Kontakt / contact     Hauptseite / page
                principale / pagina principal / home     zum Asien-Index
<<        >>

Sex slaves: trafficking of women in Asia

Chapter Two: The Commodity, part 2

Part 2: 8: women trafficking for prostitution for an 'open market' - 9: reasons for prostitution: poor, minority, caste, rapes - 10: women trafficking in Nepal - women's migration in or to Thailand - 11: successful prostitutes - sold children - almost no or no education - 12: reasons for prostitution: no school - brute stepmothers - wars - famines - volcano

Brothels in Mumbai are organized putting
                        girls into brothel cages so they will serve men
                        at the end
Brothels in Mumbai are sometimes organized putting girls into brothel cages so they will serve men at the end [79]
                        Jantraka, portrait of a savior of children in
                        forced prostitution in brothel prisons in
                        [criminal mafia dominated] Thailand
Sompop Jantraka, portrait of a savior of children in forced prostitution in brothel prisons in [criminal mafia dominated] Thailand [81]

by Louise Brown

presented and with subtitles by Michael  Palomino (2013)



2.8: Women trafficking for prostitution for an 'open market'

Women trafficking in Nepal to Kathmandu - concubines in feudal Indonesia

The old
                        center of Kathmandu
The old center of Kathmandu [22]

In nineteenth-century Nepal thousands of girls from hill tribes in the Himalayas were taken to Kathmandu [the capital of Nepal] to become sexual partners of men from the ruling Rana family. In feudal Indonesia the king's power was measured, in large part, by the number of concubines he kept at court [27].

[27] Lin Lean Lim (ed): The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1998), p.29

Women were a commodity and a kind of currency. This provided a firm and extensive foundation for the modern-day commercialized sex industry. Capitalism has added its own inequities and injustices to traditional aspects of gender exploitation so that customary forms of subservience and exploitation have been repackaged. If anything this has served only to entrench traditional structures of privilege.

[Again the author never mentions how life for these concubines in Indonesia was, no conditions are prescribed, no learning, no function in the house. The book seems to be very incomplete].

New York
                        stock exchange: the more globalization - the
                        more poverty - the more prostitution is in the

New York stock exchange [23]: the more globalization we have - the more poverty we have - the more prostitution is in the world. And poverty rates are not indicated in the balance of the stock exchange...
Globalization with more poor population provokes more girls for prostitution

The inescapable forces of globalization and economic liberalization have pushed more and more poor girls into prostitution throughout the world. The unrestrained capitalism that is emerging in large parts of Asia makes no allowances for the vulnerable and for the dispossessed. In that sense it harmonizes perfectly with traditional Asia's hierarchical contempt for the lower orders. Capitalism's rawest and most rapacious forms - including the sex industry - seek to profit from that vulnerability.

Woman trafficking from Vietnam to Cambodia

In Vietnam, to take one example, there has been an increase in trafficking and prostitution. In part this can be explained by the re-emergence of traditional attitudes to women, as the ideals of the Vietnamese revolution have atrophied [reduced] under the twin pressures of a failing command economy and the reach of global capitalism. Intimately associated with this, and fundamental to the re-emergence of large-scale prostitution, are the growing disparities between the rich and the poor and the disintegration of the structure of the family under the impact of economic liberalization [28].

[28] Annuska Derks: Trafficking of Vietnamese Women and Children to Cambodia (Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 1998), p.9

[When Vietnamese are trafficked to Cambodia this concerns for example girls and young women from poor Mekong Delta lured and tricked to Phnom Penh brothel districts. Vietnamese women are also trafficked to China where is a lack of women by the Chinese 1 child policy and the preference for sons. But not only China is the aim for Vietnamese for getting foreign currency. See here the general indication of www.humantrafficking.org of 2011:

<Vietnamese men, women, and girls are trafficked for sexual and labor exploitation in Taiwan, Malaysia, South Korea, Laos, the United Arab Emirates, Japan, China, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Indonesia, the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Sweden, Trinidad and Tobago, Costa Rica, Russia, and elsewhere in the Middle East. In both sex trafficking and labor trafficking, debt bondage, confiscation of identity and travel documents, and threats of deportation are commonly utilized to intimidate victims.> [web01]

Map indicating Vietnamese
                        workers and women trafficked in the world
                        (2011) Map indicating Vietnamese workers and women trafficked in the world (2011) [24]

The basic map is from www.maps.com

The indications of a web site about human trafficking with Vietnamese people in 2011 reports:

<Vietnamese men, women, and girls are trafficked for sexual and labor exploitation in Taiwan, Malaysia, South Korea, Laos, the United Arab Emirates, Japan, China, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Indonesia, the United Kingdom, The Czech Republic, Cyprus, Sweden, Trinidad and Tobago, Costa Rica, Russia, and elsewhere in the Middle East. In both sex trafficking and labor trafficking, debt bondage, confiscation of identity and travel documents, and threats of deportation are commonly utilized to intimidate victims.>

According to news of September 2012 young Vietnamese women were lured to China for marriage but in many cases they suffer beatings or are even sold into prostitution and Vietnamese families are pleading for helping them [web02].

Woman trafficking in Cambodia - 'on the open market'

A similar trend can be seen in Cambodia, where the institution of a free market economy in the early 1990s led not only to the enjoyment of pleasant economic freedoms but also to the freedom to trade girls on the open market. Today there is nothing in Cambodia that you cannot buy.

2.9: Reasons for prostitution: poor, minorities, castes, and rapes

General indication: girls for prostitution are mostly from the poor, from minorities and low castes, often illiterate

The bulk [the big mass] of prostituted women in Asia come from poor communities, tribal groups, low castes and ethnic minorities. Their origins are almost as despised [downgraded] as their occupation [prostitution]. In the less developed parts of the  region most sex workers were born and raised in poor rural areas. Two thirds of the girls and women who enter prostitution in India come from areas that are drought prone [29].

[29] National Commission for Women: The Velvet Blouse (New Delhi: Government of India, 1997), p.9

Throughout the whole of less-developed Asia the majority of girls (p.45)

who sell sex are poor and often illiterate and the sex industry likes them because their youth and lack of education makes them easy to manipulate and control.

Thailand: Japanese customers looking for young AIDS-free Thai girls

They also possess another important selling point: because they come from remote regions, and because they are young, clients are reassured that they are free of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Some customers, particularly Japanese men, are so insistent about this disease-free requirement that they visit villages in Thailand purely to buy sex with a girl who is guaranteed to be fresh and safe as well as cheap [30].

[30] Siriporn Skrobanek: Traffic in Women: Human Realities of the International Sex Trade (London: Zed Books, 1997), p.34

[Addition: North of Thailand: poverty is installed there deliberately - police officers are the brothel owners
The government in Bangkok is not interested in an economic development of the countryside therefore poverty in the countryside is especially high. And in northern Thailand especially the local police officers are the brothel owners themselves selling virgins then who are eventually two times operated already...]

India: prostitutes 'dalit' castes (untouchable) and from tribal groups

                        women in India with water. 6 villages have not
                        one single well...

Dalit women in India with water [25].

6 villages have not one single well. This is really a discrimination - and selling 10 years old children to temples is a reality, and prostitution is often a forced occupation...

In India the vast majority of prostituted women are from dalit - or untouchable - castes and also from the tribal groups [31].

[31] National Commission for Women: Societal Violence on Women and Children in Prostitution (New Delhi: Government of India, 1996), p.12

[From Dalit people come the girls sold to temples for being a Devadasi dancers, and in many cases these dancers end like prostitutes in the big towns of India in the brothels [web03] And AIDS is a big problem for them when they chose to be prostitutes [web04]

These women suffer a triple burden of exploitation: they are poor, they are untouchable and they are female. For some, the intersection of these dreadful disadvantages can be devastating.

Girl raped in a Bengali village - no money for a dowry - and brought to a brothel - and as a prostitute she cannot go anywhere

Map with
                        India, Bengal, and Bangladesh

Map with India, Bengal, and Bangladesh [26], with Calcutta, Mumbai, and Dhaka

Village of
                        West Bengal
Village of West Bengal [27], gangs are governing performing rapes, justice is nowhere and the victim has to go...
I met a young prostitute in a Calcutta brothel who was from an untouchable caste. She looked about fifteen but she claimed that she was nineteen. She was a wretched, thin child wearing an ill-fitting Western-style dress and she carried the look of someone who had been beaten by life. This is her story:

<I am from a village a long way from here in West Bengal. My family is very, very poor. There were four children in our family. My father is dead and my mother could not feed me and my brothers and sister. We did not have a proper house and we were always hungry. Everyone in our village looked down on us because we are poor and from a low caste.

When I was thirteen some youths from our village took me into a field away from the village and they raped me. There were five of them and they were from high-caste families. I was crying and I went back to the village but the youths said I went with them willingly. The village panchayat (council) said that I had a bad character and was not (p.46)

respectable and that I shouldn't tell lies about the youths. They told my mother that I had to leave the village because I was a bad influence. But no one wanted to marry me and my mother could not afford a dowry so she brought me here. There was nowhere else I could go. Sometimes I can send my mother a little money and this makes her happy. It helps to buy food for my brothers and sister. I can't go back to my village because they think that I'm bad and they know what work I do. This place is my home because I have nowhere else to go to. I'll go on working here for as long as the clients want me.>

2.10: Women trafficking in Nepal - women's migration in and to Thailand

Suspension bridge in Nepal

Suspension bridge in Nepal [28]
Women trafficking from Nepal to India: girls in prostitution - mostly from marginalized hill tribes - poverty of mountain dwellers

In Nepal increasing poverty [estate 2000] is pushing women from a wide range of castes, including high-caste women, into selling sex [32].

