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Jews in the Netherlands 06: 1945-1970
Decreasing Jewish population - strong Herzl Zionism and emigration - Swiss banks after 1945 - Jewish children in Christian families - reconstruction of Jewish communities - Jewish personalities - Herzl Israel
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 991: Arch of law of the liberal synagogue: Ark of the Law and bimah (reader's desk)
in the Liberal synagogue built in Amsterdam after World War II. Photo M. Ninio, Jerusalem
from: Netherlands; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12presented by Michael Palomino (2008)
[Whole Dutch population]
The population of Holland had suffered from the German occupation to a greater extent than any other country of Western Europe; approximately 500,000 laborers were deported to Germany for forced labor; the country was looted especially during the last year of the war; and, lastly, the final phase of the war (fighting going on on Dutch soil) brought famine to most of the country, especially the cities.
[Decreasing Jewish population 1945-1954 by emigration, mixed marriages, and low birth rate]
The Jews who emerged from their hiding places or returned from the concentration camps found a disorganized society that was neither able nor willing to compensate them for the moral deprivations and the material damage they had suffered, even though the surviving Jewish population was small. In 1946 an estimated 30,000 Jews lived in Holland, 21% of the prewar population. Of this number, 8,000 were partners of mixed marriages.
By 1954 the Jewish population (col. 989)
of Holland had decreased to 26,623. Of these, 14068 lived in Amsterdam, 2,031 in The Hague, and 1,323 in Rotterdam. The major cause of this decrease was emigration. During eight years 4,492 Jews left Holland primarily for the United States (1,399), Israel (1,209), Canada (440), and Australia (286). The decrease in Jewish population relative to the rest of the Dutch population was even higher, due to a low birth rate and a high death rate. This situation developed as a result of the small number of young people who remained in the country.
Economic reestablishment was at first difficult for the Jews. A long legal battle had to be fought in order for them to regain possessions, obtain recognition of life insurances, and receive a portion of the German reparation payments.
[[Supplement: The role of Swiss banking for the German Nazi bosses
Swiss banks with the bourse at Zurich were one of the main banking centers to convert Dutch Jewish commercial papers into cash for the German Nazi bosses which was hidden after 1945 by the president of the bourse of Zurich who became a prosecuting attorney at the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, Mr. Georg Leuch. This was done deliberately by Swiss Nazi clique to give the ancient president of the bourse the post of the administration of the stolen Dutch Jewish money. Leuch was ordered to negotiate with the Dutch side himself and to protect Switzerland from the shame...
In: Beat Balzli: Treuhänder des Reichs. Die Schweiz und die Vermögen der Naziopfer. Eine Spurensuche, Werd-Verlag 1997, p. 207-218
The same Swiss Nazi clique took the money from Jewish number bank accounts from Jews who did not come back after the war, dead or alive on other continents
In: Jean Ziegler: Die Schweiz, das Gold und die Toten]].
When the general economic situation improved later on, satisfying settlements were obtained in all these cases, so that individuals as well as the community acquired large sums of money. The German reparation payments alone yielded 200,000,000 marks. The result was that the Jewish community, which contained a large proletariat before the war, could later be considered very wealthy.
[Problems with Jewish children rescued by non-Jews]
Reclaiming children who had been rescued by non-Jews became a special problem for the returning Jews. Of the 3,481 children rescued, 1,540 returned to their parents and courts immediately appointed a Jewish guardian for 472 others. The remaining 1,433 children were first placed under the guardianship of a government commission, which often chose to let the children remain with their non-Jewish rescuers. The Jewish authorities resisted their attitude, however, and engaged in many lawsuits in order to have the children placed in Jewish homes. Finally, approximately two-thirds of these children were placed under Jewish guardianship. Two cases are notorious in which the court wanted to place the children under Jewish guardianship, but the foster parents succeeded in abducting the children with the help of the Roman Catholic Church, and continued to educate them in the Roman Catholic faith.
RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS.
[Changes in the Jewish community and reconstruction of synagogues]
No changes occurred in the organizational structure of the community after the war. The kehillot [[communities]] that existed before the war, the Dutch-Israelite, the Portuguese-Israelite, and the Liberal, were reestablished, but the relationships between them were greatly changed. The Portuguese kehillah, which existed only in Amsterdam, comprised only a few families; the Ashkenazi (Dutch-Israelite) kehillah was the largest and it comprised many small communities outside the major cities. Many of these communities were brought to an end by emigration, while others became more and more dependent on the central Jewish authorities for their religious needs and the upkeep of their synagogues. There (col. 990)
were four chief rabbis: one in Amsterdam, one in The Hague, one in Rotterdam, and one traveling rabbi for the small communities. The Liberal community, which consisted almost exclusively of German refugees before the war, flourished and attracted many Jews who were estranged from Judaism. Postwar circumstances compelled the leaders of the Ashkenazi community to close many of the synagogues in the small communities; even in Amsterdam, two central synagogues in the center of the old, now depopulated and badly damaged Jewish quarter were closed. On the other hand, new synagogues were built in some communities to replace those that were destroyed during the war (e.g., in Rotterdam).
