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Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971

Jews in "Soviet Union" 05: International echo and pressure against "Soviet Union" 1920s-1970

Racist Zionists agitating for Jews in Russia - investigations - foundation of international conferences - discussions at the UN - student agitation - books from "Soviet" Jews

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in
                  "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 503, Russian
                  Jewish immigrants on 25 March 1971
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 503,
Russian Jewish immigrants on 25 March 1971

from: Russia; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 14

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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[1920s and 1930s: Zionists detect the suffering Jews in "Soviet Union"]

<The problems of Russian Jewry had exercised Jewish and world opinion for many years before the overthrow of czarism and were the subject (col. 496)

of relief and resettlement project, international protests, and interventions. In the first years after the October Revolution of 1917, when Zionist delegations from Russia were still able to attend world Zionist conferences and congresses (as in 1920 in London and 1921 in Carlsbad), attention was given to the turmoil that the civil war and revolutionary changes were causing to the large and vital Jewish community in Soviet Russia, and Zionist congresses adopted resolutions against the suppression of Zionism and Hebrew by the Soviet regime.

The problem of Soviet Jewry found a place on the agenda of the founding assembly of the *World Jewish Congress (W.J.C.) in 1936, but the contemporary widespread sympathy for the anti-Nazi stance of the Soviet Union and the belief that the U.S.S.R. had tried to eradicate anti-Semitism and accord national minority rights to its Jewish population muted discussion of the question.

[1948-1953: "SU" antisemitism and news in the Western world]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia:
                            Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14,
                            col. 497, Paul Yershov, U.S.S.R. ambassador
                            to Israel and doyen of the diplomatic corps,
                            greeting [racist Zionist] President Weizmann
                            and Mrs. Weizmann on the first Irael
                            Independence Day, May 1949
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 497, Paul Yershov, U.S.S.R. ambassador to Israel and doyen of the diplomatic corps, greeting [racist Zionist] President Weizmann and Mrs. Weizmann on the first Irael Independence Day, May 1949

It was only in 1948, with the first indications of official anti-Semitism in the U.S.S.R. (see *Anti-Semitism: in the Soviet Bloc), that interest in the problem began to revive. In spite of Soviet support for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, the gloom [[darkness]] of impending [[coming]] developments in the situation of Soviet Jews could already be felt; and although East European (col. 497)

delegations attended the W.J.C. assembly in 1948, misgivings about Soviet Jews were tactfully mentioned in the assembly's report.  In general, however, until the events of the "Black Years" (1948-53), little news of which reached the outside world, it was assumed that no acute Soviet-Jewish problem existed and that the difficulties confronting Jews in the U.S.S.R. were intrinsically [[in fact]] the same as those afflicting the general Soviet population. When the campaign against "rootless cosmopolitans" began to sweep the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe, however, culminating in the "Doctors' Plot", a special world Jewish conference on the situation of Soviet Jews was contemplated [[projected]]. The W.J.C. assembly meeting in Montreux early in 1953 prepared a document on the developments; the [[racist]] Zionist movement held discussions; and other Jewish organizations anxiously considered what steps might be taken if, as was feared, the "Doctors' Plot" trial was used as an instrument for wholesale repression of Soviet Jews. The death of Stalin in March 1953 and the revocation of the charges against the doctors ended this tense phase.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia:
                            Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14,
                            col. 497, Mrs. V.M. Molotov (née
                            Zhemchuzhina) (right) strolling in Moscow
                            with Yemimah Tchernowitz-Avidar, Hebrew
                            writer and wife of the Israel ambassador to
                            the Soviet Union, August 1955
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 497, Mrs. V.M. Molotov (née Zhemchuzhina) (right) strolling in Moscow with Yemimah Tchernowitz-Avidar, Hebrew writer and wife of the Israel ambassador to the Soviet Union, August 1955

1956-1969. [Investigations about the Jews in the "SU" by Salsberg, Levy - new publications about "Soviet" Jews in the western world]

In 1956, after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, international opinion again began to stir on behalf of Soviet Jews. Protests in the Warsaw Yiddish Communist newspaper Folkshtime in April 1956 that the persecution of Soviet Jews had been passed over in silence in Khrushchev's speech at the 20th Congress, and the details Folkshtime released about the extent and virulence of Stalin's anti-Jewish terror campaign, made the world realize that the Jewish problem was still acute after almost 40 years of Soviet rule. This came as a shock particularly to Jewish and also non-Jewish Communists. Delegations from Western Communist parties went to the U.S.S.R. to investigate the truth.