[32] UNICEF: A Situation Analysis of Sex Work and Trafficking in Nepal With Reference to Children (Kathmandu, June 1998), p. 19-20, 36

But the majority of prostitutes are from the politically marginalized hill tribes, and almost all of the girls trafficked to fill north Indian brothels are from Tamang, Lama, Magar and Gurung ethnic minorities [33].

UNICEF: A Situation Analysis of Sex Work and Trafficking in Nepal With Reference to Children (Kathmandu, June 1998), p.51,56

Supplement: Nepali ethnic groups with some hill tribes
Map of Nepal indicating
                      some ethnic groups: Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali,
                      Gurung, Kiranti, Rai, Limbu, Newari, Pahari, and
                      Tamang Map of Nepal indicating some ethnic groups: Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali, Gurung, Kiranti, Rai, Limbu, Newari, Pahari, and Tamang [29]

-- brown: Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali

-- green: Gurung

-- orange: Kiranti, Rai, Limbu

-- red: Newari

-- yellow: Pahari

-- violet: Tamang (also called "Murmi" or "Bhotiya" [web05]

-- white: other

The mountains of Nepal are a paradise for trecking and hill climbing tourists. Unfortunately also criminal human traffickers are coming there visiting these poor villages for "recruiting" staff for brothels in the big towns of India. The girls and young women are simply lured with a job "in the city". See the photos of the hill tribes of Tamang, Gurung and Magar. Since 2006 there is a kind of democracy in Nepal. If something is changing can be seen on the latest web sites in the Internet.

Nepal, Tamang hill tribe girls[30]  Nepal, Tamang hill tribe chief with drum[31]  Nepal, Gurung hill tribe women[32]  Nepal, Gurung hill tribe, typical dresses[33]
Nepal, Tamang hill tribe girls [30], Tamang chief with drum [31], Gurung hill tribe women [32], Gurung typical dresses [33]

Nepal, a Tamang village[37]  Nepal, Gurung village of Dhampus[38]  Nepal, Gurung village with original
                      agriculture on a rice field[39]
  Tamang village in Nepal [37], Gurung village of Dhampus in Nepal [38], Gurung village in Nepal with original agriculture on a rice field [39]

Map of Magar ethnic group in Nepal[34]  Nepal, Magar ethnic group, women in
                      traditional dress[35]  Nepal, Magar ethnic group with Kauda dance[36]
Map of Magar ethnic group in Nepal [34], Nepal, Magar ethnic group, women in traditional dress [35], Nepal, Magar ethnic group with Kauda dance [36]

Nepal, Magar stone architecture, photo by
                      Nick Mayo[40]  Nepal, Magar village of Upallo Sera[41] 
Nepal, Magar stone architecture, photo by Nick Mayo [40], Nepal, Magar village of Upallo Sera [41]

Their other distinguishing characteristic is that half of these girls come from families that are considered poorer than other families in their own communities [34].

UNICEF: A Situation Analysis of Sex Work and Trafficking in Nepal With Reference to Children (Kathmandu, June 1998), p.59

As most Nepali households are grindingly poor, this is poor indeed.

Nepali's beauty hides desperate poverty. Tourists trek along scenic Himalayan trails taking photographs of charming villages, engaging children and breathtaking mountains. It is easy to see lots of smiles but so much harder to see the poverty that leaves 50% of children with stunting as a result of malnutrition [35].

[35] UNICEF: Children and Women of Nepal: A Situation Analysis 1992 (Kathmandu: UNICEF, National Planning Commission, Government of Nepal, 1992), p.64

According to the World Bank around 40% of people live in absolute poverty. In other words, their income will not provide them with enough food to meet minimum calorie requirements. Development has left many Nepalis far behind [respectively corrupt and racist government is not doing anything with the mountain dwellers. In 2006 monarchy was eliminated and a kind of democracy was installed]. A glance at national per capita income suggests that the average Nepali is better off now [estate 2000] than thirty years ago. Many of the poor would dispute this, and anecdotal evidence indicates that the poor are getting poorer. Certainly the gulf between the 'haves' and (p.47)

the 'have nots' is increasing year by year. Girls from communities like these staff large numbers of India's brothels and the sex industry has grown fat upon the sale of their flesh.

Thailand: racist and corrupt government against populations in the north and in the north-east - hard work in the sun - cash economy provoking a breakdown in Thai farming

The disadvantaged north and north-east of Thailand are traditional recruiting grounds for the sex industry. These areas of Thailand are poor compared with the more prosperous central and southern regions. They are areas in which the traditional rural economy has been weakened by decades of maldevelopment. As in most Asian countries a chasm has opened up between the urban areas, which have grown richer, and the rural areas, which have stagnated or, in some cases, declined
[because racist and corrupt government is against rural population and almost all industry is only installed in Bangkok]. The sex industry has been a principal beneficiary of this division.

Northern Thailand, a village of the Akha[42]  Northern
                Thailand, sisters in the village of Akha[43]  northern Thailand, agriculture[44]
Northern Thailand, a  village of the Akha [42] - Northern Thailand, sisters in the village of Akha [43] - northern Thailand, agriculture [44]
[People in agriculture is often protecting themselves from the sun because they don't want a brown skin but a white skin like the Thais in the towns...]

Supplement: racism in Thailand against rural population: hardly industries in the countryside - and north and north east of Thailand are deliberately flooded for "protecting" Bangkok"
Racist government in Bangkok is generally against the rural population and almost all industries are only concentrated in Bangkok. Additionally during the rainy season the east and north east of Thailand are deliberately flooded for sinking Bangkok is not going down now already. Thus there is a channel system provoking that east and northeast of Thailand are staying deliberately under water during at least 3 to 5 months protecting Bangkok from the floods of monsoon. Therefore in big regions in the east and north east of Thailand any economy is completely in a standstill during 3 to 5 months and therefore nobody is investing there. And thus this is one of the breeding regions for girls going to prostitution business then. It seems strange that writer Mrs. Louise Brown does not mention these important connections with racism against rural population in Thailand and with the deliberately provoked floods, partly several meters high and during months during the rainy season. As a tourist one can see this perverse flooding system in Thailand in any online newspaper...

Floods in Thailand in Prachinburi
                          province, Sep 24, 2013  Floods in the town of Kabinburi in
                          Prachinburi province, mother and child,
                          September 28, 2013
Floods in Thailand in Prachinburi province, Sep 24, 2013 [x002] - 
Floods in the town of Kabinburi in Prachinburi province, mother and child, September 28, 2013 [x003]

Flooded Buddha temple, news from Oct 3,
                        2013  Chachoengsao village in the east of Bangkok
                        meters high under water, one man died by
                        drowning, news from Oct 14, 2013
Flooded Buddha temple, news from Oct 3, 2013 [x004] - Chachoengsao village in the east of Bangkok meters high under water, one man died by drowning, news from Oct 14, 2013 [x005]

And now one must not imagine that the Thai government would do something about it with dams, dikes, technical relief organization or such stuff. NO! There is nothing done and in this way poverty and the prostitutes are systematically created and produced in those regions! This poverty in the countryside and this destructivity is a part of the perverse male and racist Thai system and women are not fighting for their rights of protection everywhere - but at the end all are just drinking whiskey and from 2020 on Bangkok is sinking under 0 meters officially and nobody knows what will happen then...

In Thailand, the rural sector has been badly neglected. Just like in Nepal, scenic villages and traditional houses are charming to look at but they are horrible to live in [there is mobile phone, but there mostly no Internet until today (2013). Humans there are mostly living without tables and without chairs yet. All life is on the floor. Parents don't know what is "homework" and books do not exist. Often there is no water tower either and therefore there is no running shower etc., but beer and whisky is always running. Thus all money which could improve the living standard there is given out for beer and whiskey, in the east of Thailand also for vodka. And the alcoholic party begins at 10 o'clock in the morning already. I saw it with my own eyes... (2013)].

Pretty girls working in the fields look quaint and colorful on postcards, but a day's backbreaking labor in the sun is barely sufficient to provide them with basic subsistence. Around thirty years ago the introduction of a cash economy into the country's rice belt led to a breakdown in Thai farming. It made scratching a living from the earth in the poorer parts of the country even harder. Young people from the countryside have been leaving for the cities ever since. Some have gone to work in factories and in the service sector. Many of the girls are sent to provide sexual services to both Thai and foreign men. And the provision of these services, like the services provided by girls from Nepal, helps to prop up [support] otherwise economically unsustainable family farms.

Thai brothel keepers seeking for Thai girls from the mountain tribes - measures by Thai government and NGOs

Map of Thailand indicating the ethnic

Map of Thailand indicating the hill tribes ethnic groups [45]

North Thailand:
-- red: Lahu (Muso,
-- pink: Lisu
-- brown: Meo (Hmong)
-- orange: Karen (Kayin, Karian)
-- dark green: Khmu, Lawa
-- in red writing: Akha, Yao (Mien)

Central Thailand:
-- bright green: Khmer
-- red spots: Vietnamese
-- red triangles: Chinese
-- in red writing: Mon, So, Kui, Chong

Southern Thailand:
-- violet: Malays
-- red spots: Vietnamese
-- red triangles: Chinese
-- in red writing: Semang

For two or three decades, large numbers of girls from north and north-eastern Thailand have been leaving home to work in the sex industry. Girls and their families understand the mechanics of the industry and most know how to manage their careers. So much so that brothel keepers [women mama-sans] began to think that ethnic Thai women were a little too assertive [positive] to be good for business. [Ethnic Thai girls were doing the minimum for receiving a maximum so customers did not come any more, or the girls developed even private strategies without the brothel owner]. Their answer [of the brothel owners, mostly women mama-sans] was to look for a new source of recruits, and they found a ready supply in the hill (p.48)

tribes of northern Thailand. These are groups that the development process has barely touched. They are people who are on the fringes of Thai society - ethnically, culturally, politically and economically. Many of these peoples do not even live within the territorial limits of a single state but customarily move backwards and forwards through the jungles that span the Thai-Burmese border. Their cultures are being undermined by the dominant culture of the Thai state and their cultural and economic integrity is increasingly fragile.

