war er der erste Vizekönig von Peru. Amtsantritt war der 18.September 1544, um die Encomiendas ["Schutzherrschaft"] abzuschaffen. Er war mit Gonzalo Pizarro konfrontiert, der die Rebellion der Encomendoren einleitete."


Translation:
<From 1544 to 1546 he was the first viceroy of Peru. He began his post on Sept 18, 1544 with the project to abolish the encomienda system ("protectorate"). He was confronted with Gonzalo Pizarro who was the starting power for the rebellion of the encomienda bosses (endomenderos).>
***
1544: world map by Sebastian Caboto
1544: world map by Sebastian
                                Caboto
bigger photo In 1544 Sebastian Caboto is presenting a new world map in Spain. Then he is in the service of the English Crown again [110].


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1545

64.
Council of Trient without protestants - Yucatán Peninsula is almost occupied completely - detection of silver mines in Potosí - foundation of the town of Potosí - holocaust against natives by forced labor in mines in Potosí: 8 million deads

At the Council of Trient for consultations about belief the protestant imperial estates [from Germany] are rejecting to be there (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237), because the council has got the goal to "ensure the unity of belief and church". At the council itself there are differences between emperor (reform) and Pope (dogma).

The consultations are lasting many years with many changes of location and rests until 1563, thus the discussion is lasting 18 years within the catholic Church. (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.239)

The Yucatán Peninsula is almost completely under Spanish regime now under Francisco de Montejo. The occupation is considered completed for Montejo whereas there are some spots of resistance to conquer yet (Reinhard, vol.II, p.54).

Potosí: Detection of the silver mines in the mountain of Potosi in 1545
Map with the positions of
                              Potosi, in 1545 this was Peru, today it is
                              Bolivia
Map with the positions of Potosi, in 1545 this was Peru, today it is Bolivia [111]
Map with Potosi with profile of
                              height Map with Potosi with profile of height [122]

Potosi is not existing yet in this year. The town has just to be built yet, with a little river, over 4,000 m over sea level in the desert.

This is the "Rich Mountain" ("Cerro Rico") of Potosí [113]. But the town has to be built first, and this will be much slavery work...
This is the "Rich Mountain"
                              ("Cerro Rico") of Potosí
"Rich Mountain" ("Cerro Rico") in a depiction of the cartographer Mr. Hermann Moll [114]

White imperialists were presenting this mountain in an exaggerating way of course because the natural dimensions of the mountain are not enough impressive for the world dominators in Europe...
"Rich Mountain"
                              ("Cerro Rico") in a depiction of
                              the cartographer Mr. Hermann Moll


In the year of 1545 the town of "Potosí" is founded in 4,200 meters over sea level on the river of the "Rich Mountain" ("Cerro Rico"). This mountain's resources contain the richest tin resources in the world for this epoch. Next to tin this mountain is also containing silver, tungsten and copper [web17].

Potosí: today in Bolivia, in former times in Peru

Since April 1945 Potosi is converting into an important mining location and is growing without order for being a town in the countryside.

Charles V is providing the town an emblem and the title "Imperial Town" ("Villa Imperial"). This town is growing now in a region
-- which is completely isolated in the Andes
-- without communication ways
-- without any organized agriculture for storing food
-- in a world which was "detected" just before and is absolutely hostile to life.

The emblem of Potosi seems to be
                              beautiful for hiding the holocaust which
                              happened in Potosi...
The emblem of Potosi seems to be beautiful for hiding the holocaust which happened in Potosi... [115]


But the mountain of Potosi is producing [on the base with native and black slaves with mass murder of 10,000 slaves] an economic "wonder" with effect up to Europe. And now the conquerers will try out new means and "working models" for the "miners" [web18].

This first time of the exploitation in the mines is very "unorganized" [web13].

[The big part of the money which is coming from the mines in Central and South "America" is flowing to Europe being lost in the wars there...]

Potosí: This is the "Rich
                              Mountain" of Potosi in an absolute
                              wrong and too high depiction in
                              "First Part of the Chronicle of
                              Peru" ["Parte primera de la
                              chronica del Perú"] by Pedro de Cieza
                              de León in 1553
Potosí: This is the "Rich Mountain" of Potosi in an absolute wrong and too high depiction in "First Part of the Chronicle of Peru" ["Parte primera de la chronica del Perú"] by Pedro de Cieza de León in 1553 [116].



Already León was depicting the mountain much too high. The slaves did "good work" as it seems, because between 1545 and 1553 just a complete town has been created. How many dead natives may be in these houses and churches?

Slavery was working well and the "protection laws" were just for nothing:

Quotation by Jestrabek:

(original in German:
<Durch die Zwangsarbeit "mita" starben in den Minen - v.a. In den berüchtigten Silberminen des Bergs  Potosi - Millionen. Die Arbeiter in Potosi hatten eine 90 % Letalität [Todesrate] zu erwarten. Insgesamt soll allein dieser Ort [Potosí] acht Millionen Zwangsarbeitern das Leben gekostet haben. - soviel zum "Schutz".> (Jestrabek)


Translation:
<By forced labor in the "mita system" were killed millions in the mines - above all in the legendary silver mines of the mountain of Potosi. The workers in Potosí had a lethality [death rate] of 90%. All in all only this location [of Potosí] is said having produced 8 million deads within the forced laborers. - This about the "protection".> (Jestrabek)


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1546

65.
Rebellion of Xiu Maya on Yucatan Peninsula - Welser family giving up Venezuela - victory of the encomienda bosses in Peru - murder of viceroy Vela - Pizarro's projects for an independence of Peru are sabotaged by La Gasca - religious war in Europe

In Uxmál on Yucatan Peninsula the Xiu Maya are performing a rebellion. (A.Baumann: mesoamerika/maya-uxmal.htm)

Map with the position of Uxmal on
                            Yucatan Peninsula, today Mexico
Map with the position of Uxmal on Yucatan Peninsula, today Mexico [117]


Venezuela: Welser family is suffering a defeat in a process and they have to give up Venezuela / Little Venice (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Peru: In the battle of Ańaquito on January 18, 1546 viceroy Blasco Nuńez de Vela is dying. His party is loosing the battle against the encomienda bosses [web19].

In other words:
Within the Spanish rebellion the viceroy of Peru / "New Castile" is murdered (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

After the murder of the viceroy Gonzalo Pizarro is governing as an uncrowned king and is flirting with independence.

Adoration for Gonzalo Pizarro on a
                            Peruvian stamp in racist times of 1942
Adoration for Gonzalo Pizarro on a Peruvian stamp in racist times of 1942 [118]


Royal "special agent", Pedro de la Gasca, a cleric of the inquisition council, can achieve to manipulate the important merchants of Lima (King's Town) on the side of the Crown. In this way he is hindering a success of the independence projects of Gonzalo Pizarro (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

And also Chile is involving: Pedro de Valvidia, the conquerer of Chile, is also very "successful" in the civil war in Peru against Gonzalo Pizarro (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Pedro de la Gasca,
                            Portrait
Pedro de la Gasca [119]
Pedro de Valvidia,
                            Portrait
Pedro de Valvidia [120]

In 1546/1547 in Europe there is beginning the first religious war in southern and central Germany, "Schmalkaldic War" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237).