J.B. Salsberg, a leading Canadian Communist, returned from such a visit appalled [[frightened]]; he published a series of articles on the subject in the American and Canadian Communist press, including details of a meeting with the Soviet leadership in the party with a group of old-time Communists.

Hyman *Levy, a founder of the British Communist Party, prepared a confidential report about his visit in Moscow; the party executive regarded it as so shocking that only a strictly censored version was released for publication. Levy then published a pamphlet in 1958, Jews and the National Question, criticizing Soviet policy toward Jews in careful terms, and he was expelled from the party.

In New York the Communist Daily Worker was closed down by the party and was transformed into a weekly called the Worker, because its editors continued to criticize the U.S.S.R.'s treatment of Jews.

Two pamphlets published in Yiddish in Tel Aviv in 1958, "Jewish Communists on the Jewish Question in the Soviet Union", reproduced articles and statements of Jewish Communists in the West and in Poland.

Individual Jews and organizations in Western countries began to pay more serious attention to Soviet Jews. A principal problem was the paucity of reliable information. To meet this need the newsletter Jews in Eastern Europe was funded in 1958 in London, edited by E. *Litvinoff; it subsequently appeared three or four times a year and became a major source of factual information about Soviet Jews.

At about the same time the Contemporary Jewish Library was founded in London to collect and disseminate in photostats source materials in Russian and other Soviet languages relating to Jews in the U.S.S.R. under the title Yevrei i Yevreyskiy Narod ("Jews and the Jewish People"). A branch of the Contemporary Jewish Library opened in Paris published Les Juifs en Europe de l'Est and a monthly bulletin, Les Juifs en Union Soviétique. The Biblioteca Judía Contemporanea in Buenos Aires published  (col. 498) Allà en la U.R.S.R., (col. 498-499)

and similar pamphlets were published in Italy. In New York, Jewish Minorities Research, directed by Moshe Decter, published monographs, pamphlets, reprints, and other relevant materials on Soviet Jews, including

The Jews in the Soviet Union
by Solomon M Schwarz (1951);
The Jewish Problem in the Soviet Union by B.Z. Goldberg (1961);
Jews in the Soviet Union Census, 1959, edited by Mordecai Altshuler (Jerusalem, 1963);
a study by the International Commission of Jurists in Geneva (see below);
"Soixante ans du problème juif dans la théorie et la pratique du bolchevisme" by Marc Jarblum with a preface by Daniel *Mayer (in Revue Socialiste, October 1964)
Soviet Jewry and Human Rights by Isi Leibler (Human Rights Research Publication, Victoria, Australia,March 1965;
two reports of the Socialist International (see below).

Particular popularity was achieved by the two eyewitness accounts, Ben-Ami's (Arieh L. Eliav) Between Hammer and Sickle (Heb. 1965; Eng. 1967 and Elie Wiesel's The Jews of Silence (1966), which appeared in several languages and editions.

Interesting light was shed on Communist attitudes to the Jewish problem in the U.S.S.R. by a series of polemical exchanges in "Political Affairs", the ideological organ of the U.S.Communist Party, in January 1965, October 1966, and December 1966.

During the 1960s the problem of Soviet Jewry - the discrimination against Jews in matters of language, education, and religion; the dissemination of anti-Jewish literature; the persecution of individual Jews, e.g., for "economic crimes" or for Jewish communal activity; and the denial to Jews of the right of emigration, particularly to Israel, and the reunification of shattered families - became a major issue in world Jewish and international discussion. Almost every Jewish organization, Zionist and non-Zionist alike, raised the problem as one of utmost importance to the Jewish people, "second only to the existence and security on Israel". Intellectuals on the left, Jews and non-Jews, held special conferences to investigate the facts and issue appeals to the Soviet government.

The first such conference took place in Paris in 1960 and was attended by about 50 scholars, writers, academicians, and parliamentarians from 16 Western and African countries. Its opening session was addressed by Nahum *Goldmann and Martin *Buber, and it received messages of support from Albert Schweitzer, Francois Mauriac, Bertrand Russell, former French president Vincent Auriol, Richard Crossman,  former Dutch premier Drees, Reinhold Niebuhr, Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, Thurgood Marshall, Daniel Mayer, and many others.