The sex industry targeted girls from these communities because they were vulnerable individuals in the midst of a vulnerable people [just promising good jobs "in the city"]. Until recently girls from hill tribes did not even attend school. They lived in families that were wracked by poverty and in which there was a high rate of underemployment and drug addiction. [Thai government let them degenerate without speaking and attending anything. And one can imagine where the human traffickers are coming from...].

The exploitation of tribal girls was so blatant [obvious], and so abhorrent [terrible], that both Thai government agencies and non-governmental organizations stepped in to try and stem the flow of girls to the brothels. They established programs to identify and help the most vulnerable girls by giving them protection, education and some vocational training. Campaigns were also started in the communities to raise awareness of the dangers posed to young girls who left their tribes. This had the positive effect of at least moderating the exodus to Thailand's brothels. But there is one thing about the sex industry that is very, very clear: it is always one or even two steps ahead of those seeking to control it.

[Brothel keepers in Thailand? - Are mostly women!
They are mostly Thai WOMEN manipulating the girls and young women for being offered to the Thai men! And in the tourist centers of Thailand like Pattaya and Phuket many brothel keepers in Thailand are right radical racist Swiss from Switzerland. And now one has to know: Thai government in Bangkok is not only racist against foreigners calling them with the downgrading word "falang", but every ethnic minority in Thailand has an own history how they became a minority and Thai government often is not present at all because they speak other languages...]:

Supplement: Read about ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and it's neighboring countries - sometimes with striking stories

Thai Lahu mountain tribe

Lahu live in China (拉祜族) in Yunnan Province (720,000); they also live in Thailand (ลาหู่) where they are also called "Muso" (มูเซอ), meaning "hunter"; and Lahu live also in Vietnam (La Hủ) mostly in Lai Chau province. Some Lahu were lured to collaborate with the criminal "U.S.A." during Vietnam war in Laos and after 1975 they had to fly to Thailand as refugees. Some thousand Lahu even changed to criminal "U.S.A." as refugees with a center in Visalia in California [web06].

Thailand, Lahu
                          village[46]  Lahu music and dance group[47]  Thailand, Lahu music performence [48]
Thailand, Lahu village [46] - Thailand, Lahu music and dance group [47] - Thailand, Lahu music performence [48]

Thai Lisu mountain tribe
Lisu people live in the mountains of Burma (Myanmar) with 450,000; in Southwest China in poor Yunnan Province with about 730,000; in Thailand with approximately 55,000 in remote country areas, and in India in Arunachal Pradesh [web07].

Thailand, Lisu
                        village[49]  Thailand, children in a Lisu village
                        rolling down the hill[50]  Thailand, children of a Lisu village in
                        traditional suit: [51]
Thailand, Lisu village [49] - Thailand, children in a Lisu village at the Thai Burmese border rolling down the hill [50] - Thailand, children of a Lisu village in traditional suit [51]

Thai Meo (Hmong) mountain tribe
Hmong hill tribe (Vietnamese: Mẹo) are living in mountain forest regions of Laos, Vietnam, and Thailand. In China they are included to Miao nationality. In China there are more than 9 million, in Vietnam 787,600 (1999), in Laos 450,000 (2005), in Thailand 150,000, in Myanmar less than in Thailand; in criminal "U.S.A." there are according to a census 186,310 (2000), the real figure is estimated to 250,000 to 300,000; in France there are 15,000, in Australia 2,000, in French Guayana 1,500, in Canada 600, in Argentina 100 [web08].

Thailand, Meo village[52]  Thailand, Meo girl in traditional clothes
                        and with a red umbrella[53]  Hmong refugee camp Huay Nam Khao in
                        Petchabun Province, Thailand[54]
Thailand, Meo (Hmong) village [52] - Thailand, Meo (Hmong) girl in traditional clothes and with a red umbrella [53] -  Hmong refugee camp Huay Nam Khao in Petchabun Province, Thailand [54]

Meo (Hmong) in Thailand
<There are two subgroups of Hmong in Thailand; the Blue Hmong and White Hmong. Blue Hmong villages are located on high mountain areas north from Doi Inthanon to the Burmese border. They are the closest group to Chiang Mai, with villages in the Doi Suthep - Doi Pui National Park area.> Houses are in clusters. People is organized in clans. They have their own spirits and souls and rituals. Every village has a shaman for exorcism of evil spirits and restoring health. Typical clothes are made of hemp and have blue and white batik patterns: <The pleated skirts made of hemp died with blue and white batik patterns make the Blue Hmong women clearly identifiable. The women's jackets are made of black cloth decorated with elaborate embroidery for which the Hmong women are renown. Men's clothes are also made of loose-fitting black material, with embroidery on the jackets. The Hmong use silver both for adornment and as a show of wealth.> [web09]
Laos, two Meo (Hmong)
                        women in traditional clothes at new years
                        celebration in Nasala[55]  Laos, Meo (Hmong) shaman with drum[56]  Book "The Hmong and their
                        stories"[57]  Meo (Hmong) children with black and blond
Laos, two Meo (Hmong) women in traditional clothes at new years celebration in Nasala [55] - Laos, Meo (Hmong) shaman [56] - book "The Hmong and their stories" [57] - Meo (Hmong) children with black and blond hair, nobody knows why [58]

Meo (Hmong) in Laos during Vietnam wars 1945-1975 - flight and suppression since 1975
Also Meo (Hmong) were lured to fight for European colonialists against Vietnam, first since 1945 already under racist French commanders with up to 40,000 soldiers under the command of 400 French officers. As a payment for this operation Hmong were selling opium to the French forces then this opium was sold in the "First World" by secret transports (Operation X) [web08]. Criminal "U.S.A." with it's criminal secret service "CIA" followed operating in Laos (which officially was "neutral") manipulating Meo (Hmong) people fighting Vietnamese in the 1960s. In 1961 there were 9,000 Hmong fighting against Vietnamese forces under CIA command, since 1963 29,000 Hmong, all in all during Vietnam war about 30,000. Criminal CIA was often ordering rescue operations for criminal "American" pilots [Agent Orange poison actions] provoking heavy losses for Hmong troop units. Meo (Hmong) troops had 10 times more losses than "American" troops. During Vietnam War Meo (Hmong) population was reduced by about 1/3 [web08].

Map, refugee camp "Huay Nam
                                Khao" of the Meo (Hmong) in
                                Thailand 1975-2009
Map, refugee camp "Huay Nam Khao" of the Meo (Hmong) in Thailand 1975-2009 [59]

After criminal "U.S." troops left Laos in 1973 breaking the promise to bring the Hmong to "U.S.A." they left them in Laos and Vietcong killing actions began against Meo (Hmong) [web12]. In the following time and after "U.S." defeat in 1975 [because Vietnam never wanted to be parted like Germany and Korea were parted] surviving Meo (Hmong) collaborators had to fly to Thailand and to the "U.S.A." [web10]. "U.S.A." let Hmong refugees in since December 1975 [web12]. In Thailand there was a refugee camp ("Huay Nam Khao" [web08]) around a Thai temple in central Thailand in the Thai province of Phetchabun [web10]. Other Meo (Hmong) remained in Laos and are poor and suppressed until today [web08]. In Thailand no asylum was given to the Hmong refugees and they remained without nationality and without passports [web08]. In 2004 criminal "U.S.A." took 14,000 of them [web10] mainly to California to Fresno and Merced, and to Minnesota to St Paul [web08]. Since 2005 Thai police around the refugee camp instructed the Thai population not to give assistance to the Laotian Hmong refugees any more. Thai police started also with arrests of Hmong refugees who were found outside of the camp visiting people or festivities [web13]. In 2006 Thailand wanted to send the Laotian Hmong refugees already back to Laos but Laotian government rejected the project stating that these Hmong refugees in Thailand would not be Laotian citizens and all would be a Thai problem. Thus Laos was put under international control [web13]. In May 2008 a fire in the refugee camp destroyed 100s of huts, perhaps this was a maneuver of the refugees [web15]. In June 2008 about 4,000 of the Hmong refugees organized a march to Bangkok [web14] which was intercepted by Thai police followed with the detention of up to 600 Hmong refugees and some of the leaders were deported back to Laos [web15]. At this time in June 2008 many Hmong were yet persecuted in Laos: <For in Laos some Hmong groups are being mercilessly hunted on account of their link with former Hmong fighters, who during the Vietnam war more than 30 years ago were recruited by the American CIA as mercenaries [payed soldiers]. More than 10,000 Hmong, among them being many children, young people and women, still have to remain in hiding in the jungle from the Laotian and Vietnamese military.> [web14] Thai police simply indicated that these Laotian refugees wanted asylum for getting a Thai passport for traveling to rich countries, so they would be "economic migrants" [web15]. In December 2009 Thai government was transporting the rest of 4,351 ethnic Hmong to the Laos border. Asylum petitions were not possible [web10] and the suppression of Meo (Hmong) in Laos is continuing without end [web08]. <Lao government has denied they will face retribution [revenge], and the Thai government argues that the majority of the group are illegal economic refugees.> [web11]

[There are no indications about trafficking gangs luring girls or young women with jobs "in the city", and there are no indications how the Hmong are living in Laos now].