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1547

66.
Protestant defeat in Europe - council of Trient is shifted to Bologna - second Xiu rebellion in Yucatán and Spanish occupation - death of Cortés - Spanish North "America" - Charles V dictating an "interim" - expedition to the western coast without gold findings

Europe: The protestant armies are loosing a battle near Mühlberg in Germany. The outlawed protestant leaders Philipp of Hesse and Johann Friedrich of Saxony are detained (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237). The electoral dignity is transmitted from Friedrich of Saxony (Ernestine) by the "Wittenberg Deal" ("Wittenberger Kapitulation") on Moritz of Saxony (Albertine) (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237).

In 1549 the council of Trient is interrupted and is shifted to Bologna (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.239).

Uxmál: After the second rebellion of the Xiu Maya natives in Uxmál the Spanish conquerors can occupy the town. With this also the Xiu Maya, one of the most powerful Maya tribes of the Maya world, are loosing it's self determination [web01].

Spain: Cortés is falling ill. He decides to go to Mexico but on the way in summer he is dying in Seville where he is buried.

(from Internet: R.S.Cartwright: Kolumbus, Cortez, the Aztec, & the Quincentennial)

or:
He is withdrawing to a little village near Sevilla and is dying there.ˇ
(from: Encarta Online Concise: article: Cortés, Hernán)

The male successors of Cortés are always suspect in the eyes of the administrators. On the feminine line there are from the second marriage Sicilian barons and from Malintzin / Dońa Marina there are "noble Mexicans" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.54).

Europe, Augsburg: During the "harsh" Empire council (Imperial Diet) of Augsburg in 1547/1548 Charles V is dictating the so called "Interim" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237):

-- Charles V is granting the protestant imperial estates only the lay chalice in the divine service and the priest marriage is also permitted until there will be a "clarification" by another council (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.235)

-- at the same time "reforms in the empire" should be performed, and "Spanish successions" should come

-- as "Roman Emperor" should be appointed Philipp and not Ferdinand whereas Ferdinand was elected to be a "Roman king" in 1531 already

->> The protestant imperial princes are worried about their "liberality" (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237).

Mexico: The successor of Cortés, viceroy Mendoza, is continuing the "search" at the western coast line of North "America". But as no gold can be found there is no Spanish occupation first (Reinhard, vol.II, p.54).

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1548-1549

67.
Peru: Pizarro executed - "merits" of Chile's conquerer Valdivia - beginning of the "Jesuit mission" in Peru in 154

Within an intrigue by Pedro de la Gasca Mr. Gonzales Pizarro is defeated and executed in the name of the Crown (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56).

Pedro de Valdivia, the conquerer of Chile, is getting significant "merits" within this action (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

Civil war in Peru is going on first (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56). Pedro de la Gasca is confirming Valdivia. Valdivia is returning to Chile, but he wants the confirmation by Charles V and is writing him reports directly (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

In 1549 the "Jesuit mission" is beginning in Peru. Today this territory is within Bolivia (Jestrabek).



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1550

68.
Diaz del Castillo in the Indian Council - victory of Araucans (Mapuches) in Peru - Peru's coast line is free of natives - Lima is absolutely loyal to the Emperor - new orientation in the European trade and world wide rise of the coastal states - "Europeanization" of the world

Spain: In 1550 Bernal Diaz del Castillo gets the post as a speaker of the old conquerers in the Indian Council of Valladolid (Huby, p.109).

Peru: 4,000 Araucans (Mapuches) under Toquui Ayavilla are attacking the colonial Spanish troops under Valvilla. In the following time the fight is continued under Caupolicán and Lautaro. The rebellious natives are winning (Jestrabek).

Peru since 1550 appr.: The natives at the coast line are "resettled" or expelled and they are "replaced" by whites. In the highlands the populations remain almost completely how they were around 1430 (Reinhard, vol.II, p.63).

[Supplement: Natives only survive
-- when they survive the murderous slavery
-- when they are not recruited for slavery].

Since 1550 there is an "ordered regime" in the "Ciudad de los Reyes"/ "King's Town" [later: Lima] (Reinhard, vol.II, p.56)

[this means a racist regime that whites are permitted and natives are not allowed in the town].

Europe: At the same time the trade currents are changing now in Europe. By the European occupation and exploitation of Central and South "America" the focus of trade is shifted from the European inland seas to the coast lines of the Atlantic, thus from the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Mediterranean to the Atlantic. Leading trading towns are now Lisbon, Sevilla and Rotterdam, and the towns leading until those times Lübeck, Venice and Genoa are only in the second row (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225).

New trade products in Europe from "America
Now there are new products from the colonial territories from "America" like potatoes, corn, and tobacco, and in general the world wide trade is "rising" by slavery in the plantations. At the same time the conquered territories are also customers for European products.

Now also trusts are founded because of risen need of capital, and these trusts are favoring the foundation of new monopolies, and this is favoring big capitalist ventures which also have a political value (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225).

Definitive "rise" of the border states of Europe - "Europeanization" of the whole world
The political significance of central Europe is reduced, and the political significance of the western border states at the coast lines is rising. Portugal and Spain become great powers. The Netherlands, France and England only have some merchant fleets first and they are pirates on the oceans (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225).

"Europeanization" of the earth is going on now. Europeans are building and using big sailing boats now, and they are transporting slaves without end. They are shifting populations and they are mixing races.

By this process the "mental horizon" in Europe is broadened step by step by the knowledge about new cultures and by the knowledge about sciences, above all concerning geography, ethnology and philology (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225).

[But:
-- racism in Europe against all other peoples of the world is going on
-- the criminal European are forcing to all natives and to the whole world their trade system with their money economy
-- and about many native nation there is only written something when the "American Holocaust" has completed it's work already...]

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1551

69.
Council in Bologna with protestants - rebellion in Magdeburg (Germany) and condemnation of Magdeburg - negotiations Magdeburg-France - Spanish university in Lima - viceroy of Peru Mendoza

Following the order of Charles V there are also protestant representatives at the council of Trient which is taking place in Bologna now (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.239).

In 1551 the German town of Magdeburg is rebelling against the "Interim". And what is doing the authority? The town of Magdeburg is outlawed ("Reichsacht") (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

After this outlaw action Mr. Moritz of Saxony is ordered to perform this outlaw action, but now he is forming a secret rebellion of the princes. He is negotiating with Henry II from France (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

In "King's Town" / "Ciudad de los reyes" [later called Lima] the first big Spanish [racist] university [San Marcos] is founded (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225).

[It can be admitted that
-- whites were allowed to study
-- the members of the "upper class" with mestizos are allowed to study
-- the natives are not counting because they have hardly any money
-- the natives have to accept slavery
-- all wisdom of the natives about nature and life are not counting anything or is sold by the whites as if it would be the wisdom of the whites...]