Subsequent conferences of this kind were held over the years in Latin American countries, France, Scandinavia, Britain, and Italy. They were attended and supported by intellectual and moral authorities, including leading writers, poets, and prominent fighters for human rights.

[1963: Foundation of the "Conference on the Status of Soviet Jews" and of the "American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry"]

Of particular significance was the Conference on the Status of Soviet Jews in 1963, founded in New York by a meeting of leading liberals, under the sponsorship of Justice Douglas, Martin Luther King, Senator H. *Lehman, Bishop James Pike, Walter Reuther, Norman Thomas, and Robert Penn Warren, which issued an "appeal to conscience" and published many documents containing factual material.

At the same time the Jewish community in the United States established the American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry, which encompassed [[involved]] all the major Jewish organizations in the country (including the *American Jewish Committee, which generally did not participate in (col. 499)

comprehensive Jewish frameworks).

This body sponsored mass rallies, press conferences, and meetings with the White House and State Department and also published factual information on the current situation of the Jews in the U.S.S.R. Similar activities were undertaken by central Jewish bodies in their respective countries, such as the Board of Deputies in Britain, the Conseil Représentatif des Juifs de France, the Executive Committee of Australian Jewry, etc.

[1967: Foundation of the "Academic Committee on Soviet Jewry"]

In 1967 an Academic Committee on Soviet Jewry was formed in the United States; its sponsors included Hans Morgenthau, Daniel Bell, Saul Bellow, Lewis S. Feuer, Nathan Glazer, Irving Howe, Alfred Kazin, Max Lerner, and Lionel Trilling. The committee became an important source of information and has issued, among other publications, a booklet entitled Soviet Jewry: 1969, consisting of papers read at a symposium by leading Soviet experts.

[since 1962: Bertrand Russell]

The moral struggle on behalf of Soviet Jews was given considerable impetus by the interest shown in the problem by the philosopher Bertrand Russell. His involvement began early in 1962, when he sent a cable to Khrushchev, signed jointly with François Mauriac and Martin Buber, appealing for the full restitution of equal rights to Soviet Jews. He also sponsored the publication of a statement on Soviet Jewry signed by leading Nobel Prize laureates from different countries. A private exchange of letters between Russell and Khrushchev on this question followed until, to general surprise, the Soviet authorities sought Russell's permission to release part of the correspondence to the Soviet press and agreed to his condition that he should similarly release it to the Western press. It was published in Britain on Feb. 25, 1963, and in the U.S.S.R. on February 28, when it appeared simultaneously in Pravda and Izvestiya and was broadcast by Radio Moscow.

Khrushchev had defined Russell's appeals as part of a campaign of "vicious slander" against the soviet Union. On April 6, 1963, Russell replied at length repudiating this insinuation and describing as "gravely disturbing" the fact that some 60% of those executed for "economic offenses" in the U.S.S.R. were Jews. Although the Soviet premier did not reply to this letter, Russell continued his interventions on behalf of individual Soviet Jews and the community as a whole until age caused him to discontinue his public activities in 1968.

[Russian Jewry mentioned at the UN and in parliament houses]

The problem began to be reflected at the United Nations, in parliaments, and in international bodies throughout the world.

[[The main point about Herzl Israel and the Jews
The main point that Jewry is a religion and not a nation is not detected by Encyclopaedia Judaica and is not detected by the governments making statements on the Jews. The fact is: It's not possible to convert a religion into a nation because the religion itself has different branches, and when the religion gets a bad reputation with a racist state headed against all Arabs. By this many Jews (the majority!) don't accept this racist Herzl military Free Mason Zionist Herzl Israel as it is today with it's cartridges and atomic bombs with the aim of a "Greater Israel" from the Nile river to the Euphrates river against all Arabs according to Herzl and 1st Mose chapter 15 phrase 18]].

The first discussion at the U.N. took place in 1961 at the Subcommission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, and has been a feature of U.N. debates ever since. [[Palestinians could be mentioned since 1974 only]]. The matter was raised in 1962 at the General Assembly's Social Committee by the Australian delegate, the first time it was directly taken up by a member government other than Israel. this development followed a report by a delegation to the U.S.S.R. of the World Council of Churches, which testified that Judaism experienced severe persecution in that country.