Thai Karen (Kayin, Kariang) mountain population Thailand
The word "Karen" comes from English colonialist administration. In Burma they call themselves "Kayin", in central Thailand "Kariang", and in northern Thailand "Yang" [web16]. Padaung (Kekawngdu, Kayan) is a sub group of Karen population [web17]. All in all they speak 15 languages. Karen population is parted between Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. In Thailand are living about 400,000 Karen. Thai administration makes a difference between Karen who have emigrated since 17th century, and other Karen emigrating after military atrocities in Burma since 1984. The foundation of an own Karen state was not successful but Myanmar army forces attacked the military positions since the 1970s provoking temporal streams of refugees in Thailand, and since 1984 Karen territory was more and more occupied constantly by Burmese army forces committing mass murder, forced labor and mass violation provoking 100,000s of Karen refugees in Thailand, 50% of them in refugee camps. Nobody wants to give them asylum. Even more Karen are hiding in forests or are refugees in Myanmar itself [web16].

Karen hill tribe, long
                        neck woman[60]  Thailand, Karen / Karian woman weaving[61]  Karen village at Thai Burmese border[62]
Karen hill tribe, long neck woman [60] - Thailand, Karen / Karian woman weaving [61] - Karen village at Thai Burmese border [62]

Khmu hill tribe in Thailand
Khmu (Thai: ขมุ) are also called "Kammu", "Khamu" or "Kemu", Vietnamese: Khơ Mú, Lao: ຂະມຸ [kʰámū]; there are over 500,000 Khmu in the world, 450,000 of them in Laos (north and center, second largest ethnicity), 43,000 in Vietnam, 10,000 in Thailand (near the Thai-Laotian border, isolated villages partly without electricity yet), 10,000 in China (southwest China in Sipsong Panna in Yunnan Province, but nor recognized ethnic group), 8,000 in criminal "U.S.A." in Richmond in California coming as refugees from Vietnam War. Some Khmu are also living in Myanmar (former Burma) [web18].

Khmu in northern Thailand <live alongside the Hmong and other regional minority ethnic groups. Most Khmu in Thailand arrived recently from Laos and Vietnam as refugees, also around the outset of the Vietnam War.> [web18]. Khmu practice magic and believe in spirits [web19].

Khmu woman[63]  Thailand,
                            Khmu festivity with music and dance in
                            traditional clothes in the village of Ban
                            Chom Ong[64]  Laos, Khmu village of Ban Sam Yord[65]
Khmu woman [63] - Thailand, Khmu festivity with music and dance in traditional clothes in the village of Ban Chom Ong [64] - Laos, Khmu village of Ban Sam Yord [65]

Lawa [laua] hill tribe in Thailand

Map of Lawa hill tribe near
                                      Chiang Mai

Well, this map is not indicating the same locations as "Lawa" locations than the first big map. Lawa (stressing the second sillable; in Thai ลั๊วะ or ละว้า), in Lao ລະວ້າ, have many names: T'in, Chao Dol, H'tin, Katin, Kha Che, Kha Pai, Kha Phai, Kha T'in, Lua, Lwa, Mai, Mal, P'ai, Phai, Praj, Pral, P'u Pai, Thin, Tie und Tin [web20]. The main part of Lawa are living in Laos [web21]. In China Lawa are a sub group of Va nationality. Other Lawa groups are also in Myanmar [web20]. All in all are about 17,000 estimated [web21]. Life is archaic and belief is animistic [web20]. Lawa people were driven away by the immigrating Thai [web21]. Not married women have white shirts with red bracelet, and married women have multi colored clothes [web20].

From 5th to 10th century Lawa were living with the Mon also in today's central Thailand before Thai ethnic group drove the Lawa away. The local name of Lopburi comes alledgedly from "Lawaburi" which was the capital of Lavo Kingdom. Also the valleys of northern Thailand were populated by the Lawa before Tais came. First city of Wiang Nophaburi is today's Chiang Mai [web21].

Lawa in Thailand are about 14,000 with rice terrace agriculture living in the southern part of Mae Hong Sorn province and on Bo Luang high plain in southern Chiang Mai Province [web22].

Thailand, Lawa
                                girl weaving in the region of Chian Mai[67]  Thailand, Lawa men with flute and
                                women aside[68]  Lawa village in Thailand[69]
Thailand, Lawa girl weaving in the region of Chian Mai [67] - Thailand, Lawa men with flute and women aside [68] - Lawa village in Thailand [69]

Akha hill tribe in Thailand
Akha (also called "Aka" or in Thai "Ai Ko", in Laotian "Lao Sung") came from Tibet over Burma and Yunnan in China. Today they live in northern Thailand, Laos and in Vietnam (called "Hà Nhì", 17,500). There are estimated in Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam over 400,000 Akha totally. Additionally there are almost 1.7 million in China called Hani. In Thailand they live in height from 1,000 meters upwards in the provinces of Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Lampang, Phrae Tak and Kamphaeng Phet in bamboo houses. Estimations of 2000 say there are about 50,000 Akha in 300 villages in Thailand. Migration to Thailand is going on. Agriculture is varied and also with cuttle, and in some remote villages also opium is consumed and opium is applied for healing procedures. Manh Akhas in Thailand have no passports yet and are suppressed by police and military forces [web23].

                                    Akha bamboo house[70]  Thailand, Akha girl with
                                    thread game[71]  Thailand, old Akha woman
                                    near Chiang Rai[72]
Thailand, Akha bamboo house [70] - Thailand, Akha girl with thread game [71] - Thailand, old Akha woman near Chiang Rai [72]

Yao hill tribe in Thailand
Yao hill tribe is a big group with it's center in south and southwest China (in 2010 census 2 million and 796,003; Yao also live in northern Laos, northern Vietnam, northern Thailand (about 60,000) [web24] also called "Mien" or Pau Yut (Pow Yout) [web27]. There are over 34,000 Mien living in 173 villages in North Thailand [web26]. Yao also live in northern Myanmar. Yao in Thailand also call themselves as "Mien" or "lu-Mien" as a sub group of the Yao of China; in Vietnam they are also called "Dao", Dzao, Zao, and "Red Dzao" also as a sub group. First Yao tribes had Taoism, today Buddhism and a certain "Jesus" [web24] because they are victims of "missions" [web26].

Thailand, Yao of Doi Mae
                                        Salong[73]  Thailand, Yao / Mien
                                        woman knitting[74]  Thailand, Yao / Mien
Thailand, Yao of Doi Mae Salong [73] - Thailand, Yao / Mien woman knitting [74] - Thailand, Yao / Mien village [75]

And also Yao hill tribe (in Thailand called "Mien") were abused by criminal "U.S.A." for the useless fight against Vietnam:

<Many Mien American elders fought alongside the United States CIA during the "Secret War" of Laos in an effort to block weapon trails to Vietnam. When the American operation pulled out in 1975, hundreds of families were forced to seek refuge in the neighboring country of Thailand. Hundreds died during this heart-breaking journey on foot through the deep jungles of Southeast Asia. In the next few years, thousands settled in Thailand refugee camps awaiting uncertain fate. Through programs from the United Nations, roughly 60,000 were sponsored to western countries such as the United States. Approximately 50,000 Mien settled along the western coast of the U.S. in states of Washington, Oregon and California. Approximately 10,000 settled in other parts of the country, in states of Alabama, Tennessee, Michigan, Illinois and other states. This ethnicity group has yet to be included in the United States Census and consequently, current population numbers have been skewed anywhere from 50,000 to 150,000. Since resettlement in America, historical contacts have been and continue to be made, between Mien Americans and Mien in China and Vietnam. Many Mien American relatives still remain in the countries of Laos and Thailand.> [web25]

Girls from Burma, China and Cambodia for local Thai brothels - illiterate Burma girls from 'Yai Thai' community

map of
                        Thailand importing prostitutes from Burma,
                        China, and Cambodia
Map of Thailand importing prostitutes from Burma, China, and Cambodia [76]

A new set of recruits had been found in women from Burma and to a lesser extent from southern China and Cambodia. They were cheap and plentiful and, in the case of the Burmese, they also appeared to be willing. Consequently the number of sex workers in the Thai industry who originate from the north of the country has been decreasing in line with a corresponding increase in the number of girls from other countries. Five to ten years ago around half of the women working in the brothels of Chiang Mai in northern Thailand were from Burma. Now [estate 2000] 100% of brothel-based prostitutes are Burmese [36].

[36] Interview with Jackie Pollock, EMPOWER, Chiang Mai, Thailand

These women, especially from the (p.49)

'Yai Thai' community, are in demand for their white skin and their delicate features. All of these girls are illiterate.

Woman trafficking from Yunnan Province (China) to Thailand's brothels

Yunnan is a peripheral and mountainous region of China. Its people have a low standard of living by Chinese standards, and educational levels and general statistics on human development lay far behind the rest of the country. What makes Yunnan a recruiting ground for the sex industry is its proximity to Thailand with its ever-expanding demand for fresh young bodies. Since the 1990s thousands of young women from tribal communities in the Yunnan-Burmese border area have been trafficked to Thailand [37].

[37] Kritaya Archavanitkul: Trafficking in Children for Labor Exploitation including Child Prostitution in the Mekong Delta (Bangkok: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, ILO-IPEC, July 1998), p.34

According to official figures, which may well be an underestimation, around 2,500 women were trafficked out of Yunnan in 1995 alone [38].

[38] Mr He Zhixiong, Yunnan Academy of Social Sciences, speaking at a seminar in Mae Sai, Thailand, November 1997

Their main destinations were the Chinese marriage market [in rich parts of China] and the brothels of Thailand.

Women coming from Burma to Thailand's brothels - workers from Burma with Burmese prostitutes following them

Burma's bitter history of civil war and political repression by an authoritarian military government has left hundreds of thousands of people displaced from their homes and millions living in fear and appalling [dreadful] poverty. It is a dream for agents of the sex industry. There are thousands of young women without a home or a livelihood who are desperate to escape the depredations [plundering] of the Burmese army. They have an unenviable choice. As one Burmese prostitute working in Thailand stated, 'Why should we stay in Burma to be raped by soldiers? If we come to Thailand we get raped as well, but here we get paid for sex - at least most of the time.' The refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border are major recruiting grounds for prostitutes [39]

[39] Archavanitkul: Trafficking in Children, p.28

and the estimated two million people who have migrated from Burma into the surrounding countries since the early 1980s have formed an army of cheap male migrant laborers and the prostitutes who service them [40].