Peru 1551(-1552): Second viceroy Antonio de Mendoza
Second viceroy of Peru Antonio de
                            Mendoza
Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza [121]
(original in German:
"Mendoza ist der zweite Vizekönig. Er übernimmt sein Amt am 12.September 1551 und beginnt mit einer Arbeit zur Ordnung im sozialen und administrativen Bereich. In seiner Regierungszeit wird die Universität San Marcos gegründet. Er stirbt in Lima am 21.Juli 1552." [Grund?]. [web19]

Translation:
<Mendoza is the second viceroy. He is taking his office on September 12, 1551 and is beginning with his work ordering the social and administrative sector. During his government San Marcos University [in Lima] is found. He is dying in Lima on July 21, 1552.> [no reason for his death is indicated]. [web19]


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1552

70.
Coalition Magdeburg-France - flight of Charles V - status quo between catholics and protestants in the "Passau Treaty" - 4 years war between Charles V and French Protestant coalition - England searching for an "eastern way" in the polar sea - history book "Historia" by Lopez de Gomara in favor of the conquerers - charge of Bartolomé de las Casas against the Spanish occupants: depiction of the holocaust against the natives

German protestant princes under Moritz of Saxony are achieving a "treaty of Chambord" with Henry II of France: Henry II is promised an internship over Metz, Toul and Verdun when he lets fight against Charles V.

->> Charles V gets information about this secret maneuver and is taking a flight evading the German protestant troops of Moritz of Saxony. He is going from Innsbruck to Villach (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

->> Moritz of Saxony is turning out as the savior of protestantism, as a "Judas of Meissen". (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.235)

Elector Moritz of Saxonia
Elector Moritz of Saxonia [122]
Henry II of France
Henry II of France [123]


After this flight of Charles V the council of Bologna is dissolved. (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.239)

Now the Pope and the Evangelic Church are concluding the "Passau Treaty" acknowledging and fixing the status quo of the Catholic and Evangelic Church. (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.235)

From 1552 on (to 1556) Charles V is fighting in vain against France about the towns of Metz, Toul and Verdun which were promised to France as an internship. The war without success should last four years (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237).

[Charles V cannot prevail his fixed idea of a unique belief].

England: In 1552 Sebastian Caboto is founding the "Muscovy Company" with the goal to find a passage in the north east to India. The ships of the expedition are opening England the Russian market [web20].

[and in Petersburg may be some thoughts are coming up by these actions how beautiful it would be to have an own port at the eastern Asian coast line for Indian products].

Historiography: In 1552 López de Gómara is publishing the first time the "History of Spanish Territories in the 'New World' " with considerable sympathy for the conquerer, especially for Pizarro and Cortés.

Francisco López de Gómara:
                            "Historia delle nuove Indie
                            Occidentali" [History of occidental New
                            India"]; Italian edition, Venice,
                            Giovanni Bonadio, 1564
Francisco López de Gómara: "Historia delle nuove Indie Occidentali" [History of occidental New India"]; Italian edition, Venice, Giovanni Bonadio, 1564 [124]

The cover shows us the "Christian" bully murderer with a thorned stick. Worse it cannot be...

Comment: This is the proof for any destructiveness of "Christianity"
The power of the Europeans against the natives came by fire arms and horses. It seems strange that these factors are not depicted here. The Spanish bully boy is just the symbol for Spanish "Christian" Nazism and for the power which was performing the holocaust against the loosers. This cover was not forbidden nor censored. With this cover the "Christian" noblemen have clearly defined themselves as a destructive mad beast which they partly were in the 1950s yet - e.g. against the blacks in the criminal "U.S.A." I never saw such a dreadful depiction of the whites with such a butcher's stick drawn by the natives.


Charles V is considering that this "History" ("Historia") of López would be too friendly yet [!] and he lets prohibit it for the Spanish territory. But despite of the critics this "Historia" was edited almost 20 times during the 16th century [web21].


In the same year the accusation of Bartolomé de las Casas is published claiming against the holocaust committed against the natives by the conquerers.

1552-1553: Bartolomé de las Casas: report about the holocaust against the natives [125]
1552-1553: Bartolomé de las Casas:
                              report about the holocaust against the
                              natives

bigger photo The photo shows the first page of the complaint of Bartholomé de Las Casas: "Brevissima relación de la destruycion de las Indias" ["Short description of the extermination of the natives"]; nine chapters about the natives. Sevilla, Sebastian Trugillo, 1552-1553


The indications of Penn Library are the following:

<In 1550, Las Casas took a leading part in Spanish royal inquiries into the treatment of the Indians in the New World. In response to assertions by the Spanish Bishop Sepúlveda that the Indians were less than human and therefore fit to be slaves of the Spanish, Las Casas prepared nine essays, eight of which were published in 1552 and the ninth in 1553.

The Dominican was keenly aware of the power of the printed word, so much so that he ignored the need to secure royal permission before publishing these treatises. With their wide ranging indictment of Spanish atrocities, they exploded onto the European scene. Las Casas became Spain's witness against itself.> [web22]

<Las Casas's critique is particularly powerful because Las Casas was not only a master of important traditions of Scholastic philosophy and logic, he was also an acute observer who reported on the situation of the Indians in an immediate, persuasive style.> [web23]

[Well, all this is not useful for the natives any more because a big part of them is already exterminated].

1552: world map "Die Nüw Welt" ("New World") by Sebastian Münster [126]
1552: world map "Die Nüw
                              Welt" ("New World") by
                              Sebastian Münster
bigger photo On this world map of Mr. Münster the continents of North "America" and Asia are clearly separated. But the distance between North "America" and Japan is too little yet.


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1553

71.
Chronicle of Peru by Cieza de León - first Spanish university in Mexico - "foundation" of Santiago del Estero - victory by the Araucans (Mapuche) in Chile

Peru 1553: historiography: report by Pedro de Cieza de León
Peru 1553: historiography: report by
                              Pedro de Cieza de León

bigger photo Pedro de Cieza de León: "Parte primera de la chronica del Peru". ["First part of the chronicle of Peru"]; Sevilla: Martin de Montesdoca, 1553 [127]

Also here we have indications from the Penn Library:

<An accomplished autodidact, Cieza went to Peru just after the conquests to seek his fortune. While there, he became an acute recorder of a rapidly passing Inca culture.

Coming from a richly ceremonial and politicized society, he was sensitive to manifestations of Inca ceremony and politics. He contrasted the sophisticated world of the Incas with that of outlying indigenous groups and interrogated natives in an attempt to learn about their beliefs and traditions.> [web24]

[Remark:
This big crown on the picture is the mirror for the megalomania and for the unreal world in which the Spanish "Christian" Crown was living. Such crowns of the nobles are normal in the emblems of the nobles of today in Europe - even in Switzerland - and are not removed until today].

In 1553 in Mexico City the first Spanish "university" of "New Spain" is founded. (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225)

In eastern Peru [today's "Argentina"] the town of Santiago del Estero is founded in the province of Tucuman (Huby, p.58).