In 1964, before a visit by Khrushchev to Sweden, Denmark, and Norway was due to take place, the problem of Soviet Jews was featured by the leading newspapers in all three countries, and the Soviet premier's visit was "postponed". The Council of Europe at Strasbourg, consisting of parliamentary representatives from all democratic countries in Europe and of official observers from Israel's Knesset, several times debated the issue and established an investigating committee to report on it. Its report served as the basis for the council's appeal to all European parliaments to raise their voice on behalf of Soviet Jewry.

In the parliaments of Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and many other countries, motions were signed by many members (in Britain over 400 out of 630), and governments were urged (col. 500)

to appeal to the Soviet Union on this matter. Both houses of the U.S. Congress also debated the issue and several times adopted almost unanimous resolutions on it. Leading statesmen, such as President Eisenhower, President Kennedy, and the British and Belgian premiers, as well as leaders of socialist and other opposition parties in the West, took up the issue in their encounters with Soviet statesmen and public figures.

In 1964 the International Commission of Jurists in Geneva published a special study entitled Economic Crimes in the Soviet Union, which proved the anti-Jewish character of Soviet policy in this matter.

Gradually the current situation of the Jews in the Soviet Union began to be prominently featured in the world press. Such topics as the anti-Jewish riot at Malakhovka, near Moscow, the mass gatherings of Jewish youth on Simhat Torah at the synagogues of Moscow and Leningrad, the ban on mazzot in the U.S.S.R., the virtual dissolution of the Moscow yeshivah [[religious Torah school]], the blood libel in the newspaper Kommunist at Buinaksk, Dagestan, Yevtushenko's poem "Babi Yar", and anti-Semitic publications such as Kichko's "Judaism Without Embellishment" [[without disguise]] were extensively reported and commented upon in the principal newspapers the world over and were the subject of sharp debates with Soviet representatives in various bodies of the U.N. and other international forums.

[[The western countries - which were lead by racist and criminal "USA" - never accepted the rights of the Arabs. Western countries supported the racist Jewish army, never wanted to get to know about the Zionist aim of Herzl Israel from Nile to Euphrates and detected Jewish Zionist racism against Palestinians in the 1970s only when Palestinian terrorist committed some heavy attacks on Jews in air planes or on the Olympic games in Munich]].

National and international writers' congresses, as well as PEN Club meetings, adopted resolutions against the suppression of Jewish culture in the U.S.S.R. Some Communist and pro-Soviet circles and press organs, particularly in Italy, Canada, Britain, the United States, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, and Australia, openly criticized Soviet discrimination against Jews.

[Student groups' agitation for Soviet Jewry]

In the late 1960s Jewish student groups for the struggle for Soviet Jewry sprang up in the [[criminal and racist]] United States, mainly on the east and west coasts, and in Great Britain, where demonstrations were stage, particularly at Soviet diplomatic missions. The world Union of Jewish Students (WUJS) organized a mobile exhibition illustrating the plight of Soviet Jewry, and mass petitions were signed by many thousands of Jewish and non-Jewish students.

PARTICIPATION OF [Herzl] ISRAEL. [Agitation by Jews of Herzl Israel for Soviet Jewry]

[[Delegates of racist Free Mason Zionist Herzl Israel hid always their role as to be a satellite of the criminal "USA" and hid the "Greater Israel" aim against the Arabs. Arabs or Palestinians were not mentioned, this was the Jewish solution of the Arab problem]].

Israel representatives were in the forefront of initiating discussions on the problem in various U.N. bodies, the Socialist International (which published two reports, in 1964 and in 1969, called The Situation of Jews in the U.S.S.R. and Anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe), the Council of Europe, etc.

In 1965 the first motion on Soviet Jewry was discussed in the Knesset. Later the Knesset devoted several special sessions to the situation of Soviet Jewry and made an appeal to other parliaments to take up the issue. The problem was repeatedly dealt with by the Israel press and broadcasting service and in official and unofficial encounters by Israel's leaders and diplomatic representatives with Soviet diplomats and other personalities.