[40] Archavanitkul: Trafficking in Children, p.3

Thailand is a 'promised land' or a 'hell' for prostitutes

The attractions of working in Thailand are obvious for young Burmese women. When you first cross the border from Thailand into Burma there is little difference in the infrastructure of buildings and roads. But there is a palpable sense of desperation. Ten miles (p.50)

into Burmese territory, however, and the poverty is shocking and inescapable. From the Burmese mountains overlooking the border with northern Thailand, you can see neatly cultivated fields, modern towns and roads that lead south. To the poor, and those who have lost faith in their country's future, it must seem like the Promised Land. For some women it will be just such a Promised Land and for many others it will be a hell.

Women trafficking: girls from refugee camps in Nepal

Map of
                        Bhutan and Nepal with the refugee camps in
                        eastern Nepal

Map of Bhutan and Nepal with the refugee camps in eastern Nepal [77]
It is a similar story for the dispossessed [expelled] everywhere. They have little to fight with and few people to fight for them. The networks that supply the sex industry hover around these people. They hover, for instance, around the one hundred thousand people of Nepali ethnic origin who were expelled from Bhutan in the early 1990s in one of the world's lesser known chapters of ethnic cleansing. Today [estate 2000] these people languish [suffer] in refugee camps in the east of Nepal. These people do not have permanent homes and they do not have a nationality. They are of little interest to anyone. Except, of course, the agents of the sex industry.

Nepal refugee camp in 2008
Nepal refugee camp in 2008 [78]

Ethnic minorities and tribal peoples form an excellent recruitment pool for the sex industry because women's status in many of these communities is not quite as circumscribed as in the dominant national cultures. Women have greater economic power, more social standing and there are looser restrictions on sexual morality. Among the Tamangs of Nepal, for instance, there is no taboo on premarital sex. And in many of the poor farming communities of northern Thailand, the country's obsession with chastity and virginity does not have the same kind of resonance as it does among the middle and upper classes. This does not imply, however, that prostitution of girls from these communities is accepted as a customary norm. Ironically, the higher status of women in these societies and their greater freedom of movement rebounds to their cost because it means that the sex industry and its clients can manipulate this freedom and profit from it as a result of the communities' relative poverty. It is yet another example of the global truth that (p.51)

mainstream cultures twist [block] and exploit  minority cultures to their own advantage.

Women trafficking: girls from slums and from poor villages

Poor urban slums are increasingly profitable recruiting grounds for the sex industry. Even so [but], most brothel-based prostitutes and streetwalkers have arrived in the city from the villages. There are many ways in which girls migrate to the cities and there are many means of trafficking.

[There comes a woman in beautiful clothes and with beautiful jewelry promising good jobs "in the city" bringing the girls and young women to the brothels which are run by WOMEN mama-sans torturing, manipulating and extorting the victims for years in a sex slavery which is run mostly by WOMEN. Mostly women are committing the crimes, and mostly women are trafficking women offering them to men at the end].

Women trafficking: feminization of migration not only for sex business

The 1980s and 1990s have seen a feminization of migration throughout the world. In Asia this is a reflection of greater opportunities for women and well as their greater poverty. Crucially, in a social context in which women are viewed as either the possessions of men or as some collection of body parts for the use of the [...]ny, this feminization of migration has left millions of women at risk of sexual abuse and general economic exploitation. The girls trafficked for prostitution are only the most exploited of many exploited women.

Trafficked prostitutes say: their families sent them - families say: the daughter has a job in a factory or as a domestic servant - or know about sex work - but they have no idea of sex slavery

Girls and women in prostitution frequently relate [tell] similar stories about the background to their work. They say that their families sent them or at least gave them permission to leave home. Families waved them off happy in the knowledge that their girl was going to the big city to get a job in a factory or as a domestic servant. Many families are not dissembling. They really think that their child will have a better life away from the poverty of the village. But it is hard to believe that all are so ignorant of the fate that will befall their daughters.

In northern and north-eastern Thailand, in parts of Nepal, Indonesia, China, Burma and India, families know that their daughters will become sex workers. Perhaps they do not understand the full implications of what this job will involve. Some families honestly believe that it is 'easy money' and they have a false idea of the conditions their daughters will endure. However, they do know that she will not simply be a waitress, or a dancer, or a maid in a rich person's house. The trafficking of girls is on too large a scale for it to be ignored and unnoticed.

In some cases families pretend not to (p.52)

know in order to spare themselves the shame of sending a girl into prostitution. But be sure that for many - perhaps the majority - it is unspoken knowledge. Gossip travels fast even in the remotest villages of the Nepali Himalayas, and few will be totally unaware of what happens to girls who go to Mumbai.

Trafficking of women: 'Thai country women' - and the Thai country families waiting for the money

The market for sex has made daughters a valuable commodity in some poor communities. A Thai official in a non-governmental organization (NGO) explained, 'What it comes down to is that Thai country women are just another kind of crop.' [41]

[41] International Movement Against All Forms of Discrimination and Racism: Trafficking in Women in Asia: A Reference Manual for Public Officials and Private Citizens (Tokyo, undated), p.12

In northern Thailand a family with several daughters is considered lucky, and a community leader in Riom Mon in Chiang Mai province complains that 'some parents remain idle, just waiting for money from their daughters'. [42]

[42] Skrobanek: Traffic in Women, p.74

Trafficking of women: birth of daughters is welcome now in Nepal and in India's prostitute castes

Just as in Nepal and in India's prostitute castes, the birth of a daughter here is no longer a cause for lament. Sex work has given them a market value [43].

[43] Than-Dam Truong: Sex, Money and Morality, p.74

Thailand: teen girls sent from provinces of Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai - money comes to the provinces - the girl is 'successful'

Thailand, Chian Mai, brothel line
Thailand, Chian Mai, brothel line [x001]

Report about Chiang Mai from May 2010
<Fear of 'letting down' the trafficker or pimp is high and image is everything. As you walk down the street, you know that you're being watched. Having Emmi there was very insightful. She told us what was being said in Thai that the foreigners (mainly middle-aged men) are oblivious to. On this street you can buy sex for as little as £4. For £10 you'll get whatever you want for the whole night.> [web35]

Men traffickers are controlling the area, the streets, the brothels and the customers. They are urging children for selling flowers and they destroy any feeling of joy but are provoking depression in the eyes of the women and in the heart of the customers - in the name of Thailand's sex industry [web35].
Sending girls into prostitution, usually when they are between thirteen and nineteen, is not considered to be shameful in provinces of northern Thailand like Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai [44].

[44] I am indebted to Sompop Jantraka of the Daughters' Education Programme Mae Sai for his observations on these points.

The whole community accepts sex work - and this includes officials and religious organizations because, ultimately, they all benefit financially from the trade. Evidence from Thailand, Nepal and Indonesia, among other places, suggests that a change in attitudes towards prostitution occurs after the women from a poor community have been involved in the business for a number of years. First there is the demonstration effect: girls return to poor villages with some money. Providing the money is substantial enough - and in a poor community it need only be a modest sum - the girl's shame is ignored because she has been successful and her money eventually buys her acceptance.

A crucial turning point comes when the daughters of former prostitutes are sent to the city for sex work. It takes a generation - perhaps two - and then prostitution becomes a profession and a standard career 'choice' for girls from poor communities who almost invariably have limited education and minimal skills. This process (p.53)

has only occurred in pockets throughout Asia but the phenomenon is spreading and a greater and greater number of girls are being reared [educated] for prostitution.

Nepal: teen girls sent from Tamang tribe

Amongst the Tamangs of Nepal the trading of girls is an open secret [45].

[45] Report: Girl Trafficking in Sindhupalchowk: A Situation Analysis Report on Mahankal and Inchowk Village Development Committee (ABC Nepal, undated), p.6

There are virtually no girls between the ages of thirteen and twenty in villages like Ichowk in Sindhupalchowk [district] [46].

[46] Child Workers in Nepal (CWIN), 'The Road to Bombay'; In: Voices of Child Workers (Kathmandu, December 1992), p.52

Supplement: brothel cages in Mumbai brothel prisons
Brothels in Mumbai are organized putting
                        girls into brothel cages so they will serve men
                        at the end
Brothels in Mumbai are sometimes organized putting girls into brothel cages so they will serve men at the end [79]
Read precisely what is done with the young girls in brothel prisons in Mumbai in India:

<Girls in a brothel in Faulkland road in the red light area. There are currently estimated 20,000 prostitutes in Kamathipura, the majority of which have been trafficked. The average age of entry into Kamathipura is 12 (but its often as young as 7). The girls who are trafficked, especially the minors, become sex slaves. They are usually held in the brothel 'cages' for 3-5 years, until they have been 'broken' and the madams allow them to sell themselves openly on the street, in front of the brothel houses. The girls are still not free though and describe the red light area as an open prison.> [web28]

May be Asia really has some sex problems?

Prostitute rate: 1 per family in northern Thailand and northern Philippines - 1 girl per family is 'sacrificed'

Similarly in northern Thailand and parts of the northern Philippines there are communities in which every family has a prostituted daughter. Initially girls were sold into the sex industry because families had few alternatives. They were desperately poor and the selling of a child made the difference between the rest of the family going hungry and providing them with just enough to eat. These girls were sacrificed so that others could survive.