Chile: The Mapuche naives (Araucans) are winning a battle in 1553 against the Spanish colonial invasion army. Valdivia is loosing the battle and his life. The natives are going on keeping the frontier at Bio Bio River south of the town of Concepción (Reinhard, vol.II, p.57).

This frontier with the natives is kept until about the middle of the 19th century [web25]. [With the independence of Chile the racist white nobles of Chile are driving for the extermination of the Mapuches who are loosing the protection of the Spanish Crown then].

Mapuche natives ("Araucans") in the south of today's Chile
Flag of the Mapuches
Flag of the Mapuches; In: Caleta Olivia - Santa Cruz - Argentina: "Portal a los Hielos Eternos" [128]
Landscape of southern Chile with a
                              volcano at the horizon
Landscape of southern Chile with a volcano at the horizon [129]
Original Mapuche house
                              "ruca"
Original Mapuche house "ruca" [130]
Original Mapuche house 02, round
                              house
Original Mapuche house 02, round house [131]




Mapuche daughter in
                              today's Chile
Mapuche daughter in today's Chile [132]
Mapuche women in today's
                              Chile
Mapuche women in today's Chile [132]
Mapuche daughter in
                              today's Chile
Mapuche daughter in today's Chile [132]
Mapuche woman preparing
                              wool
Mapuche woman preparing wool [133]


Araucans (Mapuche)
Traditional wind instrument is "truca". In 1540 Pedro de Valdivia was coming to the south of Chile meeting the Mapuche. This people was called by the Spaniards as "Araucans" and lived between the Aconcagua River in the center of today's Chile down to Chiloé Island in the south. The Mapuches are different groups which are familiar but not identical:
-- there are the "Pehuenche" in the mountain range (this word is derived fro "pehuén", the tree "monkey-puzzle tree", the holy tree of the Mapuches)
-- there are the "Huilliches" in the valleys of today's Valdivia and on Chiloé Island
-- and there are the "Lafquenches" or so called sea men on the coast line.

Only the Huilliches from Chiloé Island were farmers and monogamous. The other Mapuches had almost all polygamy as familiar structure living as nomad hunters, collectors and fishermen. They did not know the wheel. When the resources were scarce in one location then they were just going forward.

Radical Mapuches are considering all not native people in Chile (also mestizos) as foreigners, and of course all Europeans and there descendants. The Mapuches were always fighting against them, when they came from outside or were living with them, for saving customs, traditions, and belief, and the fought for their right for land which was to them from eternity. Here are photos from Hans Hermann Gade (former teacher of the German School in Concepción in Chile) [web26].




Mapuche woman in Chile
Mapuche woman in Chile [134]
Chile: plaited Mapuche basket
Chile: plaited Mapuche basket [134]
Chile: plaited Mapuche saucer
Chile: plaited Mapuche saucer [134]
Chile: Mapuche silver jewelry
Chile: Mapuche silver jewelry [134]




Chile: woven Mapuche belts
Chile: woven Mapuche belts [135]
Chile: Mapuche pottery, vessel
Chile: Mapuche pottery, vessel [135]
Chile: Mapuche pottery, vessel 02
Chile: Mapuche pottery, vessel 02 [136]
Mapuche man plaiting
Mapuche man plaiting [137]



Distinctive Mapuche native
Distinctive Mapuche native [138]
Mapuche (university student) playing
                              the flute
Mapuche (university student) playing the flute [139]
Mapuche chief on the drum
Mapuche chief on the drum [140]



Emblem of Mapuche University
Language teacher from Mapuche
                              University
This is a demonstration
                              of the Mapuche natives against their
                              extermination in 2001 This is a demonstration of the
                                Mapuche natives against their
                                extermination in 2001
Emblem of Mapuche University [141] Language teacher from Mapuche University [142] This is a demonstration of the Mapuche natives against their extermination in 2001 [143];
In: El Canillita No 56 November-December 2001: Conflicto mapuche ''Estamos en peligro de extinción" / Mapuche conflict: "We are in danger of dying out" [military police wants to defend the "rights" of the white oligarchy and of the racists, and the Mapuches will never accept this].


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1555

72.
Religious peace of Augsburg - reform papacy - Peru's viceroy Hurtado de Mendoza

Europe: Representatives of the Catholic and of the Evangelic Church are making an agreement with the "Religious Peace of Augsburg" and there are the rules for the different confessions now:

1st this peace counts only for Lutheran and Catholic confessions
2nd the subjects have to follow the confession of the government (lus reformandi; cuius regio, eius religio) [reformation's right, religion according territories]; only imperial cities get religious tolerance
3d for Church's territories there is an "Church's restriction" (Reservatum ecclesiasticum: an eclesial prince has to give his post away after a personal change of belief)
4th a "Declaratio Ferdinandea" is giving the guarantee of freedom of belief to the nobles and to the town in ecclesial territories.

->> And of course the unclear questions are the germ for new conflicts (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.235).

With Paul IV Carafa the first reformer is becoming a Pope (until 1559) (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.239).

[By this reforming papacy the pressure against Charles V is rising who is dreaming of a "universal empire" with a catholic "unity" yet].

Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV [144]

European guilds: foundation of European "guild" of "Merchant Adventurers" (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.225)
Emblem of the guild "Merchant
                        Adventurers"
Emblem of the guild "Merchant Adventurers" [145]

Peru 1555 (-1561): Third viceroy: Andres Hurtado de Mendoza
Third viceroy of Peru: Andres Hurtado
                              de Mendoza
Viceroy Andres Hurtado de Mendoza [146]
(original in German:
<Er wird 1555 zum dritten Vizekönig ernannt. Er ist bestrebt, subversive Versuche zu unterdrücken. Er sponsert Expeditionen im Urwald des "El Dorado" und finanziert die Stadtgründungen wie La Santa, Cańete, Camana, Cuenca und Mendoza. Er stirbt in Lima 1561.> [web19])

Translation:
<In 1555 the third viceroy is appointed. He is trying to suppress subversive trials. He is sponsoring expeditions to the jungle of "El Dorado" [Peru] and he is financing the foundation of the the towns La Santa, Cańete, Camana, Cuenca, and Mendoza. He is dying in Lima in 1561.> [web19]


"El Dorado"
According to the rich web site "Potato History" (www.kartoffel-geschichte.de) the search for an "El Dorado" (meaning word by word "the gold filled") had it's base on a fantastic history of the Spanish sailor Juan Martinez:

(original in German:
<Dabei war »El Dorado« nur die phantasiereiche Erfindung des spanischen Seemannes Juan Martinez, der nach der ihm zugeschriebenen Explosion eines Pulverturms in ein Kanu ohne Vorräte an der Nordostküste Südamerikas ausgesetzt wurde. Sein Kanu sei nach Guayana getrieben worden, wo er von Indianern (mit verbundenen Augen) zu einer prächtigen Stadt voller Paläste gebracht wurde. Nach sieben Monaten hätten sie ihn mit Gold beladen und wieder mit verbundenen Augen fortgeführt, so daß er – in Trinidad angekommen – bedauerlicherweise nicht den Weg nach El Dorado zeigen könne. Auch hätte er bei einer Flußquerung das ihm mitgegebene Gold leider verloren und nur das nackte Leben retten können.> [web27])