[Structure of the community - fund raising for Herzl Israel - newspapers]
The religious structure of the kehillot [[communities]] also remained unchanged after the war. There was practically no cooperation on religious affairs between the two Orthodox communities and the Liberal one, but centralization was achieved in other areas. All social institutions were concentrated under the auspices of one organization, Jewish Social Work, and money for this organization was collected by one fund, the Central Fund Raising Campaign. All fund raising for Israel was concentrated in the Collective Israel Campaign.
Of the four prewar weekly newspapers, only one, the Nieuw Israelitisch Weekblad, remained. In addition, many local and party journals existed.
[Herzl Zionist movement - stop of tensions in Holland - Jews in arts and policy since 1945]
The Zionist movement, which had risen to importance immediately before the war, became the most powerful force in all Jewish organizations after the liberation. Within the Zionist movement, the Radical Faction dominated in the beginning, demanding mass aliyah and liquidation of the Diaspora.
[[All Arabs of Palestine should be driven away as the natives in the "USA" had been driven away. The Arab anti-Semitism and the oil power of the Arab states was never considered in the Herzl program for a "Jewish State". So the Jews were driven in a new war trap]].
Indeed, practically all its leading personalities settled in Israel, leaving successors who took a more moderate position on this question. This change of view was also influenced by the disappearance of tension that existed between the Jewish and the non-Jewish population of Holland directly after the war. A general sympathy and (col. 991)
compassion was felt for the Jews, and later for Israel. The status of the Jews in Holland in 1970 was in many respects better than it was before the war. The small Jewish community produced dozens of professors, many writers and painters, and even three cabinet ministers. In view of the unfavorable demographic prospects on the one hand and the continuing attraction of emigration, especially to Israel, on the other, it was improbable that the community would be able to maintain this status in the future.
Relations with Israel.
[Recognition of Herzl Free Mason CIA Israel - Dutch diplomacy for Israeli interests]
A long-standing history of cooperation links the Jewish people to the Dutch, from the period of the "Golden Age" of Dutch Jewry after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal until the demonstrations of support and acts of rescue during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.
On Nov. 29, 1947, the Netherlands voted in favor of the UN plan to partition Palestine, and thus for the establishment of a Jewish state, and soon afterward officially recognized the new State of Israel [[which was found without borderline definitions and on a racist legal base against all Arabs, above all against all Palestinians, according to Herzl]].
Formal diplomatic relations were established on the ambassadorial level, with Holland being the first country to set up its diplomatic representation in Jerusalem. The Netherlands supported Israel against the Arab boycott and Arab aggression; and played a role in the struggle for persecuted Jews, especially Jews in the Soviet Union and the Arab countries.
[[Supplement: The Jewish invasion was the first aggression with defended "overnight settlements" and fights against the Palestinian population since 1918.
In: History; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, Vol. 8, col. 759]]
It was also Israel's major aid in its efforts to establish ties with the European Economic Community. When the Soviet Union severed diplomatic relations with Israel in 1953, the Netherlands represented Israel's interests in the U.S.S.R. and contributed to the resumption of diplomatic ties between the two states. It again assumed this role when the U.S.S.R. and other Communist states broke diplomatic relations with Israel after the Six-Day War (1967); subsequently Israel's interests in the U.S.S.R. and Poland were represented by Holland.
[[Supplement: Israel and Soviet Union
When Herzl Free Mason Israel joint with the CIA since 1948, Stalin felt surrounded by the "USA" and its satellites. He damned all Jews in the Soviet Union because Israel had not become a Soviet satellite and did not the Jews leave the country. Since 1948 different general persecution waves against the Jews were performed by the Soviet press and the Soviet justice as collective punishment for actions of Herzl Free Mason CIA Israel.
In: Benjamin Pinkus: The Soviet Government and the Jews, passim]].
[Economic relations between Herzl Free Mason CIA Israel and Holland]
Trade relations between the two countries reached $75,000,000 in 1966 and rose to $84,000,000 by 1968, with Dutch exports to Israel somewhat larger than Israel exports to Holland. Tourism from Holland to Israel also rose, with 7,983 tourists in 1966, 9,308 in 1967, and 14,047 in 1968. The high points in cultural exchanges were the arrangement of a Dutch art exhibit in Israel and an exhibit from the Land of the Bible and appearances of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra in Holland. Every year an Israel delegation participated in the popular march in Nijmegen, and a Dutch delegation took part in the yearly marches that take place in Israel, which are modeled on the Dutch ones. Prime ministers, foreign ministers, and other members of the government and of parliament of the two countries carried out mutual visits.
For the musical tradition of Jews in the Netherlands see *Amsterdam.> (col. 992)
[[Supplement: After 1945 Holland was not such an innocent country as it is presented here. The funds of the "US" Marshall plan were misused for the war against the independence of Indonesia 1946-1950, and Indonesian people suffered big harm of this war of the racist Dutch government]].
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Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 987-988
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 989-990
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 991-992
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 993-994