Teen prostitution in Asia for 'a modern lifestyle' of the family - above all in Thailand, with a 'deposit' in advance of the girl trader (tok khieu)

In some parts of Asia this is still the case but in those areas where prostitution is a career option for thirteen- and fourteen-year-old girls there is a complicating factor. Poor and marginal communities are besieged with the values, images and the materialism of affluent society and these disadvantaged groups have, inevitably, also desired the same symbols of status. One way they can afford at least some of the coveted [demanded] commodities of a modern lifestyle is by trading a daughter into sexual slavery.

In Thailand this has become a sophisticated system of exchange. A customary practice known as tok khiew [
doog kiao] (which means 'green harvest') has been adapted to the needs of the sex trade. In the original version farmers pledged their unharvested rice crop in return for a loan. This system now also applies to girls. Agents place a kind of deposit on girls of twelve and thirteen, and sometimes even younger if they are exceptionally pretty and show promise of maturing into attractive teenagers. In return for this deposit the girl is pledged to the sex industry.

Thailand, study of 1990: 60% of Thai families sending daughters to brothels just for 'consumer goods' - Thai girls 'Go South'

A study was undertaken in 1990 with the aim of establishing the reasons why some Thai families encouraged their girls to become prostitutes. It came up with some depressing conclusions. It found that 60% of families sending daughters to the brothels were not (p.54)

forced to do so because of acute poverty. Instead they were motivated by the desire to own consumer goods like televisions and videos [47].

[47] Ecumenical Council on Third World Tourism: Caught in Modern Slavery: Tourism and Child Prostitution in Asia (Bangkok, 1992), p.41

There is competition among families to acquire household items. In some ways this consumerism complements traditional values which place a strong emphasis on external appearance [48].

[48] Warunee Fongkaew: 'Sexuality and Gender Norms Among Thai Teenagers'; paper presented at the regional workshop on the social Sciences and Reproductive Health, Karnchanaburi, Thailand, July 1996, p.3-4

All the young ethnic Thai girls who 'Go South' are not dragged screaming to the brothels. Only rarely are they held in captivity. Most would not claim to be forced or coerced, but their options are so narrow, and they are so young, that their compliance [to say yes] amounts to coercion.

Parents are not solely to blame. The perpetrators of the prostitution of young girls in places like Thailand are not just individuals but are entire social, political and economic systems. There is skewed [deformed] economic development that leaves whole communities without access to the fruits of modern society while at the same time tempting them with its products. There is a social and sexual system that reduces women's utility to sex. There is a socialization process which conditions women to accept that they must help their families by any means possible. There are men who demand the right to buy relationships of power with women and there is an industry ready to organize and profit from this demand.

[Coward Asien governments without jobs in the countryside - Thai prostitutes shifted around also in Switzerland
Additionally Asian governments are excellent with racism against the population in the countryside never installing good jobs in the countryside thus the rural population is only a poor mass being shifted around by the government. In this situation prostitutino is automatically considered as a "solution" in the economic disaster in Asia - and the rich Asian racists in the town are meeting just the women from the countryside in the brothels...
Concerning Thaialnd many Thai brothel owners are also Swiss men from Switzerland and they are shifting Thai women also to Switzerland with their connections to the secret service and to the migration police. And in Switzerland "friends" are shifting them from brothel to brothel. This can end well, but sometimes also not so well].

Parents and communities are only small-time traders in a much larger pattern of commerce created by vast social, sexual, economic and political forces.

[The elements creating the conditions for a big sex business: deliberately there are no good jobs in the countryside
The elements conditioning the big sex business are the ministry for social affairs, police boards, economic department and secret services. Thus there are DELIBERATELY NO good jobs installed in the countryside so always many young women are heading into the prostitution business which is considered as a "salvation". This is how racism of rich Asian men is working in Asia - and we remember: "Pure" Asian women are sending wild husbands to the brothel, and the houses in Asia are just built thus the neighbors can peep all sexual action what the bride and the bridegroom don't want. No further questions...!]

Example: Thai prostitute began massage work in Bangkok with 14 years

I met a gorgeously beautiful woman in a Pattaya nightclub, where she danced in a tiny bikini and sold sex to foreigners. Once we had established that I did not want to buy sex from her she told me about her career and how well she had done for herself and her family.

<I am from northern Thailand. From a little village. We were not rich but not poor. My mother was a sex worker in Bangkok during the time of the Americans (during Vietnam War). I have two sisters and one brother. When I was at school I thought about getting a job in an office because I was quite good at my studies but when I was fourteen I (p.55)

started this work. My family said I could earn more money this way. I went to Bangkok and I worked in a massage parlor for a while but the work wasn't good: the clients were not nice and the pay wasn't enough. I worked there for three years until I paid off my debt. Because the customers like me, and I give good service, I got a better job in a bar and I entertained a lot of foreigners. One time I went to Japan for a few months and I earned a lot of money. This is good work for me because I can send money to my family. My brother has a motorbike and perhaps one day we can buy a car. My family has already made another room in the house with the money I sent them. They are very happy and proud that I am more successful than other girls in my village.>

Nepali villages with families doing nothing but waiting for the money of their prostituted sisters and daughters

As you walk through the villages of [mountain districts of] Sindhupalchowk and Nuwakot in Nepal it is possible to pick out the families of girls working in Indian brothels. They have the houses with tin [metal] roofs and men lolling [doing nothing] outside in the shade listening to radios and playing cards. This relative affluence and leisure is bought with the bodies of their sisters and daughters.

[Just the same happens in the countryside in Thailand but men are not playing cards there but they are mostly wasting the money drinking beer and whiskey thus also men are loosing any brain!]

Example: Nepali sisters being prostitutes in Mumbai

In the lanes of Kamatipura red light area in Mumbai, I met a Nepali prostitute who looked around twenty-three but who said she was thirty-five. She was confident and heavily made-up. This is what she said:

<I am from Sindhupalchowk in Nepal. My sister is also in the profession here. There are a lot of us from the same place. I came here about ten years ago with a gharwali (woman brothel manager) from my village.>

It was clear from this young woman's comments that she was not physically coerced into prostitution and that she had started her career as a prostitute when she was a child.

2.11: Successful prostitutes - sold children - almost no or no education

General indications: successful prostitutes changing social values: prostitution becomes a normal business

The mixture of poverty, successful prostitutes and consumer (p.56)

culture has dramatically altered societal values about prostitution in selected areas of Asia. But for most people, in most communities, it remains an unacceptable trade. This, however, cannot stop the desperately poor from trying to sell their children and often succeeding in the task.

[Writer Louise Brown is hiding all negative effects of making prostitution business career
-- with alcohol abuse,
-- loosing brain and loosing memory capacity by alcohol abuse,
-- and thus any further education is blocked by loss of brain and memory capacity because alcohol has reduced the brain and the memory
-- eventually there is also smoking without end,
-- loss of health because work is always during the night and the immune system is weak
-- loss of health by sexual transmitted diseases and AIDS illnesses
-- loss of the feminine voice getting a more male and low voice by the high alcohol consumption in combination with working during all nights.
Most of these points are never mentioned by Louise Brown. Thus when somebody makes prostitution business it should be only for 4 or 5 years not more saving the body].

                        with Mekong Delta

Sold virgins from poor families in Cambodia in Mekong Delta - and in Indonesia [80]
Sold virgins from poor families in Cambodia in Mekong Delta - and in Indonesia

Poor families in Cambodia are aware that they can demand, and receive, a high price for their daughter's virginity and daughters know that this is a way they can help their families. In the Mekong Delta there are well-documented cases in which parents directly or indirectly are involved in selling children - some as young as twelve - into prostitution [49].

[49] Archavanitkul: Trafficking in Children, p.69

It is still possible, though more unusual, to find similar cases in Indonesia [50].

[50] Lin Lean Lim: The Sex Sector, p.49

Sold children from poor families in Bangladesh - and no control

In the very poorest communities families are not even anxious to secure a payment for their girls. In Bangladesh, girls are taken from their families by [women] agents [with beautiful clothes and jewelry on their hands] who promise them jobs ["in the city"]. Some of these parents and guardians are too poor to be choosy and cautious about what kind of work their daughters will do. As far as many are concerned they are happy to have girls taken away because it relieves them of another mouth to feed and another dowry to collect [51].

[51] In conversation with Salma Ali, Director of the Bangladesh National Women Lawyers' Association, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Prostituted girls and sold girls in South Asian prostitution: low or no education levels

[To be illiterate means that a simple woman trafficker has got power over the girl just because the girl cannot read or write anything and is absolutely dependent on anything what the woman trafficker is saying].

Many trafficked girls and those who are directly coerced into prostitution in Asia share a similar set of characteristics. First they have low educational levels. In South-East Asia a report by the International Labor Organization found that sex workers were less educated than the average woman [52].

[52] Lin Lean Lim: the Sex Sector, p.3

In India, where most women are illiterate, brothel-based prostitutes and streetwalkers almost invariably have little or no schooling [53].

[53] UNICEF: A Situation Analysis, p.91

In Sonagachi, which is the biggest brothel in Calcutta, only 15% of the women are literate [54].

[54] Department of Epidemiology, All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health: 'Assessment of the Sex Trade in Calcutta and Howrah', undated, p.52

This pattern is repeated over and over again throughout South Asia.

Sompop Jantraka: Education organization at Thai-Burmese border - education and 'alternative employment'

Supplement: Sompop Jantraka - a savior of children in brothel prisons

Sompop Jantraka, portrait of a savior of
                      children in forced prostitution in brothel prisons
                      in [criminal mafia dominated] Thailand
Sompop Jantraka, portrait of a savior of children in forced prostitution
in brothel prisons in [criminal mafia dominated] Thailand

<Sompop Jantraka currently is living in Mae Sai, a town in northern Thailand. He is from Surat Thani in the south of Thailand [near the Malaysian border]. As a kid he roamed the streets and lived a life of poverty. “Sompop wasn’t the kind of kid anyone expected to grow up to be a hero.” (Horn, 2006, p. 1) It was not until an American woman gave him the chance to get an education and gave him the confidence and knowledge that he could make something of himself that his life found a purpose. Since then, he has worked hard to do the same thing for other young children.> [web29]

There should be more Sompop Jantrakas.