Translation:
<But this "El Dorado" was only a fantasy and an invention of the Spanish sailor Mr. Juan Martinez who was blamed having caused the explosion of an ammunition tower. Then he was abandoned with a canoe without provisions at the north eastern coast of South "America" [in the Caribbean]. His canoe was driven to Guyana then where he (with bandaged eyes) was taken to a gorgeous town full of palaces. And he was telling after 7 months the natives had loaded him with gold and then had taken him away, again with bandaged eyes, so he - having arrived in Trinidad - could not show the way to El Dorado. And he was telling that during a river crossing procedure he had lost all gold and he had saved only his life.> [web27]

And pirate Raleigh was describing in fact a village which had the name of "El Dorado" in Guyana:

<In der Tat gibt es in Guayana einen Ort »El Dorado«, ein Kaff. Raleigh schrieb über dieses Gebiet:

    »Kein Land bietet seinen Bewohnern mehr Annehmlichkeiten als Guayana, sowohl was die üblichen Freuden der Jagd, Falknerei, des Fischens und Vogelfangs anlangt als auch alles Übrige. ... Schöne Städte und mehr mit goldenen Bildnissen geschmückte Tempel, mehr mit Schätzen gefüllte Gräber als Cortés in Mexiko oder Pizarro in Peru«> [27]



<In fact there is a spot "El Dorado" in Guyana. Raleigh wrote about this region:
"A little country is offering his dwellers more comfort than Guyana, concerning the normal joys like hunting, falconry, fishing or capturing birds and all the rest. ... Beautiful towns and more temples with golden pictures, and there are graves filled with more treasures than the graves of Cortés in Mexico or Pizarro in Peru"> [web27]


[Thus one can assume that the whole history is a lie. But stupidness cannot be forbidden unfortunately - and because of their greed for gold of the European nobles one native culture after another was exterminated and eliminated].

[And all resistance is suppressed as it seems. Well done, Mr. "Christian" racist].

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1556-1557

73.
Abdication of Charles V - bones of Cortés to Mexico

After one more defeat against the protestant French coalition in 1556 Charles V is resigning bitterly. He could not at all realize his projects for the reinstallment of a "universal empire". (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237)

Spain, Mexico 1557: The bones of Cortés are shifted to Mexico and are buried there by a convent's school [web28].

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1558

74.
Death of Charles V - successor Emperor Ferdinand - Philipp II governing Spain - death of Philip's wife - no catholicization of England


After the death of Charles V the brother Ferdinand becomes new "Roman Emperor". The son Philipp (II) gets the Spanish heritage (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237).

At the same time Philip's wife, the queen of England Maria I is dying. Successor becomes Elisabeth I.
This English Spanish connection and the catholicization of England are not performed so.
(David Koeller: Bilingual time line of North America:
http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/NorthAmerica/NorthAmerica.html (April 2005)

->> the national state has won against the idea of a universal empire
->> dualism in the empire is deciding in favor of the protestant princes
->> the confessional split is definitively fixed and is becoming more firm (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237).

Philipp II
Philipp II [147]

Jena 1558: foundation of the third evangelic university
(DTV-Atlas I., S.235)

[But also the reformed churches are not doing anything against slavery.

The only war where the white race is making war because of slavery is the "American" Civil War in the "U.S.A." in the middle of the 19th century. This war brings for about 3 years a rite to vote also for the blacks, and then it's abrogated again and is reintroduced only in 1968 again. For the natives there is nothing at all. There is everywhere a quiet accord or there is an "impotence" so the natives can be exterminated - because they are living without clothes or because they are not defending themselves.

To wear no clothes? Practical: Then one has never to buy some...]

Epilogue

And this holocaust against the natives and this slavery did only just begin yet.

In the Bible is written: "Love your neighbor"... but for natives and black this did not count.

The main representative of this racism are the Vatican and the European nobles.

Until today there was no "Nuremberg" for the Vatican and for the nobles...

And now follow over 200 years of slavery yet...

Holocaust... brings big profits to the nobles. Potosí, Potosí... and not only Potosí!

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<<       >>



Sources

Quellen
Reinhard, Wolfgang: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion.
- Bd.I: Die Alte Welt bis 1818. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Köln/Mainz 1983
- Bd.II: Die Neue Welt. Verlag W.Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln, Mainz. Verlagsort: Stuttgart, 1985
 
Huby, Felix. Traumreisen; Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker. Deutscher Bücherbund GmbH, Stuttgart, Hamburg, München, 1980


-- Rahmendaten: DTV-Atlas der Geschichte, DTV-Lexikon
-- Jestrabek: Konquistadoren, Kapital und Kirche; http://home.t-online.de/home/Jestrabek/amerika.htm (April 2005)
u.a.

[web01] Antje Baumann: mesoamerika/maya-uxmal.htm; neu: www.indianer-welt.de (April 2005)
[web02] http://www.berlinonline.de/aktuelles/aktueller_ticker/jahrtausendwende/02/.html/dpa_onl99_0_0224_0224000100.html   (Stand 1999)
[web03] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Francisco Pizarro
[web04] Penn Library: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/viewers/gynaeus8a.html
[web05] Antje Baumann: suedamerika/inka-zeit.htm; neu: www.indianer-welt.de (April 2005)
[web06] Internet: M.Waesch: Hernando Cortez
[web07] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Hernando Cortez
[web08] Internet: Encarta Online Concise: Artikel: Cortés, Hernán
[web09] http://www.analitica.com/va/hispanica/2684818.asp (April 2005)
[web10] The international History of The Horse (IMH): http://www.imh.org/imh/kyhpl2b.html

[web11] Internet: Bilingual timeline of Northamerica: Coronado Expedition:
http://si.unm.edu/abq_2001/jlipow/jlipow_tl/coronado.html (April 2005)
[web12] Internet: R.S.Cartwright: Kolumbus, Cortez, the Aztec, & the Quincentennial
[web13] http://www.ovpm.org/ovpm/sites/apotos.html
[web14] Antje Baumann: mesoamerika/maya-allgemein.htm (Stand 1999); neu: www.indianer-welt.de (April 2005)
[web15] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Christopher Kolumbus
[web16] Virreyes del Peru [webVizekönige von Peru]: http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Land/4029/menuvirrey.htm (April 2005)
[web17] http://khainata.com/dt/d2_bol.html#12 (Stand 1999)
[web18] http//:illimani.umsanet.edu.bo/misc/bolivia/III1351.HTM#iii13515 (Stand 1999)
[web19] Virreyes del Peru: http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Land/4029/menuvirrey.htm (April 2005)
[web20] Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: John Cabot & Sebastian