Emigration drive action 1970-1971
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia:
                            Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14,
                            col. 503, cable (telegram) from Russian Jews
                            1970: Telegram received by the rector of the
                            Hebrew University of Jerusalem on Hanukkah,
                            1970, from a group of Jews in Leningrad.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 503, cable (telegram) from Russian Jews 1970: Telegram received by the rector of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem on Hanukkah, 1970, from a group of Jews in Leningrad.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia:
                            Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14,
                            col. 504, advertisement searchiing for
                            Hebrew teacher in Moscow
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 504, advertisement searching for Hebrew teacher in Moscow of 17 October 1970
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia:
                            Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14,
                            col. 503-504, advertisment of solidarity
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 503-504, advertisment of solidarity 1970 for the emigration drive

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia:
                            Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14,
                            col. 503, Russian Jewish immigrants on 25
                            March 1971
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 503, Russian Jewish immigrants on 25 March 1971

[Books from Soviet Jews in racist Herzl Free Mason Herzl Israel]

In Israel the Hebrew writings of Soviet Jews, most of them brought out clandestinely from the U.S.S.R., were published as early as the 1950s and served as a powerful means of reviving feelings of solidarity with Soviet Jewry. A collection of the Hebrew poetry of Hayyim *Lenski and Elisha *Rodin appeared in 1954 under the title He-Anaf ha-Gaddu'a ("The Cut-off Branch"). In 1957 the first anonymous Hebrew manuscript from the Soviet Union, called El Ahi bi-Medinat Yisrael ("To My Brother in the State of Israel"), which was written in an old-fashioned maskil style, and contained a diary on the "Black Years", was published, first in the newspaper Davar and then in book form. (Only after the author's death in Kiev in 1968, was his name, Barukh Mordekhai Weissman, revealed).

Under the pen name Sh. Sh. Ron, a Soviet Hebrew writer described his own and his fellow Jews' experience in a (col. 501)

concentration camp in a smuggled-out booklet, Me-Ever mi-Sham ("From Over There", 1959). Unknown and unpublished poems by H. Lenski, some of which were written in a concentration camp in Siberia, somehow reached Israel and were published posthumously in 1960 under the title Me-Ever li-Nehar ha-Lethe ("From the Other Shore of the Lethe River"), together with an introduction and postscripts by the poet's friends in Israel.

A collection of Zionist poetry in its Russian original with Hebrew translations, Ha-Lo Tishali (its Russian title "My Spring Will Come") by an anonymous Soviet Jew, with an introduction by Y. Nadav (describing how the poems were written by a member of a clandestine [[racist]] Zionist group in a labour camp), appeared in 1962.

A strong impact was made by Esther Feldman's autobiographical Kele Beli Sugar ("Prison Without Bars", 1964), the story of a Jewish woman in the Soviet Union whose husband (Joseph Berger-Barzilai) was imprisoned for over 20 years as an "enemy of the people" and then "rehabilitated".

Soviet Hebrew fiction published in Israel included a novel about World War II, Esh ha-Tamid ("The Eternal Fire", 1966), written by a writer who hid his identity under the pen name A. Tsefoni, smuggled out of the U.S.S.R., and Abraham Friman's monumental novel, 1919, about the revolutionary years (1968); its first two parts had been published in the 1930s and received the Bialik price, whereas the third part was recently smuggled out of the U.S.S.R. (the fourth part is still missing).

[Children education in Herzl Israel with data about Soviet Jewry - and hatred against Arabs]

Educational work to convey deeper knowledge of the history and the current situation of Soviet Jewry was conducted over the years in Israel's schools and army units in various forms, including lectures, classes, a mobile exhibition, etc. The Hebrew magazine He-Avar and various publications of the Israel section of the World Jewish Congress have devoted themselves to research on Soviet Jewish affairs.> (col. 502)

[[It can be admitted that the Jewish institutions in Israel never mentioned the racist Jewish army and never mentioned the rights of the Arabs. The Jewish children in Herzl Israel were in fact educated in a hatred against the Arabs. And it can be admitted that children in the "Soviet Union" got also an education with facts about racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl Israel. Only the solution was never found: Jewry is not a nation, but a religion, and the foundation of a "Jewish state" within the Arab landscape with the announcement of borders from Nile to Euphrates river is a trap of war because Arab antisemitism is coming up to the antisemitism which existed until 1945. Human rights should be signed]].