Sompop Jantraka (a Thai activist saving girls from child prostitution in Thailand from Thai brothel prisons [web29]) runs the Daughters' Education Program in areas along the Thai-Burmese border and works with girls who are victims of trafficking for prostitution. His organization tries to curtail [reduce] the trade in girls by identifying those who are most likely to be trafficked. The girls are provided with a basic education and a training that might provide them with an alternative form of (p.57)

employment. Those who are in imminent danger are given a safe environment in which to stay. The program identifies a number of common risk factors leading to trafficking and prostitution, especially among the tribal communities. A girl is more likely to be recruited into prostitution if she has a sister or relative who is already in the industry. She is especially vulnerable if alcoholism, drug addiction, divorce or the death of a parent shakes the structure of the family.

2.12: Conditions favoring prostitution: no school, brute stepmothers, civil wars, famines, or a volcano

Thailand: education finishing after 12 or 13 - girls 'Go South'

The point at which these factors come into play is when the girl finishes compulsory education at the age of twelve or thirteen. Freed from school, girls from northern Thailand then 'Go South'. [Taboo topic of alcoholism in prostitution work is never mentioned by Louise Brown].

Family conditions for prostitution of the daughters: girls in Calcutta in India - Hindu girls from Bengal

Problems within the family, and not simply poverty, are the most important factors pushing girls into prostitution. This is borne out [confirmed more and more], time after time, by the experiences of women who were forced into prostitution by economic necessity and by girls who were trafficked and sold into prostitution. In Calcutta, for example, trafficked girls are often between twelve and fifteen years old. Trafficked Bengali Hindu girls are commonly from families in which a parent has died and the remaining parent has remarried. At this point the girl becomes subject to abuse from her stepparent within the reconstituted family.

Bengalen: discrimination of girls by stepmothers in Bengali Muslim families - flight of girls - lost girls sold to brothels - no money for marriage of girls as a reason to send them into prostitution

Among Bengali Muslims the situation is slightly different. Bengali Muslim men commonly have many wives and many children whom they cannot support. Because children usually remain with their fathers after a divorce, new wives discriminate against the children of earlier wives. Girls report that they ran away from home because they could not tolerate the hunger and the beatings [55].

[55] I am grateful for discussions with Indrani Sinha and the staff of Sanlaap, Calcutta, for this information

From there it is only a small step to being absorbed within trafficking networks and sold to a brothel. A study undertaken of prostitutes in Mumbai in 1962 discovered that the death of a girl's guardians and ill treatment by relations was the single most important factor pushing females into prostitution [56].

[56] S.D. Punekar and Kamala Rao: A Study of Prostitution in Bombay: With Reference to Family Background (Mumbai: Lalvani Publishing House, 1962).

Almost forty years later the situation is remarkably similar. In interviews with girls rescued in a 1996 raid on Mumbai brothels it was found that over (p.59)

half of the girls had grown up in families in which one or both parents had died. Their home life was also marked by a collapse of family conventions. Some families, for instance, lacked the capacity, or willingness, to arrange a marriage for their girls [57].

Example: terror of stepmother - flight of the girl - girl sold to Tanbazar brothel in Dhaka [capital of Bangladesh]

The experience of a woman who was trafficked into the Tanbazar brothel when she was twelve, and who now works on the streets of Dhaka, is a common one throughout South Asia.

<My mother died when I was little and my father remarried. My stepmother was cruel to me and my brother, but my brother was lucky and my maternal aunt said she would look after him. I had to stay with my stepmother and do all the chores [house work] and look after my little half-brothers. She would beat me for no reason and would not give me food so I was always very hungry. One day I couldn't stand it any more so I ran away from the house. I walked and walked because I had nowhere to go. I met a woman on the road and she said she could find me a job in the city. She seemed nice and kind and not like my stepmother so I went with her and she sold me to a brothel.>

Marriages fail and parents fail and, inevitably,  girls and women carry the heaviest burden as a result.

[More examples of terrorist stepmothers in Bengal and India
Searching in the Internet a little bit one actually can find horrible behavior of stepmothers in Bengal and in India (search 2013):
-- burning a youth daughter because the daughter refused the forced marriage and wanted to follow her school education, news from 14 May 2013 [web30]
-- a stepmother strangulated a 3 years old child in Jamshedpur in India at Mahatma Ghandi Memorial College (MGM College), news from 12 April 2013 [web31]
-- a stepmother in Lucknow (India) is always discriminating two children until the 12 years old boy is killing her with the revolver of the father, news from 6 September 2012 [web32]
-- a stepmother in Delhi is always discriminating a stepdaughter and the stepson is murdering the stepmother, news from 7 March 2012 [web33].
It seems that women in India are not prepared well for being second wives - emotional education seems to be missing. And leaving such a family is even better than committing a murder case. But in India and in Bengal the children rescue homes are missing!

Thailand: order to the girls 'to support their parents' by prostitution - after separation earn the support for children

Sixty per cent of girls from northern Thailand enter prostitution in order to support their parents. A majority of Thai sex workers from the north-east do so after the failure of a marriage and the subsequent need to support their children [58].

[58] Lin Lean Lim: The Sex Sector, p. 147-149

Red Khmer
                        in Phnom Penh 1975

Red Khmer in Phnom Penh 1975 [82]
Cambodia with civil war provoking broken families - girls helping with prostitution

It is the same story wherever you go. Cambodia has been tortured by years of war and genocide [1970s and 1980s]. Basic familial relationships were irredeemably traumatized during the Pol Pot regime, when children informed upon their parents and parents upon their children. The fundamental building blocks of Cambodian society were torn apart as families unravelled. They have not yet recovered [2000]. This legacy (p.59)

makes the sale of children, and the buying of people, that much easier.

Troubled families are the breeding grounds for sex workers. And troubled families in poor, marginal and crisis-ridden communities generate the most reliable supply of cheap girls. Civil wars and natural calamities [catastrophes] produce bumper [special] harvests for the sex industry.

Example of North Korea: famine provoking emigration and woman trafficking for prostitution work in China

Famine-struck North Korea cannot feed its people. It cannot feed the girls who flee across the Chinese border in search of food and who are met by sex industry enterpreneurs who take them to brothels in Chinese cities [59].

Example of Philippines: mass evacuations by volcano eruption and woman trafficking for prostitution work

When [in 1991] Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted and displaced thousands of people from their homes, it was the experienced [mostly women] agents of the sex industry [in beautiful clothes and with jewelry offering jobs "in the city"] who were some of the first to offer their sympathy and their own variety of support in the centers sheltering the victims. Like all successful business people they had their eye on a bargain.

You don't believe? Here is the proof for refugee camps after the Pinatubo explosion:
Philippines, outbreak of volcano Pinatubo
                      in 1991[83]    Philippines, tent camp after the outbreak of
                      Pinatubo in 1991[84]
Philippines, outbreak of volcano Pinatubo in 1991 [83] - Philippines, tent camp after the outbreak of Pinatubo in 1991 [84]

Read precisely the text by Nigel Dickinsen:

<VOLCANO AFTERMATH, Philippines. Tent city refugee camp.Central Luzon, Mount Pinatubo volcano erupted in 1991 and caused massive destruction of urban and rural landscape. Many indigenous Aeta and Igorot people were displaced. White volcanic ashes settled and disfigured the landscape. Many live in ramshackle shelters, in refugee camps and settlements, living on humanitarian aid.> [web34]

When in such a poverty without any statal measure for water and shower and job a nice woman in nice clothes with jewelry on her hands comes offering jobs "in the city", you would say no? The thing is that a job trafficker needs a license and jobs have to be controlled.

General indications: prostitution exists because of a lost balance of conditions - making money in emergency situations

Let us make no mistake, prostitution is not just about poverty. It is a business founded upon all sorts of inequalities. It is a business that is constructed out of the distorted relations of power between men and women, between the poor and the rich and between the minorities and mainstream of a society. The sex industry makes money because it buys cheap raw materials and packages them well. It turns vulnerability into a commodity and that commodity into a profit (p.60).

[Addition: There would be measures
Job advisers should be urged to have a license, and the jobs where the people are brought must be controlled. As Asian governments also like to visit brothels and as they like to consume many young girlss and as they don't rate importante European Human Rights - because those would come from former colonialists - there is not much change concerning the conditions against women in Asia. Concerning the position against Human Rights Asia and Islam are just very similar...]