[web21] Penn Library: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/gomara1.html
[web22] http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/viewers/lascasas9.html  (April 2005)
[web23] http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/viewers/lascasas2.html (April 2005)
[web24] Penn Library: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/chieza1.html   (April 2005)
[web25] Menschen unserer Zeit e.V.: http://www.muz-online.de/america/chile.html (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link mit einer Zusammenfassung über die Geschichte Chiles)
[web26] http://www.bildagentur.org/Lateinamerika/Chile/Mapuche/Mapuche2.htm (April 2005)
[web27] http://www.kartoffel-geschichte.de/Erste_Furche/Gen_Europa/gen_europa.html
[web28] Internet: R.S. Cartwright: Kolumbus, Cortez, the Aztec, & the Quincentennial (Stand 1999)
[web29] http://www.kartoffel-geschichte.de/Erste_Furche/In_Sudamerika/in_sudamerika.html
[web30] Welser, Philippine: http://www.portrait-hille.de/kap07/bild.asp?catnr1=8136&seqnr=3496

Fotoquellen
[1] Karte Uxmal auf Yucatan: http://www.mexperience.com/guide/archaeology/uxmal.htm (April 2005)
[2] Karte mit Quito und Cusco: http://www.salinasyachtclub.org/optiworlds/aboutECU.htm (April 2005)
[3] Atahualpa in Quito: http://usuarios.lycos.es/acuarianguru8m/elsuntra.htm
[4] http://dc.inictel.gob.pe/proyectoteleed/HISTORIA/atahualpa.htm
[5] http://www.geocities.com/webnacionalistaecuador/shyris.htm
[6] http://www.civ3files.com/cgi-bin/Civ3Files.cgi?Page=ShowLeaderheads
[7] http://www.cablenet.com.ni/curiosidades/biografias/atahualpa.html (April 2005)

[8] Bartholomäus Welser: http://www.br-online.de/bildung/databrd/wel2.htm/mater.htm (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)
[9] Hans Welser: http://www.br-online.de/bildung/databrd/wel2.htm/fakten1.htm (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)
[10] Philippine Welser: http://www.portrait-hille.de/kap07/bild.asp?catnr1=8136&seqnr=3496 (April 2005)
[11] Karte mit Augsburg: http://www.suedleasing.de/startseiten/standorte.html (April 2005)

[12] Francisco Pizarro, Portrait: Worldbook:
http://www2.worldbook.com/wc/popup?path=features/explorers&page=html/newworld_pizarro.html&direct=yes (April 2005)
[13] Karte mit Maracaibo in Venezuela: http://www.mipunto.com/venezuelavirtual/000/002/008.html (April 2005)
[14] Karte mit Coro in Venezuela: http://www.mipunto.com/venezuelavirtual/000/002/011.html (April 2005)
[15] Weltkarte von Diego Ribero 1529: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/346.html (April 2005)

[16] Karl V. Krönung, Bild von Dürer: http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/mittelalter/personen/schmitz/vl9899/bild-1.htm (April 2005)
[17] Einzug Karls V.: http://www.bayern.de/HDBG/haed250a.htm  (April 2005)

Peru
[18] Pizarros Besetzungszug, Karte:
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Pizarro (April 2005)
http://www.answers.com/topic/francisco-pizarro (Dezember 2005)
[19] http://www.bigoid.de/conquista/karten.htm (Dezember 2005)
[20] Pizarros Aufstieg ins Peru-Hochland, Karte: Wikipedia Enzyklopaedie: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Pizarro (April 2005)

Mexiko, Guadalupe
[21] Heilige Maria von Guadalupe, Mexiko: http://www.maryourmother.net/Guadalupe.html (April 2005)
[22] Karte mit der Insel Guadalupe, Mexiko: www.ocean.udel.edu/ (April 2005)
[23] zwei Kirchen auf Guadalupe, Mexiko:
http://www.maps-of-mexico.com/photos/d.f/basilica%20de%20guadalupe/basilica-de-guadalupe.shtml (April 2005)
[24] Kirche auf Guadalupe, Mexiko: http://www.teguise.com/historia/guadalupe.html (April 2005)
[25] Jungfrauenkirche auf Guadalupe, Mexiko: http://puebla.turista.com.mx/section-printpage-12.html (April 2005)

Cajamarca
[26] Karte mit Cajamarca: http://www.tuttlekids.com/peru/caxindex.html (April 2005)
[27] Aussicht auf Cajamarca: http://www.ihana.com/big_trip/diary/2003/07/july2003_13.htm (April 2005)
[28] Eindrücke aus Cajamarca: http://www.congreso.gob.pe/congresista/2001/mbustamante/conoce-fotos.htm  (April 2005)
[29] Goldkrone aus Cajamarca: http://www.congreso.gob.pe/congresista/2001/mbustamante/conoce-fotos.htm  (April 2005)
[30] Goldanhänger aus Cajamarca: http://barrioperu.terra.com.pe/portadadelsol/paginas/com-arq.htm (April 2005)

[31] Karte mit Chincha und ganz Süd-"Amerika": http://www.umaine.edu/research/ UMTSeaChange.htm (April 2005)

[32] Franz I., König von Frankreich: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/chateau.beaucamps/Glossaire/F1arts.htm (April 2005)

[33] Atahualpa als Gefangener: La conquęte espagnole: http://Atahualpa.free.fr/civilisations/6_conquete_espagnole.htm (April 2005)

[34] Die Ermordung von Atahualpa: http://history.smsu.edu/jchuchiak/HST%20350--Theme%2011--Execution_of_atahualpa.htm (April 2005)
[35] Die Ermordung von Atahualpa: La conquęte espagnole: http://Atahualpa.free.fr/civilisations/6_conquete_espagnole.htm (April 2005)

[36] Darstellung Menschenfressern auf einer Weltkarte: Penn Library:
http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/kislak/viewers/gynaeus8a.html (April 2005)

[37] Papst Clemens VII.: http://www.uni-duisburg.de/Institute/CollCart/es/sem/s3/e09a.htm (April 2005)
[38] Jacques Cartier auf Briefmarke: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/phillie/SocialStudies/Atlantic/jacques_cartier.htm (April 2005)
[39] Diego de Almagro: http://www.latinotours.de/laenderinfos/chile/geschichte/ (April 2005)