-- Institute of Jewish Affairs, London: Soviet Jewry (1971), an extensive bibliography
-- L. Greenberg: The Jews in Russia, 2 vols. (1951)
-- S.W. Baron: The Russian Jew under Tsars and Soviets (1964)

- J.S. Raisin: The Haskalah Movement in Russia (1915)
-- Dubnow, Hist Russ
-- J. Kunitz: Russian Literature and the Jews (1929)
-- I Levitats: The Jewish Community in Russia, 1772-1844 (1943)
-- J. Frumkin et al. (eds.): Russian Jewry 1860-1917 (1966)
-- V. Nikitin: Yevrei zemledeltsy (1887)
-- M.L. Usov: Yevrei v armii (1911)
-- L. Zinberg: Yevreyskaya periodicheskaya pechat v Rosii (1915)
-- Yu. Gessen: Istoriya yevreyskogo naroda v. Rossii, 2 vols. (1925-26)
-- S.Y. Borovoy: Yevreyskaya zemledelcheskaya kolonizatsiya v staroy Rossi (1928)
-- N. Buchbinder: Geshikhte fun der Yidisher Arbeter Bavegung in Rusland (1931)
-- A. Levin: Kantonistn... 1827-1856 (1934)
-- S. Ginzburg: Historishe Verk, 3 vols. (1937-38)
-- B. Dinur: Bi-Ymei Milhamah u-Mahpekhah (1960)

-- International Military Tribunal: Trials of the Major War Criminals, 4 (1950), 3-596
-- S.M. Schwarz: The Jews in the Soviet Union (1951)
-- idem: Yevrei v Sovietskom Soyuze s nachala vtoroy mirovoy voyny (1966)
-- J. Tenenbaum: Race and Reich (1956), 347-70
-- B. West (ed.): Struggle of a Generation: The Jews under Soviet Rule (1959)
-- idem: Hem Hayu Rabbim (1968)
-- L. Lénéman: La Tragédie des Juifs en U.R.S.S. (1959)
-- J.B. Schechtman: Star in Eclipse:Russian Jewry Revisited (1961)
-- B.Z. Goldberg: The Jewish Problem in the Soviet Union (1961)
-- E. Schulman: A History of Jewish Education in the Soviet Union (1971)
-- E. Wiesel: The Jews of Silence (1966)
-- Gli ebrei nel' U.R.S.S. (1966)
-- Ben-Ami (A. Eliav): Between Hammer and Sickel (1967)
-- S. Rabinovich: Jews in the Soviet Union (Moscow, 1967)
-- L. Kochan (ed.): The Jews in Soviet Russia since 1917 (1970)
-- A. Dagan: Moscow and jerusalem (1971)
-- Jews in Eastern Europe (1958-   )
-- S. Agursky: Di Yidishe Komisariatn un di Yidishe Komunistishe Sekties (1928)
-- N. Gergel: Di Lage fun yidn in Rusland (1929)
-- A. Rafaeli (Zenziper): Eser Shenot Redifot (1930)
-- S. Dimanstein (ed.): Yidn in F.S.S.R. (1935)
-- L. Zinger: Dos Banayte Folk (1941)
-- L. Lestschinsky: Dos Sovetishe Idntum (1941) (col. 505)

-- M. Kahanovitch: Milhemet ha-Partizanim ha-Yehudim be-Mizrah Eiropah (1954)
-- Y.A. Gilboa: Al Horvot ha-Tarbut ha-Yehudit bi-Verit ha-Mo'azot (1959)
-- idem: The Black Years of Soviet Jewry (1971)
-- Ch. Chmeruk (ed.): Pirsumim Yehudiyyim bi-Verit ha-Mo'azot (1961)
-- idem (ed.): A Shpigl oyf a Shteyn (1964)
-- A. Pomeranz: Di Sovetishe Harugey Malkhes (1962)
-- J. Levavi: Ha-Hityashevut ha-Yehudit be-Birobidzhan
-- J. Litvak, in: Gesher, 12 nos. 2-3 (1966), 186-217
-- M. Guri et al. (eds.): Hayyalim Yehudim be-Zivot Eiropah (1967), 135-57
-- S. Nishmit, in: Dappim le-Heker ha-Sho'ah ve-ha-Mered, series B. collection A (1969), 152-77
-- S. Redlich, in: Behinot, 1 (1970), 70-79
-- He-Avar (1952-   ) (col. 506)

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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 497-498
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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 499-500
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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 501-502
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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia:
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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Russia: Jews in "Soviet Union", vol. 14, col. 505-506

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