<<        >>



[web01] http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/vietnam;
especially: 2011 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report: http://www.humantrafficking.org/publications/635
[web02] http://talkvietnam.com/2012/09/vietnamese-women-suffer-at-hands-of-chinese-husbands-brothels/#.UaUAAdjgZ3U
[web03] http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/52a/013.html
[web04] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/1477492/Girls-led-into-life-of-sacred-sex-slavery.html
[web05] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamang
[web06] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lahu_people
[web07] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisu_people
[web08] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hmong
[web09] http://www.chiangmai1.com/chiang_mai/hmong.shtml
[web10] http://www.economist.com/node/15179782

[web11] http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/28/thailand-deportation-hmong-laos
[web12] http://www.backpacking-tips-asia.com/hmong-people.html#.UaWAgtjgZ3U
[web13] http://www.achrweb.org/Review/2006/128-06.htm
[web14] http://www.gfbv.de/pressemit.php?id=1403
[web15] http://www.unpo.org/article/8328
[web16] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karen_%28Volk%29
[web17] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padaung
[web18] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmu_people
[web19] http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/welcome/features/20071003_CLAS/
[web20] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawa_%28Volk%29

[web21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawa_people
[web22] http://www.thailine.com/thailand/hilltrib/lawa-d.htm
[web23] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akha
[web24] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yao
[web25] http://www.epluribus.us/blog/2010/08/treasure_trove.html
[web26] http://www.omf.org/omf/us/peoples_and_places/people_groups/mien_of_thailand
[web27] http://nyenoona.wordpress.com/2007/08/05/the-beauty-of-hill-tribes-culture-is-disappearing-%E2%80%93-part-i/
[web28] http://hazelthompson.photoshelter.com/image/I0000ggopYz3qmFA
[web29] myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=Sompop_Jantraka_whitworth_07
[web30] http://www.thestatesman.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&show=archive&id=455965&catid=73&year=2013&month=5&day=11&Itemid=66

[web31] http://www.telegraphindia.com/1130412/jsp/jharkhand/story_16775567.jsp#.UacV69jgZ3U
[web32] http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-09-06/lucknow/33648837_1_sahil-minor-boy-step-mother
[web33] http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/NewDelhi/Man-kills-stepmother-for-harassing-disabled-sister/Article1-821896.aspx
[web34] Pinatubo, text by Nigel Dickinsen: http://nigeldickinson.photoshelter.com/image/I0000pwEjXkwrLbE
[web35] Thailand, brothel line in Chian Mai: www.clemison.com/2010_05_01_archive.html

Photo sources
[22] Kathmandu, center: http://www.indien-reise.com/german/Kathmandu.htm
[23] New York stock exchange: http://rt.com/business/tweet-hackers-wall-street-us-326/
[24] map with Vietnam and trafficked workers and women: www.maps.com
[25] Dalit women in India with water: http://kingdomofgraceministries.org/#
[26] map with India, Bengal, and Bangladesh: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengalen
[27] village in West Bengal: http://www.isical.ac.in/~icfhr2010/images/CountrySide.jpg
[28] suspension bridge in Nepal: http://www.swissinfo.ch/ger/politik_schweiz/Schweiz-Nepal:_ueber_Haengebruecken_zur_Demokratie.html?cid=30132492
[29] map with ethnic groups of Nepal: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamang; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nepal_ethnic_groups.png
[30] Nepal, Tamang hill tribe girls: http://www.travelblog.org/Photos/3540585

[31] Nepal, Tamang hill tribe chief with drum: http://www.advzambuling.com/tamang_heritage_trek.php
[32] Nepal, Gurung hill tribe women: http://english.cri.cn/6566/2008/12/31/902s437977.htm
[33] Nepal, Gurung hill tribe, typical dresses: http://chhayakhanal.com/travel-and-destinations/gurung-culture-nepal/
[34] map of Magar ethnic group in Nepal: http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/maps/m11698_np.pdf
[35] Nepal, Magar ethnic group, women in traditional dress: https://www.facebook.com/wearemagar
[36] Nepal, Magar ethnic group with Kauda dance: https://www.facebook.com/wearemagar
[37] Nepal, Tamang village: http://www.nepalvillagetrek.com/nepal/trekking/village_trekking/tamang_village_trek.php
[38] Nepal, Gurung village of Dhampus: http://www.glacieradventurecompany.com/nepal/dhampus-sarangkot-hiking.html
[39] Nepal, Gurung village with original agriculture on a rice field: http://www.flickr.com/photos/worldviewfinder/4427529375/
[40] Nepal, Magar stone architecture, photo by Nick Mayo: http://www.remoteasiaphoto.com/photo/children-at-ladder/

[41] Nepal, Magar village of Upallo Sera: http://www.lugumyal.com/Neighbouring-Villages-%28Eng%29.php
[42] northern Thailand, village of Akha: http://vimeo.com/59001363
[43] northern Thailand, two sisters in the village of Akha: http://vimeo.com/59001363
[44] northern Thailand, agriculture: http://www.thailand-travelonline.com/thailand-activities/culture-of-thailand/sustainable-agriculture-happiness-of-living/620/
[45] map of Thailand with ethnic groups: http://www.onlychaam.com/thailand-ethnic-groups.php
[46] Thailand, Lahu village: http://www.wright-photo.com/trecking3.htm
[47] Thailand, Lahu music and dance group: http://www.forum.munkonggadget.com/detail.php?id=65075
[48] Thailand, Lahu music performence: http://nannhamonlylaos.blogspot.com/2012/02/blog-post_09.html
[49] Thailand, Lisu village: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lisu_village_2.jpg
[50] Thailand, children in a Lisu village rolling down the hill: http://www.demotix.com/news/234199/lisu-hill-tribe-kids-play#media-234195

[51] Thailand, children of a Lisu village in traditional suit: http://www.flickriver.com/places/i0tFKrVTWrnPfuKJJw/
[52] Thailand, Meo (Hmong) village: http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/tt/18d4d/
[53] Thailand, Meo (Hmong) girl in traditional clothes and with a red umbrella: http://www.superstock.com/stock-photos-images/442-10685B
[54] Thailand, Meo (Hmong) refugee camp "Huay Nam Khao" in Phetchabun Province:
[55] Laos, two Meo (Hmong) women in traditional clothes at new years celebration in Nasala: http://www.backpacking-tips-asia.com/hmong-people.html#.UaWAgtjgZ3U
[56] Laos, Meo (Hmong) shaman with drum: http://www.backpacking-tips-asia.com/hmong-people.html#.UaWAgtjgZ3U
[57] book "The Hmong": http://www.dce.k12.wi.us/srhigh/socialstudies/histday/resources.htm
[58] Meo (Hmong) children with black and blond hair: http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/hmong%20people
[59] Meo (Hmong) refugee camp "Huay Nam Khao" in Phetchabun Province in Thailand 1973-2009: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/29/world/asia/29hmong.html?_r=0
[60] Karen hill tribe, long neck woman: http://www.luxury-thailand-travel.com/karen-hill-tribe.html

[61] Karen woman weaving: http://smilethailandtrip.blogspot.com/
[62] Karen village at Thai Burmese border: http://www.uecthai.com/wp-content/uploads/karen-hill-tribe-refugee-camp-un.jpg
[63] Khmu woman: http://vietnampackagetour.com/blog/khmu-ethnic-group/
[64] Khmu festivity with music and dance in traditional clothes in the village of Ban Chom Ong, northern Thailand:
[65] Khmu village Ban Sam Yord in Laos: http://www.sunandstar.ch/reisen/laos/laos_2007_04.shtml
[66] map of Lawa hill tribe in northern Thailand near Chian Mai: http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=18888&rog3=TH
[67] Thailand, Lawa girl weaving in the region of Chian Mai: http://www.thailine.com/thailand/hilltrib/lawa-d.htm
[68] Thailand, Lawa men with flute and women aside: http://www.peace.mahidol.ac.th/th/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=699&Itemid=172
[69] Thailand, Lawa village: http://wiki.moohin.com/wiki/%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%B3%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%A0%E0%B8%AD%E0%B9%81%E0%B8%A1%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%99%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%A2
[70] Thailand, Akha bamboo house: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akha

[71] Thailand, Akha girl with thread game: http://www.thailandsworld.com/en/thai-people/north-thailand-people/akha-people-thailand/index.cfm
[72] Thailand, old Akha woman near Chiang Rai: http://www.thailine.com/thailand/hilltrib/akha-d.htm#.UaaU2tjgZ3U
[73] Thailand, Yao of Doi Mae Salong: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/6774712
[74] Thailand; Yao / Mien woman knitting: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stephenwoo/334576900/
[75] Thailand, Yao / Mien village: http://nyenoona.wordpress.com/2007/08/05/the-beauty-of-hill-tribes-culture-is-disappearing-%E2%80%93-part-i/
[76] map of Thailand importing prostitutes from Burma, China, and Cambodia: http://www.pattayavillaholidays.com/maps-of-thailand.html
[77] map of Bhutan and Nepal with refugee camps: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/nepal0903/2.htm
[78] Nepal, refugee camp in 2008: http://www.wfp.org/photos/refugee-camps-bhutan-2
[79] Mumbai, brothel cage: http://hazelthompson.photoshelter.com/image/I0000ggopYz3qmFA
[80] Vietnam with Mekong Delta: http://mekong-delta.org/map/

[81] Sompop Jantraka, portrait of a savior of children in forced prostitution in Thailand: http://myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=Sompop_Jantraka_whitworth_07
[82] Red Khmer in Phnom Penh 1975: http://www.asiablog.it/2008/04/17/17-aprile-1975-la-liberazione-di-phnom-penh/
[83] Philippines, outbreak of volcano Pinatubo in 1991: http://www.mysoapboxdms.com/tag/mount-pinatubo-eruption/
[84] Philippines, tent camp after the outbreak of Pinatubo in 1991, photo by Nigel Dickinsen: http://nigeldickinson.photoshelter.com/image/I0000pwEjXkwrLbE

[x001] Thailand, Chian Mai, brothel line: http://www.clemison.com/2010_05_01_archive.html
[x002] Floods in Thailand in Prachinburi province in September 2013:

[x003] Floods in the town of Kabinburi in Prachinburi province, mother and child, September 28, 2013; In: Wochenblitz online vom 28.9.2013: Fury about the floods is rising: Bangkok is protected and whole east and northeast of Thailand is deliberately flooded ("Ärger über die Fluten wächst"):

[x004] Flooded Buddha tempel: Wochenblitz online: 32 Thai provinces under water ("32 thailändische Provinzen unter Wasser");
[x005] Flooded village of Chachoengsao in the east of Bangkok flooded meters high, one man died by drowning; In: Wochenblitz online from October 14, 2013: 57 year old man drowning in the flooded village of Chachoengsao ("57-jähriger Mann ertrinkt in überflutetem Dorf in Chachoengsao"); Oct 14, 2013;