Cusco
[40] Cusco, Treppe: http://www.pucp.edu.pe/elmundo/peru/imagsierra.html (April 2005)
[41] Sicht auf Cusco und Karte mit Cusco:
http://sd71.bc.ca/Sd71/Edulinks/peru/virtperu/virtualperu/www.virtualperu.net/cities_cuzco.html (April 2005)
[42] Lama in Cusco: http://home.hccnet.nl/h.j.brands/Peru_Cuzcowandel_Omgeving2.html (April 2005)
[43] Indigenas mit Lamas in Cusco: http://home.hccnet.nl/h.j.brands/Peru_Cuzco%20Calle.htm
[44] Cusco, Kirche am Zentralplatz: http://www.themulhernadventure.co.uk/peru_cuzco_town.html (April 2005)
[45] Cusco, Häuserreihe am Zentralplatz: http://www.vassfamily.net/chileperu/cp_cuzco.html (April 2005)
[46] Cusco, Zentralplatz mit Springbrunnen und Kirche bei Nacht: http://www.perutraveladventures.com/cuzcoperu.html (April 2005)
[47] Frau aus Cusco: http://www.biz2web.com/grant/Cuzco.htm (April 2005)
[48] Frau preist gewobene Tücher an: http://www.bushfamilyonline.com/html/photoalbums/peru03-market.htm (April 2005; eine andere Familie Bush...)
[49] Cusco, Marktstand mit zwei Frauen: http://www.nahms.de/rep/2000/20001011_Peru/20001011_Peru.html (April 2005; lebendig gehaltener, alternativer Reisebericht über Zustände in Cuzco)
[50] Cusco, Kind auf dem Rücken der Mutter: Llegar a Cuzco: http://www.infocusco.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=8 (April 2005)
[51] Cusco, Mutter mit Kind auf dem Rücken: Perú Natural: http://www.wasai.com/peru/atractivos.htm (April 2005)
[52] Cusco, Mann in Tracht: http://www.sojourn.com.my/contents/2000/01/200001_peru.html (April 2005)
[53] Cusco, Zug in Rot-Gelb: http://nova.and.or.jp/~takama/wallpaper/peru/ (April 2005)
[54] Cusco, Musikgruppe: Q'eromarka: http://home.online.no/~sjpeders/SA-93.html (April 2005)
[55] Cusco, Heutransport zu Fuss: http://www.ddbstock.com/cuzcoper.html (April 2005)

Globus
[56] Globus von Schöner, 1533: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/354.html (April 2005)

[57] Karte der letzten Expeditino unter Cortez 1535:
http://www.louisville.edu/k-12/trinity/Web_pages_98/tarea98/culturewebpages/la_p%E1gina_de_hern%E1n_cort%E9s.html (April 2005)
[58] Karte von Niederkalifornien als Insel: Baja Nomad: http://bajatravel.info/ (April 2005)

[59] Benalcázar: Chronology of a brief history of Ecuadors: http://users.erols.com/tinajero/english.html (April 2005)
[60] Quesada: Die Welser - 3. Indiogold und Schuldenturm: http://www.br-online.de/bildung/databrd/wel3.htm/mater.htm (April 2005)
[61] Nikolaus Federmann, ein Welser: http://www.deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/venezuela.htm (April 2005)
[62] Pedro de Mendoza: http://www.analitica.com/va/hispanica/2684818.asp (April 2005)
[63] Karte von Peru und Bolivien: http://www.latinamerica.co.uk/mapofper.htm (April 2005)
[64] Diego de Almagro, Profil: http://www.pro-ohiggins.cl/libro/cuerpo/2_2_2.asp (April 2005)

[65] Nancy-Globus 1535: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/363.html (April 2005)
[66] Jiménez de Quesada, Portrait: http://www.banrep.gov.co/blaavirtual/letra-b/biogcircu/jimegonz.htm (April 2005)
[67] Manco Capac II.: http://ron.heavengames.com/gameinfo/nations/inca/inca.shtml (April 2005)

[68] Karte von Paraguay: http://freenet.vcu.edu/education/tuckms/Shelhorse/ HISPANICHERITAGE/-hispflags.html (April 2005)
[69] Karte von Kolumbien: http://wwwest.uniandes.edu.co/~infdeces/ Manual1.html (April 2005)

Expeditino von Hernando Soto
[70] http://www.worldwidewebfind.com/encyclopedia/en/wikipedia/h/he/hernando_de_soto__explorer_.html (April 2005)
[71] A Literature Approach to Geography using the books of Holling C. Holling: Supplemental Internet Sites: http://www.geocities.com/thephunnyfarm/holling.html (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)

[72] Ignazio von Loyola: http://www.stignatiussf.org/himself.htm (April 2005)
[73] Papst Paul III.: http://www.italycyberguide.com/History/popes/16th.htm (April 2005)

[74] Karte mit Coatzacoalcos: http://www.caller2.com/2000/december/06/today/business/11302.html (April 2005)
[75] Karte mit Coatzacoalcos, Detailkarte:
http://www.mapas-de-mexico.com/veracruz-state-mexico/veracruz-state-mexico-map-d3.shtml (April 2005)

[76] Pedro de Valdivia: http://www.fuenterrebollo.com/Sellos/Anual/1965-1970.html (April 2005)
[77] Diego de Landa: http://www.udotill.de/ava/archiv/kulturen5.html (April 2005)
[78] Jiménez de Quesada: http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newworld/eldorado/ex032_10b.htm (April 2005)

Chibcha-Kultur in Kolumbien
[79] Schmuck: http://www.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=blog.ListAll&friendID=55031 (April 2005)
[80] Goldmedaillons: http://chibcha.com/services.html (April 2005)
[81] Löwen-Goldfigur: http://www.banrep.gov.co/blaavirtual/letra-l/lengua/clas02.htm (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)
[82] Frau der Kogui-Chibcha: http://www.banrep.gov.co/blaavirtual/letra-c/carcol/110.htm (April 2005)
[83] Frauen-Statuette in Gold: http://www.incasinti.hpg.ig.com.br/civiliz.htm
[84] Jagd mit Pfeil: http://www.10200zimages.fr/livretmort3.htm (April 2005)

[85] Cabeza de Vaca: http://www.ladyfromrussia.com/karnaval/states/arz_hist.shtml (April 2005)
[86] Gonzalo Pizarro: http://users.erols.com/tinajero/english.html (April 2005)
[87] Bartolomé de las Casas beim Schreiben: http://www.mgar.net/var/lascasas.htm (April 2005)

Foltermethoden der "christlichen" Kirche
[88] Aufhängen an den Händen: http://www.freewebs.com/biganeh/Archive12.htm (April 2005)
[89] erhängten Indigenas: http://www.reformation.org/alonso-de-hojeda.html (April 2005)
[90] Scheiterhaufen 01: http://www.latein-pagina.de/hexen/medizin.htm (April 2005)
[91] Scheiterhaufen 02: http://www.antipas.org/books/protesters/prot_toc.html (April 2005)
[92] Scheiterhaufen 03: http://members.aol.com/dcurtin1/gene/gen_rog.htm (April 2005)
[93] Wasserprobe: http://www.entwurf-online.de/Thematisches/praetorius.htm (April 2005)
[94] Folter im Fesselkasten: http://www.entwurf-online.de/Thematisches/praetorius.htm (April 2005)

[95] Cristóbel Vaca de Castro, Portrait: http://www.ecuatravel.8m.com/rh2.htm (April 2005)
[96] Yucatán, die Position von Merida: http://www.travelyucatan.com/ merida_mexico.php (April 2005)

Die Gold-Kultur der Quimbaya-Indigenas
[97] Goldmaske: http://www.thearchetypalconnection.com/PERSONA%20.htm (April 2005)
[98] Ohranhänger 01: Kunsthandwerk: http://www.artesaniaselzipa.com/scripts/prodList.asp?idCategory=26 (April 2005)
[99] Ohranhänger 02: http://www.artesaniaselzipa.com/scripts/prodList.asp?idCategory=29 (April 2005)
[100] Gold-BH: http://www.nemosto.net/tomo3.html (April 2005; nur der Büstehalter zu der Zeit scheint zweifelhaft, weil es damals zumindest in Europa noch keine Büstenhalter gab...)
[101] sitzende Goldfigur: http://www.emeraldcolombia.com/GOLD.HTM (April 2005)
[102] tanzende Frau, flaches Goldbild: http://www.accefyn.org.co/PubliAcad/CIAEM/Quimbaya/pectoral.htm (April 2005)
[103] Brustabzeichen in Gold: http://www.nodo50.org/pazamazon/ppa_paisajes.htm (April 2005; Fotosammlung über Indios im Amazonas)
[104] Goldhelm: http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newworld/eldorado/ex032_02a.htm (April 2005)
[105] goldene Eidechse: http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newworld/eldorado/ex032_07f.htm (April 2005)
[106] Goldring mit Vogelköpfen: http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newworld/eldorado/ex032_07c.htm (April 2005)
[107] Ring mit sitzender Figur: http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newworld/eldorado/ex032_12c.htm (April 2005)

[108] Karte der Orellana-Expedition den Amazonas hinunter 1544:
Map of Orellana's Amazon voyage / die Karte der Orellana-Expedition (1541-2): http://www.athenapub.com/orelmap1.htm (April 2005)
South American Languages / über Indianersprachen im Amazonasgebiet: http://www.athenapub.com/salang1.htm (April 2005)

[109] Vizekönig Blasco Nuńez de la Vela: http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Land/4029/menuvirrey.htm (April 2005)

[110] Weltkarte von Caboto 1544: Internet: R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: John Cabot & Sebastian; Mappamondi:
http://www.capurromrc.it/mappe/!30mappamondo.html (April 2005)

Potosí
[111] Karte von Bolivien mit Potosí: http://www.tripsworldwide.co.uk/Holidays/ SouthAmerica/bolivia.html (April 2005)
[112] Karte mit Potosí mit Höhenprofil: http://www.weather-forecast.com/ locations/Potosi.shtml (April 2005)
[113] Cerro Rico von Potosí: http://www.jlalondon.com/bespoke/bolivia/hornbill.shtml (April 2005)
[114] Cerro Rico von Potosí, Darstellung von Hermann Moll: Early Cities of the Americas:
http://www.common-place.org/vol-03/no-04/potosi/  (April 2005)
[115] Wappen von Potosí: http://www.boliviaweb.com/crests/ (April 2005)
[116] Cerro Rico von Potosí, Darstellung von León: Penn Library:
http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/chieza3d.html  (April 2005)

Yucatan
[117] Karte mit Uxmal auf Yucatan: http://www.mexicosmart.com/yucatan/ hotel-hacienda-uxmal-yucatan.php (April 2005)

[118] Pizarro auf einer peruanischen Briefmarke von 1942:
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/scitech/impacto/graphic/amazon/graphic_amazon3.html (April 2005)
[119] Pedro de la Gasca: http://www.artehistoria.com/frames.htm?http://www.artehistoria.com/historia/contextos/1525.htm (April 2005)
[120] Pedro de Valvidia: http://toutsurlechili.free.fr/histoire/?page=2 (April 2005)

[121] Vizekönig Mendoza: aus Internet: http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Land/4029/menuvirrey.htm  (April 2005)
[122] Kurfürst Moritz von Sachsen: http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/bilderkatalog/bedeutfrau/abb5r.htm (April 2005)
[123] Heinrich II. von Frankreich: http://www.personal.kent.edu/~rberrong/fr33337/princess.1.htm (April 2005)
[124] López de Gómara: Historia 1564, Titelblatt mit "christlichem" Schlägertyp mit Dornenprügel: Penn Library:
http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/gomara1.html (April 2005)
[125] Bartolomé de las Casas: Indianervernichtung, Textblatt (1552-1553):
http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/viewers/lascasas9.html  (April 2005)

[126] Weltkarte von Münster: Alderman Library, University of Virginia: An Exhibition of Maps and Navigational Instruments:
http://www.lib.virginia.edu/small/exhibits/lewis_ clark/exploring/ch1-2.html (April 2005)
[127] Peru-Chronik von León, 1553, Titelblatt: Penn Library:
http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/chieza1.html   (April 2005)

Mapuche-Indigenas in Chile
[128] Mapuche-Fahne: http://www.caletao.com.ar/abo/mapu/indimapuche.htm (April 2005)
[129] Landschaft in Süd-Chile mit Vulkan: Mapuche Photos / Bildergalerie: http://www.mapuchemissions.com/photos.html (April 2005)
[130] Haus der Mapuche 01: Portal Chileno: Galeria de Photos: http://www.portalchileno.ca/galeriaDeFotos/chile_page3.html  (April 2005)
[131] Haus der Mapuche 02: http://www.galenfrysinger.com/mapuche_chile.htm
[132] Mapuche-Kinder: Mapuche: http://www.galenfrysinger.com/mapuche_chile.htm 
[133] Mapuche-Frau zieht Wolle: http://www.galenfrysinger.com/weaving_mapuche_chile.htm (April 2005)
[134] Mapuche, Körper und Metallschmuck: Artesanía Tradicional Chilena: http://www.irenedp.com/artesania8.htm (April 2005)
[135] Mapuche, bestickte Gürtel und Tongefäss: http://www.puc.cl/faba/ARTESANIA/CHILE/ArtesaniaIX.html
[136] Mapuche, grosses Tongefäss: http://www.caletao.com.ar/abo/mapu/libro/econoyarte.htm (April 2005)
[137] Mapuche beim Flechten von Körben: http://www.caletao.com.ar/abo/mapu/libro/esceyhomo.htm (April 2005)
[138] Mapuche-Indigena, Portrait: http://www.medienarchiv.com/Lateinamerika/Chile/Mapuche/Mapuche2.htm
[139] Mapuche spielt Flöte: http://www.universidadmapuche.org/alumno.html (April 2005)
[140] Mapuche trommelt: http://www.ufro.cl/noticias/nov02/0802/jornada.html (April 2005)
[141] Mapuche-Universität: http://www.universidadmapuche.org/ (April 2005)
[142] Sprachlehrerin der Mapuche-Universität: http://www.ufro.cl/noticias/sep02/0602/c_mapuche.html (April 2005)

[143] Demonstration der Araukaner-Indigenas: http://www.elcanillita.ch/archivos/Canillita/cani56_mapuches.html (April 2005)

[144] Papst Paul IV.: Papstgalerie: http://albino-luciani.com/gallery05.html (April 2005)
[145] Wappen der Gilde "Merchants Adventurers": http://www.yorkstories.fsnet.co.uk/york-mystery-plays/guilds_info.htm (April 2005)
[146] Vizekönig Hurtado de Mendoza: Virreyes del Peru: http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Land/4029/menuvirrey.htm (April 2005)
[147] Philipp II.: http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/bilderkatalog/habsburger/abb1u.htm (April 2005)


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